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bullet Red Star ADY bullet Lalvin ADY bullet Wyeast Vinter's Choice Yeast Cultures bullet
bullet White Labs Yeasts bullet Kitzinger's Dry Yeasts bullet Vierka Dry Yeasts bullet
bullet Vierka Liquid Yeasts bullet J. Laffort ADY bullet Unican Active Dry Yeasts bullet
bullet Gervin ADY bullet SB ADY bullet Miscellaneous Other Wine Yeasts bullet
bullet Malo-Lactic Cultures bullet

Red Star Active Dry Yeasts

Assmannshausen : Assmannshausen is a German yeast strain. Germany leads the world in yeast isolation and production. Assmannshausen is best suited for red wines. It intensifies the color and adds a spicy aroma. It first was only meant for Pinot Noir and Zinfandel, but now Cabernet Sauvignon takes advantage of this strain. The only drawback is its ineffectiveness in a high solid content.

Côte des Blancs : Formerly known as Epernay 2, this is another slow fermenting, very low foaming yeast tolerant of low temperatures. It tends to bring out floral and fruity qualities in wines and can be useful in both grape--especially fruity German style whites-- and non-grape wines--such as peach or raspberry--where a bouquet is especially desired. This yeast will not push alcohol production over 13% in a cool fermentation.

Epernay : Epernay is a Champagne yeast, meaning it was isolated in Champagne, France and is used in Champagne production. Epernay is used in bottle fermenting because it ferments slowly and is tolerant to cold temperatures with moderate foaming. It is also used for primary fermentations of still white wines.

Flor Sherry : Develops "flor" aerobically, but also useful for anaerobic fermentations of Port, Madeira, or other sweet styles.

Montrachet : Perhaps the most popular yeast used. It is available for both red and white wine fermentations and may be called Montrachet Red and Montrachet White. It works especially well in producing Chardonnay in barrel and stainless steel. It also tolerates sulfur dioxide well, but does not work well with high sugar levels (more than 23.5 percent). It is this ineffectiveness in high sugar levels that is most likely responsible for many stuck fermentations.

Pasteur Champagne : Champagne yeast is the second most common yeast strain used. It was isolated in Champagne, France and is technically a mixed-population culture. It is common in sparkling wine production because of its ability to induce fermentation quickly and because of its effectiveness in low temperatures and its tolerance of high alcohol conditions. These conditions are common in sparkling wine production.

Pasteur Red : Pasteur red is also called French red. Like Champagne, it is a mixed population strain. It was developed in Bordeaux, France. It is meant for red wines because it is tolerant to heat and sulfur dioxide and hardly ever causes stuck fermentation. The red wines it is usually used for are Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Zinfandel.

Pasteur White : Pasteur white is also called French white. As the name suggests, it is used primarily for white wine fermentation because of its ability to ferment slowly and tolerate cold temperatures. It also gives off a noticeable yeasty aroma. Pasteur white foams considerably so it works better in stainless steel rather than wooden barrels.

Premier Curvee : Also known as Prise de Mousse, this is a Champagne yeast that is strong acting, low foaming and therefore qualified for barrel fermentations. It imparts a strong yeasty aroma and is useful for secondary fermentation in both still and sparkling wine production. Good for reds and whites alike and for restarting stuck or sluggish fermentations.

Steinberg : A strain developed in Germany. Like Pasteur white, Steinberg is used for white wine fermentation because it yields a lengthy fermentation process. It even tolerates the cold better than Pasteur white. Johannesburg Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Chenin Blanc and Muscat all use this strain. It gives off a tropical fruit aroma and is best used in stainless steel fermenting.

Lalvin Active Dry Yeasts

Many of Lalvin's yeasts are only sold in quantities of 500 mg or larger and are intended for commercial rather than home use. It is often feasible for a winemaking club's members to pool their resources and purchase a quantity, then divide it up among themselves. Alternatively, one could check the commercial wineries in their area and determine whether they would sell a small quantity of yeast if they happen to be using one of these.

