Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention

  The concentration - or dose-dependent free radical scavenging ability of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in both in vitro and in vivo models was assessed comparing the free radical scavenging ability of GSPE with vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. The results indicated GSPE provides excellent protection against oxidative stress and free radical-mediated tissue injury. Specifically, the experiments demonstrated that GSPE is highly bioavailable and provides significantly greater protection against free radicals and free radical-induced lipid per peroxidation and DNA damage than vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. GSPE was shown to demonstrate cytotoxicity towards human breast, lung, and gastric adenocarcinoma cells, while enhancing the growth and viability of normal human gastric mucosal cells.
  GSPE also provided significantly better protection than vitamins C and E (singly and in combination) with tobacco-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in human oral keratinocytes. GSPE demonstrated excellent protection against acetaminophen overdose-induced liver and kidney damage by regulating bcl-XL gene, DNA damage, and presumably by reducing oxidative stress. In rats, GSPE demonstrated excellent protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction. GSPE was shown to up-regulate bcl2 gene and down-regulate the oncogene c-myc. GSPE was also found to ameliorate chronic pancreatitis in humans, while topical use enhanced sun protection factor in humans. The authors concluded that GSPE is a safe, novel, highly-potent and bioavailable free radical scavenger and antioxidant.

AUTHORS: Debasis Bagchi, Manashi Bagchi, Sidney J. Stohs, Dipak K. Das, Sidhartha D. Ray, Charles A. Kuszynski, Shantaram S. Joshi, and Harry G. Pruess