LEVEL 1 TEACHING BLOCK TWO
HIH-XXX MODERN CENTRAL EUROPE
Lecturer: Dr. Alexander Maxwell
This course is an upper division course focusing on the Habsburg Empire and its successor states, especially Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Poland. The course will teach political history and geography, examine mythic national histories in the region, and help students analyse historical sources critically. Central Europe is a diverse region with several different nationalities, the course will devote special attention to nationality questions. Since some students may take this course interested in a specific country, the assignments allow students to choose their own geographic focus.
Robin Okey Eastern Europe 1740-1980: Feudalism to Communism
Slavenka Drakulić How We Survived Communism and Even Laughed
Jaroslav Hašek The Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk
Andrew Wachtel Making a Nation, Breaking a Nation
Timothy Garton Ash The Magic Lantern
Heda Kovály Under a Cruel Star
ASSESSMENT 75% Coursework, 25% Exam
Review Essay 25%
Students will be expected to write a five-page critical review of one of the following books:
Kirschbaum. Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival
Yaremko. Galicia-Halychyna (A Part of Ukraine): From Separation to Unity
Gazi History of Croatia
Otto Zarek The History of Hungary
These books are all polemical, motivated by ethnic/national pride: they are "mythic histories." The purpose of the book review is to give you practice in reading critically and sceptically. Sceptical, critical reading is important, as is the ability to recognise propaganda. Students may read a national history from another country in the region, if they bring this book to the instructor for approval.
Research paper 50%
The research paper (10 pages) should address a research question selected by the student, using at least four secondary sources. Then, the student must examine at least two primary sources to reach a conclusion. The bibliography must have at least ten printed sources (i.e. no webpages).
Final Exam 25%
The final will have two parts. The first part has a geography section, an "ID" section, and an essay. You will have a choice of three essay questions, you must answer one. This part of the exam, in other words, is exactly like the midterm. The second part includes four essay questions, one question each for Hašek, Kovály, Drakulić, and Brailsford. Students may choose which books to study in greater depth.
Tutorial Response form: Your name ___________________
This week’s reading was written by:
[ paragraph on author: nationality, gender, social class, ideology, etc. Which characteristics are relevant to the author in the text?]
Concerning the topic or topics , the author argues
The author bases his/her argument on evidence such as:
This text illuminates the past by showing the following things:
Week 1 Okey: "Feudal inheritance," "Enlightenment," (Chapters 1,2).
Introduction to course Monarchies: the Royal houses,
Ethnic histories Rechtstaat vs. Autocracy. Bureaucracy.
Who lives where Ethnic division of labour.
Learn modern borders: http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/euroquiz
Then study these maps http://www.bham.ac.uk/1848/comments/hapsburg.htm
Do you understand this map? http://www.mek.iif.hu/porta/szint/egyeb/terkep/aushun19/aushun19.gif
Impress me by finding the mistake! http://www.hapsburg.com/historic/map-ah.gif
Week 2 Okey, "Storm and Settlement" (Chapter 3) Novel of the Week: Adam Mickiewicz Pan Tadeusz
The noble intelligentsia: Poland, Hungary Non-Noble intelligentsias: "national authors"
Széchenyi, Kossuth and Hungarian liberalism. Herkel, Kollár, Štúr, and Pan-Slavism
External models, "backwardness" Journalism, Matica Movements.
Selections from Johann Gottfried von Herder Ideas toward a Philosophy of History (from Adler, Menze, eds On World History: Johann Gottfried Herder) 128-149, 178-184, 187-208. Also read the texts from the following patriotic songs:
Arndt: "Where is the German fatherland?"
Sándor Petõfi. National Song, Diary p. 253-60 (9 pages)
Also: each student must bring to class one Central European patriotic song
Week 3 Novels of the week: Mor Jókai Dr. Dumany’s Wife or Boleslaw Prus The Doll
Read Okey "Liberalism and Nationalism" (Chapter 4)
Marx, Communist Manifesto (http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1848-CM/cm.html#Position)
Palacky’s letter http://www2.tltc.ttu.edu/kelly/Archive/New/palfranknew.htm
István Deák The Lawful Revolution (on Hungary).