RC 212 (Bourgovin) : This yeast is traditionally used in the Burgundy region for full red wines and is a favorite of home winemakers seeking similar big reds. Naturally, it is perfect for Pinot Noir. It has good alcohol reach (12-14%) and high temperature (59-86° F.) tolerance and excellent color stability. This yeast requires high nitrogen nutrient additions to avoid the potential development of H2S. It is quite suitable for use with non-grape black and red fruit (plums, prickly pear cactus fruit, pomergrantes) and berries (blackberries, raspberries, dewberries, mulberries). It is quite tolerant of concurrent malolactic fermentation.

ICV-D47 (Côtes-du-Rhône) : This is a low-foaming quick fermenter that settles well and forms compact lees at the end of fermentation, although when left on the lees, ripe spicy aromas with tropical and citrus notes develop. This strain tolerates fermentation temperatures ranging from 50° to 86° F. and enhances mouth feel due to complex carbohydrates and high polysaccharide production. Malolactic fermentation proceeds well in wine made with ICV-D47. This strain is recommended for making wines from white varieties such as Chardonnay and for rosé style wines. It is ideal for persimmon, peach, nectarine, paw-paw, and mango, as well as aromatic wines such as rose petal, elderflower, anise and woodruff. It is also an excellent choice for producing mead if supplemented with yeast nutrients, especially usable nitrogen. Its alcohol ceiling is 12-14%.

71B-1122 (Narbonne) : This yeast metabolizes more of the malic acid during fermentation than most other yeasts and should be considered for wines which are high in malic. It is noted for producing "fruity" reds such as vin nouveau and works well with high-acid native North American grapes, producing rounder, smoother, more aromatic wines that tend to mature quickly. Because it is also known for making blush, rosé and semi-sweet wines with a tropical fruit character, it promotes these styles with Cabernet Franc, Gewürtztraminer and Riesling. For obvious reasons, is often the yeast of choice for a great many malic fruit and berries and for vegetable-grape concentrate blended wines. Alcohol toxicity is predictable at 14% and its temperature range is 59-86°. F.

K1V-1116 (Montpellier) : This strain tends to express freshness of the grape or fruit variety, especially in Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon and Chenin Blanc, but also in fruit such as peaches, nectarines, kiwis, and strawberries. Because it produces such flowery esters as isoamyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenyl ethyl acetate, the natural fresh fruit aromas are retained for a longer period compared to standard yeasts. It is recommended for French hybrid whites, mature reds, and ice wines as well. This strain ferments well under stressed conditions and may be used to restart a stuck fermentation. Known among enologists as the original "killer yeast," K1 dominates almost any fermentation and is capable of fermenting to 18% alcohol if sufficient nutrients, nitrogen, and fermentable sugars are properly employed, but 18% is quite reachable. It is a fast fermenter and can tolerate a huge temerature range (59-86° F). It is not, however, tolerant of concurrent malolactic fermentation.

EC-1118 (Prise de Mousse) : This is the original, steady, low foamer, excellent for barrel fermentation or for working on heavy suspended pulps. It is one of the most popular wine yeasts in the world. It ferments well at low temperatures, flocculates well, and produces very compact lees. It is good for Champagne bases, secondary (bottle) fermentations, restarting stuck fermentations, and for late harvest grapes. It is also the yeast of choice for apple, crabapple, cranberry, hawthorn, and cherry wines. It has excellent organoleptic properties and should be in every vinter's refrigerator. Alcohol toxicity is 18% and it ferments relatively fast. It tolerates temperatures from 45-95° F. It is not, however, tolerant of concurrent malolactic fermentation.

Wyeast Vinter's Choice Yeast Cultures

Note: These are liquid yeast cultures. Directions come with the cultures, but generally one must aerate a small portion (1 pint) of diluted juice well and add the active yeast culture. Agitate often to continue aeration over several hours before adding to the must. Additional yeast nutrients, particularly in white wines and high sugar content juices is beneficial. These strains are readily available in many on-line catalogs; you simply have to look.

3021 Pasteur Champagne (Prise de mousse) : Used in many white wine fermentation's and also some red wines. Also used for secondary fermentation of barley wine. Ferments crisp and dry, ideal for base wines in champagne making. Low foaming, excellent barrel fermentation, good flocculating characteristics. Dry White Wines, Spumante, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Pinot Blanc, Gewurtztraminer.

