At the rise of the Algonquian and the Iroquois culture, the people were considered a hunter and gatherer society. Their main form of subsistence was fish they caught in the nearby rivers and streams, beaver they trapped for their food and furs, otter, moose, bear, caribou, some maize growing, kidney-beans, shads, eel, alewives, herring, and a variety of nuts. In the Meadowood Phase of the Algonquian, the people also were able to grow some maize, but depended on collecting scallops, oysters, quahogs, and soft clams. There is some evidence that people in the Early Iroquois stage may have grown maize and gathered fish is the summer, but they hunted exclusively throughout the winter. The Late Iroquois stage was a time of great agricultural farming. These people grew and quickly depended on corn, squash, beans, and sunflowers to make up almost 80% of their daily diet.
As we emerge through time, technological advances played a major role in the increasing subsistence patterns. Both the Algonquian and the Iroquois had roughly the same trade tools. These were a variety of war clubs, bow and arrows, birch bark canoes, they used the hides from their kills for clothing, snowshoes, stone axes, knives, pipes, and a variety of agricultural tools. The Iroquois people were also able to obtain guns and ammunition through the fur trade with the Europeans. The Algonquian people also had a unique fishing spear that possessed two harpoon points like that of the Thule tradition. A technological advance that became very evident from excavations of the Algonquian culture was in the susquehanna tradition the people used very broad projectile points, but in the Orient tradition these points were long and narrow with fishtail bases.
Trade among these two cultures was a necessity for their survival. In the Terminal Archaic period of the Algonquian people they traded such things as chert, soapstone, projectile points, and cooking vessels. As the Algonquian culture became stronger, they made an alliance with the French and began trade with them.
We begin to see the use of wampum by the different tribes of the Iroquois people in the Late Iroquois period. Initially, the belts of wampum were used as a form of documenting important events. But as time went on the use of the wampum was converted as a type of currency that was used for trading among other bands. Like the Algonquian, the Iroquois people also made alliances for trade, but the Iroquois became allies of Great Britain who traded them guns and ammunition for treasured fur pelts, especially that of the beaver.
There is no record of either the Algonquian or the Iroquois people creating mass destruction to their localized environment. The majority of the environmental declination that took place was clearing and cutting away forests for new agricultural fields when their previous one became soil and nutrient depleted.
Most of the information that we currently have on the social organization patterns is that of the Iroquois people. Throughout much of the Middle Iroquois period, the people congregated in bands of localized matrilineal clans. Within each clan was a leader who oversaw the events of his clan. Perhaps one of the most intriguing factors about the social organization was that the men went off to live with their wives and her family. Once married, her family became his to help protect, and his biological family was no longer considered his family. Eventually as time went on multiple clans joined together to form larger communities, most likely caused by increasing tension from neighboring tribes.
The initial coming together of the original thirteen colonies is believed to be modeled after the League of the Iroquois. In the Late Iroquois period, groups of powerful tribes joined forces and created a pact called the League of the Iroquois. This league consisted of the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and the Mohawk. It is believed that the League of the Iroquois was formed as a way of protecting themselves from external pressures like the Europeans and the Algonquian. A council of elders was formed from each of the five tribes, and this council made the decisions on what was best for the league.
The people of the Middle Iroquois period had extraordinary class distinction. Each group had their individual role, and knew that their survival depended on their carrying out that role. The sachems or chiefs were divided into two categories, the war chiefs and the peace chiefs. "Peace chiefs kept a pulse on public opinion, settled domestic disputes, organized community works, rituals and ceremonies, and negotiated with others. War chiefs had more limited powers. They organized and led war parties, dealt with prisoners, and killed suspected witches"(Fagan, P. 465). Every tribe had a group of warriors that were under the war chiefs. These warriors would defend their home, go out on raiding parties, and do the majority of the hunting. The women of each committee was expected to stay at home and take care of the kids, keep the house clean, and do most of the agricultural work.
Relating to Subsistence
As stated earlier, the women did most of the agricultural work. They did the planting, the hoeing, all of the things that go with trying to obtain a good crop yield. The men of each particular tribe were in charge of getting enough meat to feed their family. It is often believed that the men went out to get the meat as a form of obtaining superiority over the women in the tribe, although the women did the majority of the work.
Population and Settlement Pattern
The population of each individual society greatly fluctuated through time. As in other cultures, the population density greatly depended on the amount of subsistence that members of the tribe were able to bring in. When the Algonquian and the Iroquois cultures first began, their settlements were small and therefore and low populations. But as they became better farmers their population began to rise. The average summer village in Early Iroquois times was anywhere between 100 and 400 persons. By Middle Iroquois times, the population rose anywhere up to 2,000 persons in one settlement.
The first settlement pattern that we see is during the Terminal Archaic period. The Terminal Archaic period lasted from about 1650 to 700 B.C. The majority of their settlements were along major river highways, which served for multiple purposes. As an efficient way of traveling, a great and vast source of food, and as a means of possible escape in case of attack. These camps were of semi-permanence and possessed no real definite roots.
