A. Perfect Passive Participles-
The 4th principle part of each Latin ________ is called a Perfect Passive Participle.
1. Participles - Even though it is a verb, a participle is like an adjective because it has noun endings that match the word that it is describing in ___________, _____________, and _____________. In English, participles usually have ing endings, like carrying.
2. Passive - The Passive voice means that the __________ verb is being done by something else than the noun that the participle describes.
-- For the Perfect Passive Participle, we could say having been carried (portatus, a, um) to make sure that our ____________ has an ing ending.
-- But in normal English we might just shorten it to carried. So, librum portatum = the book having been carried, or the carried book.
Translate these examples of PPPs (Perfect Passive Participles):
1. amatus _______________________________, or _________________________
2. actus ________________________________, or _________________________
3. factum ______________________________, or _________________________
4. missum ______________________________, or _________________________
--When you see the 4th Principal Part of a verb, make sure you remember that it is like an adjective that happened in the past to the noun that it describes.
Translate these English participle and noun pairs:
5. the wagon having been dragged-
6. the departed forest-
7. the road having been ran-
8. the pitched camp-