History of Central Europe

Learning objectives: 
This course explores the many attempts to find political stability in Central Europe and the Balkans, beginning with the events which ultimately delegitimated the monarchical principle: the French Revolution.  This course traces nationalism and socialism, as philosophies of the ideal state, through reform and world war to the catastrophes of national socialism and soviet communism.  The course ends with a theoretical discussion of nationalism as a historical phenomenon.  After successfully completing this course, students will understand:

1)       Essential Central European Political Geography

2)       The importance of the French Revolution in inspiring nationalism and socialism

3)       How nineteenth century monarchies attempted to curb nationalism

4)       The significance of Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia in Central European nationalism

5)       Detailed knowledge of Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Macedonia as case studies

6)       Basic historical theories of nationalism

7)       Why contemporary political theorists stress multi-culturalism


Course description:  The readings for this course are all available online; there is no textbook.  Most of the readings are primary source documents, but often supplemented with brief essays which provide a narrative for discussion.  Students are expected to read the web documents listed in full.  The readings are short for the second class period of the week; I assume you have more time to read over the weekend.  

Students must also think about the questions posed on the syllabus, and write a brief response paper (1 page hand-written) using information from the documents.  This is graded on a pass/fail basis, and is the main variable in the attendance grade.

 Once a semester, each student will also be expected to present her or his thoughts on the weekly question before the class in a brief (~10 minute) presentation.  ONE WEEK after the presentation, students must hand in a six-page written version of their answer, not counting a bibliography. (Students who present the second week have two weeks to write their papers, this is the bonus for going early. Students who present the last week of class will hand in their papers the same day as their presentation; this is the penalty for being late.)

 If a student so desires, this six page paper can be replaced by a 10-page research paper on a topic chosen by the student and the instructor jointly.  This research paper requires significant extra work, and is intended for especially dedicated and self-motivated students.  Note: the ten page paper option is NOT available to students who complete the six page paper and are not happy with their grades.

As a distance-learning syllabus, students must write a 2500 word essay for every class period on one of the questions listed at the bottom of the page. Students will recieve feedback from the instructor each week.

Grading Criteria

25% – Attendance (including response papers)
25% – Presentation/six page paper
25% – Midterm (fill in the blank ID questions)
25% – Final exam (fill in the blank ID questions)

Week 1 – Monday - Intro to Class

Explanation of the course, assign presentation topics.
Week 1 – Wednesday - States and Languages of Central Europe
The population of Europe can be divided into collectives based on state borders or language groups.  Both methods have their problems.  This class provides an overview of modern borders and minority populations.
Please print out and study                      http://www.bham.ac.uk/1848/comments/hapsburg.htm
Do you understand this map?                 http://www.mek.iif.hu/porta/szint/egyeb/terkep/aushun19/aushun19.gif
Impress me by finding the mistake!       http://www.hapsburg.com/historic/map-ah.gif
Week 2 – Monday - The French Revolution
The French Revolution took place in Europe’s greatest power and enjoyed many military success before being overthrown.  Most contemporaries focused the social radicalism implicit in the idea of the ‘nation.’
Sieyes “what is the 3rd estate?”              - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/sieyes.html
Picture of Fr. Constitution                     - http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/d/55/