3028 Pasteur Red : Ideal for red or white wines which mature rapidly with beauijolais type fruitiness and for bigger reds requiring aging. Low foaming, low sulfur production over a broad temperature range. Cabernet, Red Varietals, Gamay Beaujolais, Zinfandel, Rhone, Burgundy, Pinot Noir.

3134 Sake #9 : Sake yeast #9 used in conjunction with Koji for making a wide variety of Asian Jius (rice based beverages). Full bodied profile with true Sake character. Sake, Nigori, Dai Gingo, Fruit, Plum Wine, Rice Beer.

3134 Sake #9 : Sake yeast #9 used in conjunction with Koji for making a wide variety of Asian Jius (rice based beverages). Full bodied profile with true Sake character. Sake, Nigori, Dai Gingo, Fruit, Plum Wine, Rice Beer.

3184 Mead, Sweet : One of two strains for sweet mead making. Leaves 2-3% residual sugar in most mead's. Rich, fruity profile complements fruit-mead fermentation. Use additional nutrients for mead making. Ciders, Cysers, Fruit wines, Ginger ale, Cherry, Raspberry and Peach.

3237 Steinberg : Classic German yeast from the Rheingau District produces full bodied wines with great depth, dry smokey characteristics with a sharp finish, drier than # 3783. Riesling, Sylvaner, Moselles, Liebfraumilch.

3242 Chablis : Produces extremely fruity profile, high ester formation, bready, vanilla notes. Allows fruit character to dominate aroma and flavor profile. Finishes slightly sweet and soft. Fruity white wines, Chardonnay, Chablis, Ciders, Gewurtztraminer, Chenin Blanc, Pinot Gris.

3244 Chianti : Rich, very big, bold, well rounded profile. Nice soft fruit character with dry crisp finish. Excellent choice for most Italian grape varieties. Barolo, Barbera, Barbaresco, Nebbiolo, Chianti, Valpolicella, Sangiovese.

3267 Bordeaux : Produces distinctive intense berry graham cracker nose, jammy, rich, very smooth complex profile, slightly vinuous. Well suited for higher sugar content musts. French Cabernet, Pinot Noir, Merlot, Petit Syrah, Rioja, Valdepenas.

3277 Assmannhausen Red : Ferments slower than most red wine strains. Enhances vinifera character in French American hybrids. Cold tolerant. Red German Wine, Riesling, Red Varletals, Merlot, Red French American Hybrids.

3347 Eau de Vie - (Water of Life) : A very good choice for alcohol tolerance and stuck fermentations. Produces a very clean dry profile, low ester and other volatile aromatics. 21% alcohol tolerance. Cordials, Grappa, Barley Wine, Eau de Vie, Single Malts.

3623 Mead, Dry : Best choice for dry mead. Used in many award-winning meads. Low foaming with little or no sulfur production. Use additional nutrients for mead making. Mead, Fruit Mead, Herbal Mead, Dry Ciders, Cysers.

3728 Sauternes : Clean aromas with mild fruit and a hint of spice. Complex profile with intense fruit character on the palate. Finishes balanced, soft, and dry with lingering fruit character. For Late Harvest, Dessert and Ice wines.

3766 Cider : Crisp dry fermenting yeast with big, fruity finish. Creates a nice balance for all types of apples, pears and other fruit or fermentables. Allows fruit character to dominate the profile.

3767 Port Wine : Mild toast and vanilla nose. Mild fruit profile with balanced depth and complexity. Very dry finish. Dry red and white wines, add brandy for classic ports. Used for big red wines and high sugar musts.

3783 Rüdisheimer : Produces distinct Riesling character. Rich flavor, creamy, fruity profile with nice dry finish and a hint of Riesling sweetness in the aftertaste. Rhine Wines, Fruity Ciders, Riesling, lce Wine.

3946 Zinfandel : Dominating, strong fermentation characteristics. Alcohol tolerant to 18% (v/v). Ideal for Zinfandel, pinot Noir, Syrah or any high sugar must. Good choice for restarting stuck fermentations.

White Labs Yeasts

White Labs wine yeasts are "pitchable" yeast cultures, meaning they contain sufficient living yeast to inoculate five gallons of must without rehydration or a starter propagation. Because they are fresh, in theory they impart better flavors to the must. Refrigerated, they have a four-to-six-month shelf-life. They should be attemperated to within 10 degrees F. of the must for several hours before "pitching."

