China: The first known record of using the CAMERA ABSCURA (dark
Arab scholar IBN ALHATHAM (ALHAZEN) noticed the connection between
the size of the hole in CAMERA ABSCURA and the sharpness of the picture
on artists using the CAMERA ABSCURA (special dark-tents/small rooms) for
paintings including Leonardo De Vinci.
CAMERA ABSCURA had many modifications like: mirrors and lenses
scientists like JOHANN HEINRICH
SCHULZE and ROBERT BOYLE noticed that SILVER CHLORIDE darkens
while in contact with light BUT mistakenly think it's because of the air
and not the light...
on chemicals. The first picture is made by THOMAS EDGWOOD but there
are no known ways (in that period) to save ("develop") the picture
French NICEPHORE and CLAUDE NIEPCE succeed in creating a
picture in a CAMERA ABSCURA using BITUMEN which hardened when exposed to
light. exposre time was 8 hours and it is just a negative....
NIEPCE work together on developing what will be called the
PLATE: sensitized SILVER on a sheet of COPPER, the picture was stabilized
with SODIUM THIOSULPHITE. The proccess was very expensive, exposure
time upto an hour. in Russia modifications are made in order to reduce
the cost of the proccess.
William Henry Fox TALBOT
develped the NEGATIVE process: taking the picture on paper and then printing
it using a projector. exposure time 30-60 minutes. the process was called
The first camera to be sold: made
by GIROUX based on the design of DAGURRE
BEARD tested chemicals for COLOR DEVELOPING but it awaits for the 20th
century to the PANCHROMATIC film...meanwhile photos are hand-tinted
PLATE proccess/collodiun was developed by SCOTT ARCHER a glass
plate (as a negative) needed a dark-room nearby. The complicated process
required the plate to be wet with chemicals (in order to make it sensitive
to light) and then expose it. the results were quick (took just seconds)
BUT the process very complicated.
The Scottish DAVID BREWSTER
developed the first STEREO VIEWER & camera (suprisingly called
the BREWSTER VIEWER)
A. WOODWARD patented the first ENLARGER for photos (a box with
a 45 degrees mirror)
SUTTON patented the first REFLEX CAMERA
wet-plate is replaced with a glass plate coated with SILVER BROMIDE.
Meanwhile, improvements in the
use of paper based on ALBUMEN. All those improvements for more contrast
and stable pictures
CAMERAS are popular! spy cameras disguised as books, hates, clocks
and even ties.
The first SHUTTERS on the market!
(till then the picture was taken by the photographer whose taking manualy
the cap from the lens, exposing the plate and then putting the cap again
British GEORGE HARE invented the FOLDING BED CAMERA (to be very
popular in the camera-construction)
is developed as an replacement for the fragile glass plate
- The first KODAK box camera on the markett and immidiatly was a hit! simple
and low in value. EASTMAN develops the FILM based on paper
to be used in the KODAK camera
ZEISS & GOERZ developed fine ANASTIGMATS lenses
The first MAGNESIUM FLASHes are
avaliable for sale
TURNER developed the RED WINDOW. a simple feature to find out how many
pic are left on the film. EASTMAN buys the patent and add a paper-back
(with numbers) to the film to keep the film safe from the light comming
from the red window
film with an extra paper can be loaded in daylight
The British FREDRICK SANDERSON
a patent on special arms in the lensboard which add the ability to move
the lens up and down
first REFLEX CAMERA on the market (made by GRAFLEX)
DECKEL developed the IRIS (for ZEISS)
||The AUTOGRAPHIC feature
was patenetd by EASTMAN. The autographic feature enabled a free
text to be "written" on the film (with an enclosed stylus) thus after development
the photo had the text on it. Eastman developed a special film for the
||The first LEICA on the market!
The camera was a hit (and still is...) as a compact yet very fine 35mm
||The BAKELITE proccess allowed
the manufactering of the first Bakelite cameras to become a very popular
(and cheap) material for camera-bodies. The British PURMA SPECIAL (by HUNTER)
was a fine sample!
||BURVIN developed the first
syncronized flash (for the Leica) to become a standard (later to
move into the camera's body)
||POLAROID 95 - The first
instant camera. developed by LAND. The camera proccess the photo
in 1 minute while the whole proccess is done inside the camera.