1848: From Paris to Europe The Hungarian Revolution
The abolition of Serfdom Jellačić and the Croats
The German and Slavic Parliaments Štúr, Hurban and the Slovaks
Week 4: Okey, "Economy & Society" (Chapter 5) Zsigmund Móricz Be Faithful unto Death
Schools and literacy, reading vs. writing Nationalist dogmas and Mythic Histories
Multi-lingualism, assimilation. Slide show of nationalist propaganda
Reform Judaism and modern Anti-Semitism.
At this point, students should choose to focus their readings on either the Balkans or on the Habsburg Empire. Students thus have a choice of Homework. Students interested in the Habsburg empire should the sources on Transylvania, students interested in the Balkans should read the sources on Macedonia. The discussion sections, however, unite Balkans and Central Europe, and students should be prepared to discuss comparatively. For tutorials, students should answer the following questions:
1. What facts do the competing arguments hold in common? Where are the disagreements of fact?
2. How do the national historians treat historians from the opposing side? From "neutral" countries?
3. Why do the competing arguments emphasize antiquity, instead of recent history?
Habsburg readings (Transylvania)
Kazar "facts against fiction" http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/faf/toc05.htm
Balogh "Separating myths and facts" http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/rum.htm
"Transylvania is Hungarian!" http://members.fortunecity.co.uk/magyarhun/
Romanian Embassy "General Survey" http://www.romanianembassy.dk/romania/istorie.html
"Transylvania: Ancient Romanian Land" http://www.posada-online.com
Balkan readings (Macedonia)
Intro to Macedonian questions http://www.bulgaria.com/VMRO/pirinsko.htm
Greek sources http://www.macedonia.info/FALLACIESANDFACTS.htm
Macedon. source (read conclusion) http://www.makedonija.info/ancient.html#Ethnic
Bulgarian source http://www.bulgaria.com/VMRO/document.htm
Petition of Macedonian Refugees http://www.gate.net/~mango/Egej_petition1.htm
Description of legal conflict http://www.mhrmc.ca/news/98/rainbow2.html
"Real Macedonia" (Greek) arguments http://truth.macedonia.gr/arguments.html
Neoabsolutism: The Bach Regime Ottoman decline and Balkan revanchism
The Ausgleich and Nagdoba. Trialism. The occupation of Bosnia.
Peace and Prosperity The Balkan Wars.
Compare maps: - http://astro.temple.edu/~barbday/Europe66/resources/nationalitieshabsburg.htm
Essay on Popovici (especially read the biography) - http://lgi.osi.hu/ethnic/relations/1/mariust.html
Map of Popovici’s plan - http://www.thomasgraz.net/map-popov.htm
Jeremy King, "The Nationalization of East Central Europe" in Staging the Past, 112-142
Bogdan: "Aust-Hung Experiment" - http://www.net.hu/corvinus/lib/bogdan/bogdan11.htm
Beust: Memoirs of the Ausgleich - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1867beust.html
Mark Twain "Stirring Times in Austria" - http://www.h-net.msu.edu/~habsweb/sourcetexts/twain1.htm
Text of the Nagdoba - http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~habsweb/sourcetexts/nagodba1.htm
Jan Neruda, "How It Came to Pass," in Prague Tales, 204-27.
Durham High Albania - http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/durham/albania/albania.html
(esp. "The Land and the Law," "The Coming of the Constitution")
Young Turk Manifesto - http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/youngturkproclamation.htm
Foundation of IMRO - http://www.bulgaria.com/VMRO/founding.htm
IMRO Statutes - http://www.bulgaria.com/VMRO/bmork.htm
Brailsford Macedonia: The Land and its People "Village life, Orthodox Church, Races of Maced." 42-109.
A Turkish perspective: Mango Attaturk "An Impatient Young Turk" 80-100.
Week 6 Okey "Politics 1870-1918" (Chapter 6)
Novels of the week: Ivo AndrićA Bridge on the Drina; J. Hašek. The Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk
Sarajevo and the First World War The Russian Revolution.
The eastern front: Tannenberg to Brusilov Ukrainian, Polish and Czechoslovak armies.
