A Simple Device For The Production Of Free Energy
By Mike Johnston
I must confess a continuing fascination with water and consequently I am always looking for new and/or unique ways to further develop it's potential as a source of energy. I found one such source in an old chemistry textbook that I was leafing through this week. This paper is based upon an experiment that I found therein.
It is a simple experiment that is designed to show some of the properties of solvents and solutes, specifically in this case how the properties of water are affected by the addition of sugar (Glucose: C6H12O6). The fact that water dissolves sugar implies that H2O molecules prefer to exist in the solution state rather than in the pure water state. So then we know that H2O molecules must have a smaller tendency to escape from a solution into the vapor state than they do from pure water.
An experimental demonstration of this fact can be accomplished by setting up two beakers, one (cup 1, Fig. 1) containing pure water and the other (Fig. 1, Cup 2) a sugar water solution, under an airtight container such as a bell jar (Fig 1).
As time goes on we will observe that the level of pure water in Cup 1 drops while the level of the solution in cup 2 rises. This observation indicates that there is a transference of water from pure solvent (Cup 1) to solution (Cup 2) through the vapor phase. This transfer occurs because the escaping tendency, or Vapor Pressure, of pure water is higher than the escaping tendency of water from the sugar-water solution.
I don't feel that I need to spend any more time on the nature
of solute/solvent relationships or the purpose of this paper. The next
question that presents itself to the Free Energy researcher at this point
would be "How long would the cycle of of H2O molecules exiting the pure
water cup and entering the solution cup continue?" The obvious answers
a) Until Cup 2 filled up and overflowed or
b) Until Cup 1 was empty
c)Until the concentration of sugar molecules in Cup 2 became so diluted that it would approximate pure water (this may just cause the process to slow even further as the solution would still contain sugar molecules no matter how diluted it became).
I don't believe that vapor saturation of the air within the enclosure would be a limiting factor in this experiment as the air is just the transfer medium here and in fact vapor saturation would mean that there would be MORE free H2O molecules to enter the solution in Cup 2, and even at vapor saturation, for every H2O molecule that entered the solution cup another one could exit the pure water cup. To further accelerate the ongoing reaction then it might be beneficial to remove some or all of the air within the enclosure. This would create an atmosphere with a high concentration of water molecules or, in the case of starting with a vacuum, an atmosphere composed TOTALLY of water vapor. Which again, would accelerate the process.
Next, to try to design some time of mechanism which will produce energy from this process we need to make some additions to the basic design in this experiment. My ideas or such a design are in Figure 2.
In this version of the device you will note the modifications as being; the addition of a tube which connects Cup 1 with Cup 2 and allows the free circulation of water between the two. Also added is a semi-permiable barrier in Cup 2 which would allow the free passage of H2O molecules but block the passage of the much larger sugar molecules.
I believe that the effect of these modifications on the performance of the entire system would be significant. On the one hand, since the transfer of H2O molecules between the cup of pure water and the cup of sugar-water solution takes place through the atmosphere above the cups and at the surface of the liquid in the two cups, I don't feel that the modifications I suggest would adversely affect this process. On the other hand water could now circulate between the two cups via the portal of the semi-permiable barrier and the connecting tube. The anticipated outcome would be that, as the H2O molecules enter the sugar-water solution above the semi-permiable barrier, an equal number of H2O molecules would exit the sugar-water solution through the semi-permiable barrier and return through the connecting tube to the beaker of pure water. This return would be facilitated by the fact that the air pressure pushing down on the surfaces of the liquids in the two cups would force their levels to be equalized and so the level in the sugar-water container could no longer rise and the level in the pure water cup no longer fall. This would imply a continuous circulation of water from Cup 1, into the vapor phase and then entering into the sugar-water solution in Cup 2 where air pressure will drive these newcomers through the semi-permiable membrane and back into the pure water in Cup 1 through the connecting tube.
I believe that this cycle would continue indefinitely as long as the original, necessary conditions for it to occur are not altered. As depicted so far it is a continuous cycle of motion created by taking advantage of natural phenomena. No laws violated and free energy is being produced. The main problem that I see here is that it would be a system which was, to the casual observer, static. This is because the flow would be taking place so slowly as to be unnoticeable to the naked eye but it would be taking place nevertheless.
I considered this problem for a while. I wanted a system which could produce at least a tiny amount of actual electrical energy which could be measured. I thought of a couple of different ways to do it and settled on the one depicted in Figure 3. This is not the ONLY way it could be done and probably not even the best but it will serve to illustrate my point.
As you can see I have moved Cup 2 to a significant height above Cup 1. The limits of this upward placement would be fairly large. As water vapor would exit to the atmosphere in a totally random way and be evenly distributed through said environment then it would fill in the available space no matter what the configuration of the placement of the two cups. This allows energy to be generated from the kinetic energy of the falling excess water from Cup 2 as it builds up. This water would exit through a mechanical valve which would be operated by the weight/pressure exerted on it by the liquid in Cup 2. As the water in Cup 2 rose it would reach a predetermined level and this would cause the valve to open and dump the excess water down a tube and across some type of device which would utilize this falling water to generate electricity. The speed with which the process takes place could also be increased by increasing the surface area of the water in the two cups.
Admittedly this device could probably not generate much electricity and only intermittently at best, unless it was engineered to release water in a steady stream at the exact rate which it entered the second cup at. In that case it would have a continuous output. My main motivation in creating this device was as a simple mechanism to show the possibility of creating overunity within a closed system. I think it demonstrates that concept.