WLP715 Champagne : Classic yeast, used to produce champagne, cider, dry meads, dry wines, or to fully attenuate barley wines/ strong ales. Can tolerate alcohol concentrations up to 17% with low flocculation. Neutral. Attenuation greater than 75%. Optimum fermentation temperature range is 70-75° F.

WLP720 Sweet Mead/Wine : A wine yeast strain that is less attenuative than WLP715, leaving some residual sweetness. Slightly fruity and will tolerate alcohol concentrations up to 15% with low floccuation. A good choice for sweet mead and cider, as well as Blush wines, Gewurztraminer, and Riesling. Attenuation less than 75%. Optimum fermentation temperature is 70-75° F.

WLP730 Chardonnay White Wine : This is a good yeast for dry white wines. Slight ester production, low sulfur dioxide production. Enhances varietal character. This is a good choice for all white and blush wines, including Chablis, Chenin Blanc, Semillon, and Sauvignon Blanc. Fermentation speed is moderate, alcohol tolerance is 14%, floccuation is low. Attenuation is greater than 80% at the optimum fermentation temperature of 50-90° F.

WLP740 Merlot Red Wine : Neutral, low fusel alcohol production. Will ferment to dryness, alcohol tolerance to 18%. This is a vigorous fermenter well suited for Cabernet, Shiraz, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, and Semillon. Attenuation is greater than 80% with low flocculation. Optimum fermentation temperature is 60-90° F.

WLP760 Cabernet Red Wine : High temperature tolerance, moderate fermentation speed, and alcohol tolerance to 16% make this a good choice when temperature cannot be rigorously controlled. Excellent for full bodied red wines, ester production complements flavor. WLP760 is also suitable for Merlot, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc. Attenuation is greater than 80% and flocculation is low. Optimum fermentation temperature is 60-90° F.

WLP775 English Cider : This is a classic cider yeast that ferments dry but retains flavor from apples. Sulfur is produced during fermentation, but will disappear in the first two weeks of aging. This yeast can also be used for wine and high gravity beers. Attenuationis less than 80%, flocculation is medium, and optimum fermentation temperature is 68-75¦ F.

Kitzinger's Dry Yeasts

Kitzinger's dry yeasts are active dry yeast (ADY) cultures sold in 0.33 lb (150 grams) units. This is a convenient size if you are making lots of wine. If not, the yeast may be sealed and stored in the refrigerator until needed again, but once opened will deteriorate in time. Still, their price is very reasonable and a considerable value.

As with all yeast cultures, dry or liquid, the yeast should be taken out of the refrigerator (where ALL yeast should be stored), allowed to warm up to room temperature, and then mixed into a starter solution a day or so before being pitched.

The complete line of Kitzinger's Dry Yeasts can be obtained from Rocky Top Homebrew Supplies of Olympia, Washington.

Kitzinger's yeast All Purpose :

Kitzinger's Yeast Assmannshausen :

Kitzinger's Yeast Beaujolais :

Kitzinger's Yeast Bordeaux :

Kitzinger's Yeast Burgundy :

Kitzinger's Yeast Chablis :

Kitzinger's Yeast Champagne :

Kitzinger's Yeast Chianti :

Kitzinger's Yeast Cold Fermentation :

Kitzinger's Yeast Liebfraumilch :

Kitzinger's Yeast Madeira :

Kitzinger's Yeast Muscat :

Kitzinger's Yeast Pinot Noir :

Kitzinger's Yeast Port :

Kitzinger's Yeast Riesling :

Kitzinger's Yeast Rosé :

Kitzinger's Yeast Sauternes :

Kitzinger's Yeast Sauvignon :

Kitzinger's Yeast Sherry :

Kitzinger's Yeast Tokay :

Vierka Dry Yeasts

Vierka dry yeasts are a little different than most other dry yeasts. These are not active dry yeast (ADY) cultures like Red Star or Lalvin wine yeasts, but rather are cultures dried on a media of dried grape skins, seeds and pulp. They require a different activation approach and a little more time to activate, but they do the job and offer a few yeasts that are difficult to find elsewhere.