The Italian intervention. The consolidation of Soviet power.
Liulevicius. War Land on the Eastern Front, esp. "The ‘Kultur’ Program" 113-144.
There aren’t many readings this week, because you’re supposed to work on your "mythic history" paper.
Week 7 Aurther Koestler Darkness at Noon
The Paris Peace Conference Trianon and Hungary: "nem nem soha!"
Czechoslovakia, Poland, and German minorities. Béla Kun and Horthy’s counter-revolution.
Hlinka at Paris: Slovak disenchantment. Attatürk and the birth of ethnic cleansing.
"MYTHIC HISTORY" ESSAY DUE!
Map: 1914 - http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/euro1914.htm
Losses – statistics - http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/ww1-loss.htm
Wilson’s 14 points - http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1918/14points.html
From Masaryk "indep. Bohemia" - http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~habsweb/sourcetexts/masaryk2.htm
Bonsal on Armenia - http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/bonsal/bonsal14.htm
Keynes on Versailles - http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/keynes/peace.htm
Stephen Bonsal Suitors and Supplicants: The Little Nations and Versailles.
Schwabe Woodrow Wilson, Revolutionary Germany and Missionary Peacemaking.
Week 8 Okey "Independent Eastern Europe" (Chapter 7) Novel: Hrabal I served the King of England
Italy and the "mutilated victory" German rearmament, economic growth, admirers.
D’Annunzio and Rijeka/Fiume Munich "people of whom we know nothing."
Yugoslav domestic politics. Poland and the beginning of the Second World War.
Baruch Wachtel. Making a Nation, Breaking a Nation. 19-31, 38-53, 63-106. (70 pages)
Week 9 Okey "From Hilter to Stalin" Novel: Borowski This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen.
German occupation, the Holocaust. The Communist Parties come to power.
Partisan warfare: Poland and Yugoslavia. Czechoslovakia’s coup d’etat.
German defeat, Soviet victory. Tito and Titoism.
Heda Kovály. Under a Cruel Star. 5-92. (87 pages)
Just for fun: Animated Battle Front - http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/ww2-eto.htm
Various Propaganda Leaflets - http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/parole.htm
Casualties - Map - http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/ww2-loss.htm
Edeiken on the Einsatzgruppen - http://www.holocaust-history.org/intro-einsatz/
Brustein on Hitler voters - http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/party-motives.html
Himmler’s orders for Secrecy - http://www.holocaust-history.org/auschwitz/19440524-weisse/
White: Discussion of death count - http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/war-1900.htm
Be sure to click on White’s "Percentages" chart and read "Proportionality."
Week 10 Novel: Tibor Fisher Under the Frog
Stalin’s death, Imre Nagy, and 1956. Everyday life under socialism: the queue.
Socialism with a human face: Aleksandr Dubček. The black market. Obsession with the west.
Poland and Solidarity, Lech Wałęnsa The cadres as a new class.
Discussion: Everyday life under Socialism
See site on mass gymnastics: http://www.osa.ceu.hu/galeria/spartakiad/online/index2.html
Milovan Djilas. "The New Class" The New Class, 37-69 (32 pages)
Slavenka Drakulić. How We Survived Communism and Even Laughed. Chapter 2, 3, 5, 9: "Pizza in Warsaw, Torte in Prague," "Make-up and other crucial Questions," "On Doing Laundry," "The Strange Ability of Apartments to Divide and Multiply." p. 11-32, 43-54, 82-92. (52 pages)
Week 11 Read Okey "Epilogue" Novel: Milan Kundera The Unbearable Lightness of Being
Dissidents: Václav Havel. The return of nationalism.
Economic decline, the Gorbachev doctrine. Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.
1989: the collapse of Communism. RESEARCH PAPERS DUE!
The Political morality of post-totalitarianism
Václav Havel The Power of the Powerless, Ch 1-13 (~34 pages)
Timothy G. Ash. The Magic Lantern.
Jozef Škvorecký "Are Canadians Politically Naïve?" Talking Moscow Blues (c. 10 pages)
Charles Ingrao. "Ten Untaught Lessons about Central Europe."