de Gouge (rights of women)                   - http://www.pinn.net/~sunshine/book-sum/gouges.html
Declaration of rights of man                   - http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/rightsof.htm
Discussion of citizenship rights             - http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/d/484/
Discussion of female clubs                     - http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/d/294/
Chaumette on women                             - http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/d/489/
______________    According to Sieyes, what social classes are part of the nation?
______________    Was the suppression of women’s clubs in 1793 consistent with the “Rights of Man”?
Week 2 – Wednesday - Reactionary Europe: The Monarchical Principle
After Napoleon’s defeat, the powers attempted to return to a Europe of monarchies: the goal of the Congress system was to prevent another French Revolution.
Smitha (textbook)                                   - http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h36-pol.html
Burke on the French Revolution             - http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/d/563/
Nicholas I on Poland                               - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1832poland.html
Metternich’s ideals                                 - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1820metternich.html
Mazzini’s ideals (post-1848)                 - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1852mazzini.html
______________ What would Burke say about the arguments Nicholas I used to justify his rule?
______________ Contrast the origins of political legitimacy and power in Mazzini and Metternich.
Week 3 – Monday – 1848: Marxism and Socialism
When the French Monarchy was definitively overthrown in 1848, the Congress system collapsed. Social conflict became important in politics across Europe. The Communist Manifesto, written when Marx was a journalist, proved the most important pamphlet in the history of socialist thought.
Marx: Communist Manifesto - http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1848-CM/cm.html#Bourgoise
Marx: ‘democratic Panslavism’ - http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1848-NRZ/nrz60.html
______________ Have modern “capitalist” European societies remedied the injustices Marx discussed?
______________ What is the role of a “people” [Volk] in Marx’s view of history?
Week 3 – Wednesday - 1848: Nationalism: Hungary and the Austrian Slavs
The idea of the nation proved a transformed social struggle in France and Germany, but in the multi-ethnic states of central Europe, the principle of nationality had divisive consequences between different linguistic groups.  
Essay on Hungarian Nationalism            - http://www.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lect07.htm
Pekacz on Prague Congress                    - http://www.ohiou.edu/~Chastain/ac/congslav.htm
Ferdinand’s proclamation to Jellačić      - http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~habsweb/sourcetexts/ferdinand.html
Hung. declaration of independence         - http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~habsweb/sourcetexts/hungind.html
Sandor Petofi’s Nepdal                           - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1848hungary-natsong.html
Freifeld on Hungarian Crowds                - http://www.ohiou.edu/~Chastain/ac/crowd.htm
______________ How did Ferdinand’s proclamation resemble the ideas of the Slavic congress?
______________ What role did class divisions play in the Hungarian revolution?
Week 4 – Monday - Federalism in Austria and Hungary 
In the second half of the nineteenth century, the forces of nationalism seemed so strong that the Habsburg government attempted to satisfy national aspirations within the monarchy.  An endless stream of federalization schemes resulted.
Compare maps:                                       - http://lazarus.elte.hu/hun/maps/1910/nepek.gif
                                                                - http://astro.temple.edu/~barbday/Europe66/resources/nationalitieshabsburg.htm
                                                                - http://www.thomasgraz.net/map-ethn.htm
                                                                - http://www.thomasgraz.net/map-popov.htm
Bogdan: “Aust-Hung Experiment”         - http://www.net.hu/corvinus/lib/bogdan/bogdan11.htm
Beust: Memoirs of the Ausgleich           - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1867beust.html
Text of the Nagdoba                               - http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~habsweb/sourcetexts/nagodba1.htm
Essay on Popovici                                  - http://lgi.osi.hu/ethnic/relations/1/mariust.html
                Note! This final text is difficult, but you are only responsible for Popovici’s biography.
______________ Comment on the fact that both Beust and the Nagdoba claim to have created unity.
______________ Could Popovici’s plan for regional government improved ethnic relations in the Empire?
Week 4 – Wednesday - Reform and Dissent in the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman government also attempted to reform itself as a defense against internal divisions.  However, its efforts proved much less successful. The resulting Balkan Wars destabilized Europe, and eventually led to World War.
Sowards on Macedonia                           - http://www.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lect11.htm
Sowards on Bosnia                                 - http://www.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lect12.htm
Young Turk Manifesto                           - http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/youngturkproclamation.htm
Foundation of IMRO                             - http://www.bulgaria.com/VMRO/founding.htm
IMRO Statutes                                       - http://www.bulgaria.com/VMRO/bmork.htm
______________ How do the Young Turk reforms differ from Austrian proposals?
______________ Could any Turkish policy have satisfied IMRO’s members? What policy should Turkey have followed to cope with emerging nationalism?
Week 5 – Monday – The catastrophe: World War One
All of Europe’s major monarchies – Hohenzollern, Romanov, Ottoman, and Habsburg – had collapsed by 1919.  The national principle triumphed, but implementing its claims led to endless problems.
Map: 1914                                              - http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/euro1914.htm
Losses – statistics                                   - http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/ww1-loss.htm
Wilson’s 14 points                                  - http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1918/14points.html
From Masaryk “indep. Bohemia”          - http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~habsweb/sourcetexts/masaryk2.htm
Bonsal on Armenia                                 - http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/bonsal/bonsal14.htm
Bonsal on Slovakia                                 - http://www.net.hu/corvinus/lib/bonsal/bonsal11.htm
Keynes on Versailles                              - http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/keynes/peace.htm
Pictures of western front                        - http://westfront.net
Note: The Keynes page gives an entire book! You are only responsible for chapter 3 “the conference.”
______________ Is Masaryk’s program consistent with the principle of national self determination?
______________ Did the Paris peace treaties fulfill Wilson’s points X and XII?  Why or why not?
Week 5 – Wednesday – Communism in Russia
The Soviet Union was the first state organized by committed socialists. The bosheviks claimed to have a scientific system of government, and justified harsh measures with the promise of founding communist utopia in the future.
Bolshevik platform 1903        - http://www.dur.ac.uk/~dml0www/sdprog.html
Lenin on nationalities              - http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1922/dec/testamnt/autonomy.htm

