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JUNE 2003Go to top
“A MONTHLY ISSUE OF MCERC”
Ø One of the smallest snakes is the Braminy blind snake, which lives in the tropics and grows only 15 centimetres long. It has tiny eyes that are covered by head scales.
Ø An African Gaboon viper in a zoo once fasted for 2 1/2 years. Snakes in zoos sometimes do not eat for 6 months to 3 years
Ø The fastest snake is probably the black mamba of Africa. It was timed moving at the speed of 11 kilometres per hour over a short distance..
Ø The African Ball python protects itself from enemies by coiling into a ball with its head in the middle. Many other snakes also use this method of defence.
Ø Green Tree pythons may be yellow or brown when hatched. Snakes of both colours may hatch from the same batch of eggs. They turn green as they grow older. Green tree pythons live in New Guinea.
Ø The ringhals, or spitting cobra, of Africa can squirt venom up to 2.5 metres. The snake aims for the eyes of its enemy. The venom causes a painful, burning sensation and can produce blindness.
draws on a range of sciences, together with engineering, to exploit the
properties of microbes, plants, and animals. It harnesses the biological
processes that occur in cells to provide products and services. These
products include medicines, food, and fuels, while the services include
pollution control and sewage treatment. While some biotechnologies are
ancient, such as brewing, breadmaking, and cheesemaking, modern
biotechnology additionally uses more sophisticated techniques and
embraces such disciplines as molecular biology and genetic engineering. These technologies have
enabled scientists to create organisms with unique characteristics, or
organisms that can produce products tailor-made for a specific purpose.
equipment is often used to navigate and find objects at sea. The word
“sonar” stands for sound navigation and ranging.A ship’s sonar
emits sound pulses into the water in many different directions and
detects any pulses that are reflected. It measures the time delay
between outgoing and reflected sound pulses to estimate the distance of
objects from the ship. Sonar uses ultrasound (sound higher than 20,000
Hz) because this can be directed better than ordinary sound.
telescope is an instrument for examining distant objects. It collects
radiation from them and focuses it to produce a magnified image.
Telescopes fall into two broad categories: optical telescopes, used to
focus light that may come from objects on Earth (terrestrial telescopes)
or from space (astronomical telescopes); or radio telescopes, huge
dishes and aerials that collect radio waves from objects in outer space,
studied in the branch of astronomy known as radio
astronomy.Optical telescopes themselves can be divided into two categories.
Refractors focus light using systems of lenses, while reflectors gather
light with curved mirrors. Each category is itself subdivided into a
variety of different designs, each of which is best suited to a
are four fundamental laws governing the behavior of ideal gases. They
are Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, and the pressure law, and they relate
volume, and temperature of a gas.
gas laws are approximately obeyed at ordinary temperatures and pressures
by the so-called “permanent” gases. These are gases like oxygen,
hydrogen, helium, and so on, which are liquefied only at temperatures
far below 0°C. The three laws can be combined into a single equation,
known as the combined gas law.
the gas laws apply to most gases, they must be able to discount those
factors that make the behavior of one gas differ from that of a very
different gas. In other words, the laws must be able to discount the
effects of forces between molecules and different molecular volumes.
Therefore, the laws apply only when the molecules of a gas are far
apart, which means, effectively, that the laws do not apply at high
densities, high pressures, or low temperatures.
cells are simple diode devices that generate an electrical current when light falls on
them. They are a source of power for calculators and watches, removing
the need for batteries. They can also be used with rechargeable batteries,
such as nickel–cadmium or lead–acid cells, to provide continuous
power charged by sunlight. Arrays of solar cells generate power for
orbiting satellites and space stations, lighting, and water pumping.
