Encoding is the process of transforming information from one format into another. The opposite operation is called decoding. This is often used in many digital devices Encoding (in cognition) is a basic perceptual process of interpreting incoming stimuli; technically speaking, it is a complex, multi-stage process of converting relatively objective sensory input (e.g., light, sound) into subjectively meaningful experience. A content format is a specific encoding format for converting a specific type of data to information. In Biology and Genetics, genes are said to encode RNA transcripts or proteins. (See genetic code.) Character encoding is a code that pairs a set of natural language characters (such as an alphabet or syllabary) with a set of something else, such as numbers or electrical pulses. Text encoding uses a markup language to tag the structure and other features of a text to facilitate processing by computers. (See also Text Encoding Initiative.) Semantics encoding of formal language A in formal language B is a method of representing all terms (e.g. programs or descriptions) of language A using language B. Electronic encoding transforms a signal into a code optimized for transmission or storage, generally done with a codec. Neural encoding is the way in which information is represented in neurons. Memory encoding is the process of converting sensations into memories. Encryption transforms information for secrecy. Television encoding: NTSC, PAL and SECAM