At  <http://lcweb.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/intro.html>,  read ‘Repression and Terror: Stalin in Control,’ ‘The Gulag,’ the first two ‘Attacks on Intelligentsia,’ ‘Ukrainian Famine’ and ‘Deportations.’ Be sure and read the primary source documents in each page! (e.g. for ‘The Gulag,’ read “translation of letter to Bolshevik”)

______________ How did Lenin justify the Gulag? Explain the change from the 1903 platform to Gorky’s letter.
______________ Contrast the motives for the Ukrainian requisitions and the Tatar deportations.

Week 6 – Monday – Midterm
Format of the exam:  You must write short-answer paragraphs on key terms. You’ll get a list of 12 terms and must choose 8. Your answers should define the term and state its wider historical significance.  (5 pts each)
You will also get a base map of Central Europe, on which you will be asked to draw the European borders of 1914, (including the internal border between Austria and Hungary) and the cities of Belgrade, Berlin, Bratislava, Budapest, Istanbul, Prague, Sofia, Warsaw, Vienna, and Zagreb (one point per city).
Week 6 – Wednesday - National Socialism
Italian Fascism and German National Socialism attempted to unite nationalism and Socialism: class differences would be overcome through national unity. Both movements also shared a distinctive political style.
Mussolini on Fascism                             - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/mussolini-fascism.html
Goebbels on National Socialism             - http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/haken32.htm
Nazi view of the USA                            - http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/hsa02.htm
______________ How do Nazi ideas of socialism resemble previous European concepts?
______________ How do Nazi concepts of nationality resemble previous European ideas?
______________ What is the importance of “spirit” in Nazisim and Fascism?

Week 7 – Monday – The Second World War and the Holocaust

During the Second World War, death and destruction came both from four years of mechanized warfare, but also from state-sponsored massacres of civilians.  The word ‘genocide’ was first used in 1944. This class will examine the massacre of civilians.
Just for fun: Animated Battle Front       - http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/ww2-eto.htm
Various Propaganda Leaflets                  - http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/parole.htm
Casualties - Map                                    - http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/ww2-loss.htm
Edeiken on the Einsatzgruppen              - http://www.holocaust-history.org/intro-einsatz/
Brustein on Hitler voters                        - http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/party-motives.html
Himmler’s orders for Secrecy                 - http://www.holocaust-history.org/auschwitz/19440524-weisse/
White: Discussion of death count           - http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/war-1900.htm
                Also click on White’s “Percentages” chart and read “Proportionality.”
______________ Contrast Edeiken and Brustein’s approach to the question of psychological motive.
______________ Why did Himmler order secrecy in the Holocaust, and why did he forbid looting?

Week 7 – Wednesday – Postwar Expulsions
The horror and destruction of the war led many states in central Europe to seek ethnic homogeneity. The destruction of the Nazi regime transformed Germans from a privileged caste into victims.
Map of expulsions                                  - http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/post-ww2.htm
Turnwald on Beneš decrees                    - http://sudetengermans.freeyellow.com/documents.html
Nuremburg laws                                      - http://www.skalman.nu/third-reich/nurnberg-lagarna.htm#reichcitizenship
Janics on Czechoslovakia, 1848             - http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/jani/jani21.htm
Some Sudeten German Propaganda                        http://www.wintersonnenwende.com/scriptorium/english/archives/sginferno/sgi09.html#kovac
______________ Contrast the Beneš decrees with the Nuremburg laws. 
______________ How do Czech justifications of the expulsion differ from Nazi Anti-Semitism?