Add 1/2 teaspoon sugar and a pinch of yeast nutrient into 1/2 cup of warm water (104 degrees F. is perfect) and stir until dissolved. Combine this water and the dried yeast culture and supporting media into a sanitized jar and stir. Cover with a napkin secured by a rubber band and set it aside in a warm (but not hot) place. It will take up to two full days (and perhaps as long as four) to activate Vierka yeast and get a healthy starter colony going. To condition the starter for your must, add 1/4 cup of must from your primary and stir. Recover the jar and allow 12 hours for the conditioned starter to get going well. Add this directly to your must, but do not stir. Ideally, the starter should lay at or near the surface of the must for several hours where oxygen is readily available to the yeast. When the must shows clear signs of fermentation, stir it shallowly to mix the yeast into the upper layer of must. When fermentation is vigorous, stir deeply.

The complete line of Vierka yeasts can be obtained from Homebrew Adventures of Charlotte, NC.

Vierka Burgundy :

Vierka Chablis :

Vierka Champagne :

Vierka Johannis Riesling :

Vierka Liebfraumilch :

Vierka Mead :

Vierka Port :

Vierka Sauterne :

Vierka Sherry :

Vierka Tokay :

Vierka Cold Fermentation :

Vierka Liquid Yeasts

Vierka liquid yeasts are far more convenient than Vierka dry yeasts. Cultures are obtained from vintage crops as specified. Each bottle contains enough culture to inoculate 10 gallons of must or juice.

The complete line of Vierka liquid yeasts can be obtained from several sources, including the E.C. Kraus Catalog, Independence, MO.

Vierka Bordeaux :

Vierka Burgundy :

Vierka Champagne :

Vierka Liebfraumilch :

Vierka Mead :

Vierka Port :

Vierka Rhine :

Vierka Sauterne :

Vierka Sherry :

Vierka Tokay :

J. Laffort Active Dry Yeasts

J. Laffort active dry yeast (ADY) cultures are only available in 500 mg quantities. These amounts are impractical for the average home winemaker, but Laffort strains are quality yeasts and one should consider them. It is often feasible for a winemaking club's members to pool their resources and purchase a quantity, then divide it up among themselves. Alternatively, one could check the commercial wineries in their area and determine whether they would sell a small quantity of yeast if they happen to be using one of these. These yeasts can be ordered directly from Scott Laboratories at 707-765-6666, outside California at 1-800-821-7254, or by fax at 707-765-6674.

Zymaflore VL1 : This strain was isolated in Bordeaux for its enhancement of natural varietal aromas. Excellent organoleptic results have been obtained due to the beta-glucosidase activity on bound turpenes found in varieties such as Muscat, Chardonnay, Semillion, and Viognier. Low decarboxylase activity results in low production of vinyl-phenols and helps yield wines with finesse and elegance. Given sufficient nutrients, its relatively slow fermentation rate will ferment to dryness with 14-15% alcohol tolerance and a minimum of H2S, SO2 and volatile acid production.

Zymaflore VL3 : This strain was isolated in Bordeaux following fundamental research done on enhancing varietal character and aroma in Sauvignon Blanc. The research led to the identification of certain aroma precursors which yeast could act upon to reveal specific aromas. Subsequent experimentation has found this to be true of other varieties, such as Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Pinot Blanc, and most other white wines. The VL3 is adapted to aging on the lees and produces very low levels of volatile acidity and SO2. Alcohol tolerance is 13-15%.

Zymaflore ST : This is a Sauternes strain developed at the Bordeaux Institute of Oenology. It was selected for the production of sweet wines with up to 15% alcohol by volume. A high sensitivity to SO2 helps stop the fermentation with a minimal amount of SO2 addition, reducing the potential for complex sulfur compounds formation.

Zymaflore F10 : This strain is tailored for the production of full-bodied, well-rounded red wines with good structure. It allows for full expression of varietal character and terroir with improved extraction of polysaccharides and anthocyanins. It is alcohol tolerant to 13-15% and is recommended for use in wines produced for aging, such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, and Syrah.

