Barnes, Rebecca.  “Steinbeck’s East of Eden.”  Explicator 55.3 (1997): 159-60.
        States that Steinbeck’s use of Greek mythology in
East of Eden has been overlooked and
       he appearance of boxes throughout the novel suggests the story of Pandora’s box.   Argues
       that Cathy allows herself to be defined as the “evil” Pandora, while Abra breaks the Pandora
       myth by choosing to define herself.

Ditsky, John.  “ ‘I Kind of Like Caleb’: Naming in East of Eden.”  Steinbeck Newsletter
       10.1 (1997): 7-9.

       Explores the A (Abel)/C (Cain) naming pattern in
East of Eden. Explains that the pattern is 
       ironic as well as symbolic.  Points out that if the initial C in Caleb is discarded (as Caleb finally
       discards the symbolic implication of C), the result is an anagram for Abel.

Hess, Natalie.  “Code Switching and Style-Shifting as Markers of Liminality in Literature.”
Language and Literature: Journal of the Poetics of Linguistics Association
        5.1 (1996): 5-18.

       Uses Harper Lee, John Steinbeck, and Charlotte Bronte to point out how code switching
       and style shifting underline themes of alienation, transition, and liminality.  Begins by defining
       code switching and liminality.  Focuses on servant figures as “literature’s natural code
       switchers.”  Demonstrates how the issue of audience influences the language a code
       switcher uses by excerpting a lengthy passage from
East of Eden in which the
       Chinese-American Lee explains his use of Pidgin  to Samuel Hamilton.

Smith, Joel A.  Steinbeck on Stage and Film.  Louisville, KY: Actors Theatre
        of Louisville, 1996.

        Reports the proceedings of the 12th Annual Brown-Forman Classics in Context Festival,
        October 23-November 23, 1996 by the Actors Theatre of Louisville.  Discusses the staging
East of Eden, which was performed in two parts for the festival.  Features Jay Parini’s
        lecture, “Toward
East of Eden: Steinbeck’s Life of Writing” and Porter Anderson’s lecture
        “West of Sag Harbor: The Very American Theatricality of John Steinbeck.”  Also includes
         excerpts from the panel discussion by Robert DeMott, John Seelye, and Susan Shillinglaw.

Tagaya, Satoru.  “Is East of Eden a ‘Postmodern Metafiction’?”  Steinbeck Studies 19
        (1996): 14-20.

        Not available for annotation.

Wright, Terence R.  “East of Eden as Western Midrash: Steinbeck’s Re-Marking
        of Cain.”
Religion and the Arts 2 (1998): 488-518.
        Defines Western midrash as writers’ attempts “to make sense of the Bible in terms
        of their own understanding of the world.”  Section I looks at the work of modern theorists
        who write within the midrashic tradition.  Section II focuses on the Cain and Abel story
        in Genesis 4, in midrashic commentary, and in later literature.  Section III explores
        Steinbeck’s understanding of the story.  Section IV considers the ways
East of Eden
         provides a supplement to the original biblical story.
John Steinbeck Bibliography
East of Eden
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