Week 8 – Monday – The spread of Soviet-style Communism

After the Second World War, many countries in Central Europe acquired Communist governments.  Most of these were Soviet client states, but communist parties in many countries enjoyed significant popular support.
Bogdan on “popular democracies”         - http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/bogdan/bogdan26.htm
                                                                - http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/bogdan/bogdan27.htm
Truman Doctrine                                    - http://www.historyguide.org/europe/truman1947.html
See also site on mass gymnastics:           - http://www.osa.ceu.hu/galeria/spartakiad/online/index2.html
______________ How did the Communist takeover in Czechoslovakia differ from those elsewhere in Central Europe?
______________ What role did the Soviet Army play in the Communist seizures of power?

Week 8 – Wednesday – The Soviet Empire: 
Czechoslovakia in 1968
In 1968, the year of a student uprising in Paris, the armies of the Warsaw pact invaded Czechoslovakia to maintain the Soviet socialist system. This marked the practical end of sincere European communism, as distinct from Socialism.
Brezhnev doctrine                                   - http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/14/documents/doctrine/
Dikobraz (Czech magazine)                    - http://www.lib.umich.edu/spec-coll/czech/desdik10.html
Brezhnev and Dubček                             - http://library.thinkquest.org/C001155/documents/doc44.htm
The Plastic People of the Universe        - http://www.furious.com/perfect/pulnoc.html
Site on Hungary, 1956                         - http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/COLDhungarianU.htm


 ______________    What ideological justification did Brezhnev give for the Soviet intervention?

______________    Comment on the Anti-German sentiment of the Dikobraz pamphlet.


Week 9 – Monday - Conflicting Nationalist claims: the case of Macedonia

Nationalists throughout central Europe make incompatible claims. This class explores the various claims to Macedonia made by Greeks, Bulgarians, and (Slavic) Macedonians.

Intro to Macedonian questions               http://www.bulgaria.com/VMRO/pirinsko.htm
Map                                                        http://www.macedonian-heritage.gr/Maps/MapRegionToday.html
Greek sources                                         http://www.macedonia.info/FALLACIESANDFACTS.htm
Macedon. source (read conclusion)        http://www.makedonija.info/ancient.html#Ethnic
Bulgarian source                                      http://www.bulgaria.com/VMRO/document.htm
Petition of Macedonian Refugees           http://www.gate.net/~mango/Egej_petition1.htm
Description of legal conflict                    http://www.mhrmc.ca/news/98/rainbow2.html
Macedonia” (Greek) arguments    http://truth.macedonia.gr/arguments.html              

                OPTIONAL READING:         http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/AncientMacedonia/badian.html

______________    What ideas do the Greek, Macedonian and Bulgarian histories have in common?
______________    How are the historical arguments of “Real Macedonia” relevant to the “Rainbow Party” court case?

Week 9 – Wednesday - Yugoslav Ethnic Cleansing

After the collapse of Communism, Yugoslavia collapsed in a series of civil wars, providing the world with the term “ethnic cleansing” to describe an activity practiced almost a century earlier during the collapse of the Ottoman empire.  The great powers have changed their attitude toward what was once called “the exchange of populations.”

Preece on Ethnic Cleansing                     - http://www.ippu.purdue.edu/failed_states/2000/papers/jacksonpreece.html
Dayton Peace Plan § 7                            - http://www.nato.int/ifor/gfa/gfa-an7.htm

______________ The Dayton plan calls for the return of populations, previous international agreements did not. Why?
______________ Is the
Dayton plan essentially similar to Wilson’s 14 points, or essentially different?


Week 10 – Monday - Habsburg Nostalgia?

Nationalist conflict has proved so destructive that some scholars have started looking back with nostalgia to the large, multi-ethnic states of the nineteenth century.

Belo Kardos (in 1969)                            - http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/wagner/wagner24.htm
Charles Ingrao (a distinguished American Historian)

 ______________    Does the EU meet the Federalist Critera Kardos proposes?
______________    Do you think Ingrao’s proposals would be effective? 

Week 10 – Wednesday – Theories of Nationalism

What causes nationalism in the first place?  Primordial or modern? Objective or subjective?
Hobsbawm, Hroch, Anderson, Renan    - http://www.nationalismproject.org/what.htm

 ______________    Hroch and Hobsbawm disagree. Who do you think is more convincing, and why?
______________    Is Renan’s description consistent with
Anderson’s? Why or why not?