They can act as power plants in hot countries or remote places.
typical solar cell is a pn semiconductor junction based on
silicon. The n-type material is doped with phosphorus and the p-type
material with boron. Sunlight produces pairs of electrons and holes,
which are then split by the electric field created by the junction. The free
electrons and holes can then move, creating an electrical current.
panels become less efficient as they heat up. A typical array producing
around 20 V at room temperature might give only 15 V at around
80°C and so produce less power. This is a property of the semiconductor
diode junction; the potential difference across it drops with
KNOW YOUR ENGLISH
IDIOMS AND PHRASES
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EVILS OF SMOKING
Smoking is drawing tobacco smoke from a cigarette, cigar, or pipe into the mouth--and often into the lungs--and puffing it out. The term usually refers to cigarette smoking, the most common form of smoking.In 1964, the United States surgeon general first officially warned of the health hazards of smoking. Since then, there have been numerous reports linking cigarette smoking to heart disease; lung disease; cancers of the lung, mouth, and other tissues; and other ailments. Cigar and pipe smoking have been linked to cancers of the mouth.
In spite of the dangers, many people become smokers. Many young people begin smoking as an act of rebellion or independence. Most adults smoke to reduce their craving for nicotine. The effects of nicotine help make smoking pleasurable. Nicotine stimulates the nervous system and the heart and other organs. However, its effect on the nervous system also causes many people to become addicted to it. Such an addiction makes it hard for people to give up smoking.
Why smoking is dangerous :
Cigarette smoke contains thousands of chemical substances, many of which have been linked to the development of diseases. Chemical substances occur in cigarette smoke as gases or as particulates (tiny particles). Gases in cigarette smoke that pose a great threat to health include hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides, and, especially, carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas that readily combines with haemoglobin, a substance in the blood that transports oxygen to body tissues. Carbon monoxide in the blood prevents oxygen from reaching the brain and the heart and other muscles. Continual exposure to the high levels of carbon monoxide associated with cigarette smoking is believed to lead to heart disease. Particulates in cigarette smoke are often referred to as tar. These particulates include a variety of health-damaging substances, of which nicotine is the most hazardous. A thimbleful of nicotine--about 60 milligrams--could kill an adult if taken all at once. A typical cigarette contains about 1 milligram of nicotine. The body prevents the accumulation of fatal doses by quickly breaking down the nicotine from each cigarette. However, nicotine raises the blood pressure, increases the heart rate, and contracts blood vessels near the skin. Its effects on the body, along with the effects of carbon monoxide, may contribute to the high rate of heart disease among smokers. Nicotine also is believed to contribute to the growth of several types of cancer.
The particulates in tobacco smoke have different effects on lung function, depending on how well the cigarette is filtered, how far the cigarette is smoked, and how large the particulates are. Cigarette filters remove some nicotine and other particulates from cigarette smoke. But the concentration of particulates in the last three puffs of a cigarette is as much as 67 times greater than the concentration in the first three puffs.
During smoking, the larger particulates get deposited on the mucous lining of the lungs and the larger airways that lead into the lungs. Over time, the large particulates and certain gases in the cigarette smoke scar the lungs and damage the cilia, thousands of little hairs that line the airways. The cilia normally help move mucus--and the pollutants that accumulate in mucus--out of the lungs and toward the throat. The mucus is then swallowed or spat out. In heavy smokers, the cilia are paralysed and the pollutants remain in the lungs. As a result, a smoker's chances of developing bronchitis and influenza increase. Deposits of small particulates in the smaller airways of the lungs can lead to a lung disease called emphysema.
How smokers stop :
Since doctors and governments first warned about the health hazards of cigarette smoking in the 1960's, millions of people have stopped smoking. Most of them have been able to stop on their own, although some made several attempts before they were able to stop completely. Many smokers attend special clinics set up to help them overcome their addiction. At these clinics, smokers learn how to avoid situations that make them think about smoking and how to reduce feelings of stress without smoking. For example, smokers learn to become aware of each cigarette that they smoke and to substitute smoking with other activities, such as exercise.
HITLER-THE TERROR- PART-
Hitler, Adolf (1889-1945), ruled Germany as dictator from 1933 to 1945. He turned Germany into a powerful war machine and provoked World War II in 1939. Hitler's forces conquered most of Europe before they were defeated in 1945.
