A. Perfect Passive Participles-

The 4th principle part of each Latin ________ is called a Perfect Passive Participle. 

1. Participles - Even though it is a verb, a participle is like an adjective because it has noun endings that match the word that it is describing in ___________, _____________, and _____________.  In English, participles usually have –ing endings, like “carrying 

2. Passive - The Passive voice means that the __________ verb is being done by something else than the noun that the participle describes.

-- For the Perfect Passive Participle, we could say “having been carried” (portatus, a, um) to make sure that our ____________ has an –ing ending.  

-- But in normal English we might just shorten it to “carried  So, “librum portatum” = “the book having been carried,” or “the carried book.”

Translate these examples of PPPs (Perfect Passive Participles):

1. amatus _______________________________, or _________________________

2. actus ________________________________, or _________________________

3. factum  ______________________________, or _________________________

4. missum ______________________________, or _________________________

--When you see the 4th Principal Part of a verb, make sure you remember that it is like an adjective that happened in the past to the noun that it describes.

Translate these English participle and noun pairs:

5. the wagon having been dragged-

6. the departed forest-

7. the road having been ran-

8. the pitched camp-