The Meadowood Phase, from 700 to 300 B.C., has been found to be fairly similar to that of the Terminal Archaic period. The Algonquian people settled in west and central New York State and Mohawk drainage. They tended to reside in semi-permanent dwellings that existed partially below ground level for the possible purpose of conserving heat in the winter. Winter houses were usually found by streams and ponds in the backcountry where an abundance of game was to be found. Their houses tended to be cone-shaped so that they were able to be transported easily. Made of primarily birch bark, these cone houses allowed for very little room to move around. Their summerhouses were considered long houses, which were much larger than their winter homes and able to house multiple families.
The Iroquois people were not much different than the Algonquian people in settlement patterns. In the Early Iroquois period, 1000 to 1300 B.C., the majority of the summer camps were found on river flats by sheltered inlets where they could fish and cultivate a variety of plants easily.
Settlement pattern began to change of the Iroquois people in the Middle Iroquois period. It was not uncommon to see villages of up to two and a half acres scattered about the countryside. Feeling somewhat unsafe residing next to a river way, the Iroquois people moved from the flood plains inland to the hills where they were able too easily defend their community. People also began to lead more sedentary lives, building long houses that held many families and were guarded by a well-fortified log wall. "[The long houses] were said to be twenty to eighty feet in length and about twenty feet in width, standing approximately fourteen feet high at the ridge or center of the long house"(Kubiak, P. 27). But there were drawbacks to becoming more sedentary. As the population of their tribe increased, a number of their resources started to decrease. Hunters began to have a more difficult time finding game. Lumber to keep up the palisade and their houses became scarce. The soil that they had planted their crops on began to become nutrient deficient. Infestation of rats, mice, and fleas began to take over their homes. Because of these drawbacks, the people were forced to relocate occasionally, and anytime a community decided to relocate, there was competition with other tribes for those hunting grounds.
The Draper site is one of the most well known sites for being completely excavated. At current times, it is the largest Iroquois site to ever be excavated, covering 19.76 acres and housing roughly 2000 to 3000 people.
Another site that was well excavated was the Kelso site. "The [Kelso] site proved to be much larger than anticipated, consisting to two slightly over-lapping villages of 2 acres each, bounded on their peripheries by multiple stockade lines"(Tooker, P. 71). At the time, archaeologists were astonished by the work put in building a palisade around the village. "The fortification features, the earliest known for the New York Iroquois…are radically different from later Iroquois palisades made after the introduction of the steel trade ax"(Tooker, P. 71).
Religious Beliefs and Rituals
The burials of the Algonquian during the Meadowood phase are much different that those of the Mississippian cultures. The people were usually cremated and placed in closely packed bark-lined pits, located on natural hills with projectile points and a variety of luxury items.
During the Early Iroquois period, we find that they had less elaborate burial ceremonies, and buried their dead with few if any trade goods.
The Iroquois people had a number of rituals that they performed ceremoniously. Ceremonies were performed for marriages, burials, when tribes moved from one settlement to another and in the spring and fall to scare away any disease that people might have. Major items that were used in these ceremonies were rattles made from turtle shells or bark, masks that were carved from living basswood trees, ceremonial headdresses, and costumes.
Another extremely important ritual among the Iroquois people was that of cannibalism. They often sacrificed their war prisoners to their gods in hopes of winning favor with them. Although archaeologists are positive that cannibalism was a common practice, with skeletons that have been excavated, why they did they acts and what caused them remains a partial mystery.
The Iroquois people were incredible mask makers. These masks that were usually used for ceremonial purposes, were often made from live basswood trees or husks that were braided or twined. The faces took on a distorted image, depending on what the mask creator's dream was about. They often had large noses, which appeared to be broken severely, and large lips. Although sometimes disturbing to view, their maskwork is yet to be matched.
We know that the Algonquian and the Iroquois people had spoken languages, but any written form of it is yet to be unearthed. People in the coastal drainages between Nova Scotia and North Carolina spoke and Eastern Algonquian dialect. While tribes that belonged to the Iroquois League spoke in a Northern Iroquois language. Although the different tribes had their own dialect, each was able to obtain the jist of what the other was trying to communicate.
Warfare was a major part of the Iroquois life, as well as the Algonquian. The beginning evidence that we have of warfare among the Iroquois is in the Early Iroquois period when the first fortified villages begin to appear.
Warfare in the Middle Iroquois period quickly became a survival test. Long houses were now closely packed together so that they were easier to defend. Wars among tribes were a very brutal time, but even then they had rules of engagement. Only the men were to be killed the women and children were allowed to live, although sometimes as slaves. The fallen men's scalps were often brought back as trophies as a sign of prestige.
In the Late Iroquois period, no one was more feared than the League of the Iroquois. One and all feared them. They became extreme enemies of the Huron and the Algonquian tribes. It is believed that the Seneca were the most ferocious warriors of all. Their lightening speed, their strong will, and acceptance of death made even their allies cower in fear.
No one is sure how or why the fighting began between the different tribes. It is thought that it started from retaliation for someone getting killed. We don't know why the wars started, but we do know that they always ended in lots of bloodshed.
(C) Copyright 2000
Fagan, Brian M. Ancient North America: The Archaeology of a Continent. Second Edition. 1995. P. 465.
Kubiak, William J. Great Lakes Indians. 1970. P. 27.
Tooker, Elisabeth. Iroquois Culture, History, and Prehistory. 1970. P. 71.