Boyhood. Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, in Braunau, Austria, a small town across the Inn River from Germany. He was the fourth child of the third marriage of Alois Hitler, a customs official. Alois Hitler was 51 years old when Adolf was born. Adolf's mother, Klara Polzl, was 28 years old. She was a farmer's daughter.
Alois Hitler was born to an unmarried woman named Anna Maria Schicklgruber. A wandering miller named Johann Georg Hiedler married her about five years later. Hiedler died in 1856, when Alois was 20 years old, having never recognized Alois as his child. In 1876, Hiedler's brother arranged for Alois to be registered as the legitimate son of Johann Georg and Maria Hiedler. The priest who made the entry spelled the name "Hitler." Years later, before he came to power, some of Hitler's political opponents called him Schicklgruber as an insult. Only four of Alois Hitler's eight children lived to adulthood. Adolf had a sister, Paula; a half brother, Alois; and a half sister, Angela.About six years after Adolf's birth, his father retired and moved near Linz, Austria. Adolf received good marks in primary school, but he was a poor student in secondary school. His low marks angered his harsh, ill-tempered father. Alois wanted his son to have a career as a civil servant. But the boy wanted to be an artist. Alois Hitler died in 1903, and Adolf left secondary school 21/2 years later at the age of 16. His mother drew a widow's pension and owned some property. Adolf did not have to go to work. He spent his time daydreaming, drawing pictures, and reading books.
In 1913, Hitler moved to Munich, Germany. The Austrian Army called him for a physical examination, but he was found unfit for service.
World War I began in August 1914. Hitler volunteered immediately for service in the German Army and was accepted. He served valiantly as a messenger on the Western Front for most of the war, taking part in some of the bloodiest battles. He was wounded and twice decorated for bravery. But Hitler rose only to the rank of corporal. When Germany surrendered in November 1918, he was in a military hospital recovering from temporary blindness that resulted from his exposure in battle to mustard gas. He was deeply shaken by news of the armistice. He believed that the unity of the German nation was threatened, and that he must attempt to save Germany.
Dictator of Germany
There were only two Nazis in the Cabinet besides Hitler--Goering and Wilhelm Frick. The rest of the 11-member Cabinet was made up of politicians who were more moderate than the Nazis. The vice chancellor, Franz von Papen, and his political allies thought this arrangement would limit Hitler's power. But Hitler had never settled for anything less than full control. He moved steadily toward dictatorship. There was no place for freedom under his government, which Hitler called the Third Reich .
The New Order. The Nazis, through Frick's key position as minister of the interior, controlled all national police authority. Goering controlled the Prussian police. An emergency decree signed by Hindenburg on Feb. 4, 1933, gave the Nazis legal authority to prohibit assemblies, to outlaw newspapers and other publications, and to arrest people on suspicion of treason. The Nazis were thus able to put down much of their political opposition. Goering created an auxiliary police force made up of thousands of storm troopers and ordered them to shoot in encounters with "enemies."
On Feb. 27, 1933, a fire began that destroyed the Reichstag building. Many historians believe that it was planned by the Nazis. A pro-Communist Dutch anarchist was found at the site of the fire and admitted that he had started it. The Nazis quickly blamed the Communists. Hindenburg signed another emergency decree that gave the government almost unlimited powers.
Elections for a new Reichstag were held on March 5, 1933. Hitler hoped to win more than 50 per cent of the vote for the Nazi Party. But the party received only 43.9 per cent despite using terror to influence voters.After the election, the Communist deputies were arrested or not admitted to the Reichstag. This gave the Nazis a majority of the seats. On March 23, 1933, the Nazi-dominated Reichstag passed a law "for the removal of distress from the people and the state." This law, known as the Enabling Act, gave
government full dictatorial powers and, in effect, suspended basic civil and human rights for four years. When the president had signed it, Hitler had a firm "legal" basis on which to govern as he pleased. He had also destroyed the constitution through outwardly legal means.
By mid-July 1933, the government had outlawed freedom of the press, all trade unions, and all political parties except the Nazis. The Gestapo hunted down the enemies and opponents of the government. People were jailed or shot on suspicion alone. By the time Hindenburg died in August 1934, Hitler ruled Germany completely. He assumed the title Fuhrer und Reichskanzler ..