Zymaflore F15) : This strain was selected in Bordeaux for its ability to produce round, aromatic and structured red wines. Particularly notable is this strain’s high production of glycerol. It is particularly suitable for grapes coming from young vines or in wines that lack phenolic structure and is alcohol tolerant to 15%.

Actiflore F5 : This strain was selected by the Laffort research laboratory (SARCO) for its good implantation and ability to produce wines with more complexity and fruity character. It is particularly good for red wines with average aging potential or to be drunk fairly young. This is a quick starting fermenter with low production of sulfated compounds and a fermentation potential of up to 14.5% alcohol. It can also be used with good results on white and rosé wines and is particularly good with Pinot Noir.

Actiflore BJL : This strain was isolated in the Beaujolais area for its ability to produce fresh, up front fruit in wines in the "primeur" style, specifically Gamay, Zinfandel and Merlot. It is a quick fermenter with good color extractionand a low production of H2S and volatile acids. It enhances berry-fruity flavors and is MLF tolerant.

Actiflore C (Strain F33) : This strain was selected particularly for its production of colloidal polysaccharides which creates wines with superior balance. It has excellent fermentation characteristics, including good kinetics, low nitrogen requirement, resistance to heat shock, and alcohol tolerance up to 15%. It is a general purpose yeast suitable for the production of whites, rosés and reds.

Unican Active Dry Yeasts

Unican active dry yeast (ADY) cultures are difficult to find in the United States, but are available in the United Kingdom. Unican yeasts can be ordered on-line from the HomeBrewShop or The Home Brew Shop.

Unican Yeast - All Purpose :

Unican Yeast - Burgundy :

Unican Yeast - Hock :

Unican Yeast - Port :

Unican Yeast - Sauterne :

Unican Yeast - Sherry :

Unican Yeast - Cold Fermentation :

Unican Yeast - All Purpose (50g Drum) :

Gervin Active Dry Yeasts

Gervin active dry yeast (ADY) cultures are difficult to find in the United States, but are available in the United Kingdom. Like Unican yeasts, Gervin yeasts can also be ordered on-line from the HomeBrewShop in Thornton-Cleveleys, Lancashire, UK, or from The Home Brew Shop in Farnborough, Hants, UK.

Gervin Yeast - No. 1 : Green Label, General purpose Bordeaux (Narbonne) strain for both white and red wines. It starts quickly, works at temperatures down to 15c and settles well at the end of the fermentation period. High tolerance to sulfur dioxide (up to 100 ppm).

Gervin Yeast - No. 2 : Red Label, Full bodied red table Burgundy/Champagne (Monrachet). Vigorous yeast giving a rapid start-to-finish to fermentation. Excellent for all red table wines, it is especially recommended for making wines from autumn fruits such as blackberries, elderberries and sloes. It will ferment at temperatures down to 15° c. Beware of foam.

Gervin Yeast - No. 3 : Yellow Label, Sparkling, dessert, dry white table Champagne. This wine is designed to produce sparkling wines, so it tolerates higher levels of alcohol then most yeasts and is ideal for high alcohol dessert wines. It is excellent for restarting stuck fermentations and will ferment well from 12-30° c.

Gervin Yeast - No. 6 : Orange Label, High alcohol, sparkling, restarter for stuck fermentations.

Gervin Yeast - No. 5 : White Label, Quality white table wines. This French yeast is particularly good for making quality white fruit table wines. It forms little foam and ferments well at low temperatures (8-15° c), thus ensuring that the wines develop excellent bouquets.

Gervin Yeast - Varietal A : Quality red table Bordeaux SF strain. This French yeast was selected to compliment and enhance the characteristics of the grapes. Used for the production of red Bordeaux (Claret) wines, it ferments well at 18-35° c.

Gervin Yeast - Varietal B : Quality white table Rhine strain. This is another high quality aromatic yeast intended for the production of wines with a young fruity bouquet. Ferments down to 10° c.

Gervin Yeast - Varietal C : Champagne, sparkling, dessert wine, Prise de Mousse strain EC1118. This yeast is said to be involved in production of 70% of all Champagne. It has similar characteristics to No.3 yeast, but is considerd hardier by many professional winemakers. Recommended for making sparkling wines and for restarting stuck fermentations. Capable of producing alcohol up to 18.5%.