The Nazis used the press, radio, and films to flood Germany with propaganda praising the New Order, Hitler's term for his reordering of German society and for his plans to reorder the rest of Europe. The regime applauded military training, rearmament, national pride, and industry. Jews were forced out of the civil service, universities and schools, and the professions and managerial positions. In 1935, German Jews were declared citizens of lesser rights. Thousands left the country. Many who stayed were sent to concentration camps along with hundreds of thousands of political suspects. A person needed official permission to accept work, change jobs, move, or travel abroad. The government regulated wages, housing, and production of goods. All workers and employers were supposed to belong to the German Labour Front, which was intended to replace Germany's trade unions. Through the Labour Front, the government regulated production, wages, working hours, and leisure activities.
Hitler also set up organizations for young people between the ages of 6 and 18. These groups included the Hitler Youth for boys 14 years and older and the Society of German Maidens for girls 14 years and older. The organizations were designed to condition German children to military discipline and to win their loyalty to the Nazi government. All German children were required to join such groups from the age of 10. They wore uniforms, marched, exercised, and learned Nazi beliefs. The Nazis taught children to spy on their own families and report any anti-Nazi criticism they might hear.
A network of spies kept watch on the German people and maintained an atmosphere of terror. The Reichstag met only to listen to Hitler's public speeches. Judges and courts continued to function, but Hitler or his lieutenants reversed any decision they did not agree with. The road to war. From 1933 onward, Hitler prepared Germany for war. He rearmed the nation, first secretly, then in open violation of the Treaty of Versailles. No nation acted to stop him, and so Hitler's steps became bolder. Hitler planned to establish Germany as the world's leading power and to destroy the Jewish people.
In 1936, Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland, again violating the Treaty of Versailles. His generals had opposed this dangerous challenge to France. But Hitler guessed correctly that France would not stop him. The stationing of German troops in the Rhineland was the first of the Nazi dictator's victories without war.
In March 1938, Hitler's troops invaded Austria. Austria then became part of Germany. In September, France and Great Britain consented to Hitler's occupation of the German-speaking areas of Czechoslovakia that had belonged to Austria-Hungary before World War I ended . After this move, Hitler said he wanted no more territory. But after each success, he planned a new take-over. He took control of the rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939.
Poland came next on Hitler's list. But Britain and France took action to try to stop any further German expansion. They guaranteed Poland's independence, saying that they would go to war against Germany if Hitler attacked Poland. Hitler doubted that they would do so. In August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed treaties of friendship. They promised mutual cooperation, trade privileges, and neutrality in case of war with other countries. A secret part of the treaties divided Poland between Germany and the Soviet Union and promised the Soviet Union other territory in eastern Europe. On Sept. 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later.
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THE MEMBERS SHOULD FOLLOW THE RULES AND
REGULATIONS OF THE ACADEMY.
THE COMMITTEE WILL EXAMINE THE PROJECTS
DONE BY THE MEMBERS AND THEN ONLY THE PROJECTS
WILLBE TAKEN FOR THE COMPETITION.
THE DECISION OF THE ACADEMIC DIRECTOR IS
THE FINAL DECISION.
THE ACADEMY HAS FULL RIGHTS TO TERMINATE A
MEMBER WITHOUT ANY NOTICE.
IN CASE OF ANY DISPUTE THE ACADEMY IS NOT
WHEN EVER YOU WANT TO CANCEL THE MEMBERSHIP
A SEPERATE FORM SHOULD BE FILLED AND TO BE SENT TO THE NEAREST MCERC CENTRE.
THE MEMBERS CAN ALSO JOIN IN THE OTHER
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Though we have a large number of team members , we can point out only some important office holders.
V.Aravind Dakshan -- DIRECTOR, CHIEF SCIENTIST MCERC
V.Balaji-- ACADEMIC ADVISOR , SECRETARY MCERC
S.Dinakar---ZONAL DIRECTOR ,JUNIOR SCIENTIST MCERC
S.Sankar--FIELD OFFICER MCERC
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