Gervin Yeast - Varietal D : Fruit wines from concentrates, Narbonne strain 71B. This yeast has two inviting characteristics. First, it produces an exceptionally fine bouquet. Second, it can metabolise up to 35% of any malic acid present in the must, which makes this a superb yeast for many fruit wines.

Gervin Yeast - Varietal E : Wine yeast.

Gervin Yeast - High Active Wine Yeast :

SB Active Dry Yeasts

SB yeasts are active dry yeast (ADY) cultures like Red Star or Lalvin wine yeasts. While not readily available in the United States, they are available on-line from The Home Brew Shop of Farnborough, Hants, UK.

SB 1 Bordeaux : For red or white table wines. Rapid starting with good resistance to sulfur dioxide. Temperature range 18-23° c.

SB 2 Burgundy : For full bodied red wines. Good tolerance to alcohol and sulfur dioxide. Easy starting properties and a vigorous fermenter. Temperature range 18-23° c.

SB 3 High Alcohol : A tolerant strain specifically suited to the production of dessert wines like port or sherry or typical fruit wines. Temperature range 18-23° c.

SB 4 Rosé : A strain of Bordeaux yeast particularly suited to the making of Rosé table wines, quick to start and is clean and free from excessive froth. Temperature range 18-23° c.

SB 5 Hock : A high quality yeast for white table wines, very good for fermenting at low temperatures. Temperature range 15-20° c.

SB 6 NU Start : A special wine yeast with the ability to re-start stuck musts after partial fermentation. For best results, activate before adding to must. Sachet packaged for 1 to 3 gallons. Temperature range 16-23° c.

SB 7 Champagne : A style of S. Bayanus which has a good fallout rate and good re-ferment properties. Temperature range 15-25° c.

SB 8 Sauterne : A Bordeaux strain suited to the production of Sauterne type wines with a high starting sugar content. Temperature range 18-23° c.

SB 9 Chablis : A style highly suited to production of full-bodied dry white wines. Resistant to sulphur dioxide and tolerant to temperature range 18-23° c.

SB 10 General Purpose : Suitable for the production of non-specific wines, like vegetable, fruit, flower and ginger beer. Temperature range 18-23° c.

SB 23 Super Yeast : A superior general purpose yeast which is fast fermenting and with a very high alcohol tolerance. Temperature range 15-20° c.

Miscellaneous Other Wine Yeasts

These yeasts are available on-line piecemeal at one or more of the following sites: Art of Brewing, Kingston, Surrey, UK; The Home Brew Shop in Farnborough, Hants, UK; Flagon & Cask, Bulwell, Nottingham, UK; HomeBrewShop, Thornton-Cleveleys, Lancashire, UK; The Beer Essentials, Lakewood, WA, USA.

Condessa French Wine Yeast : Sachets available.

Condessa French Champagne : Sachets available.

CWE Formula 67 Yeast : Various quantities available.

CWE High Alcohol Yeast : Sachets available.

Favourite All Purpose Yeast : Sachets available.

Favourite High Active / Restart Yeast : Sachets available.

Formula 1 Superyeast : 100 gr Sachets available

Harris VinKwik Yeast : Sachets available.

Kitzinger Mead : Sachets available.

Ritchie Premier Crus Sherry Yeast : Sachets available.

Solvino Reviver Yeast Sachets available.

Solvino High Alcohol Yeast Sachets available.

Youngs High Active Yeast : Various quantities available.

Malo-Lactic Cultures

Lalvin X-3 MLC (MLC 10) : A blend of four strains of Leoconostoc oenos, including PSU-1, Peynaud, Radler 3, and Petaluma Isolate. It may be used with both reds and whites, may be introduced early or late, and is a living--not dried--culture. It is fairly expensive (but the most economical ML culture), quantified for large batches (200-800 gallons), and not generally sold for home use. The best bet is to find a winery that uses it and beg them to sell you a very small amount. It must be frozen or refrigerated immediately until used.

Kitzinger Malo-Lactic Culture : I have very little information on this culture, except that it is Leuconostoc oenos and is fairly expensive (I have seen it listed as high as $9.50 for a 5-gallon treatment).

Wyeast 4007 Malo-Lactic Culture : Malo-lactic culture blend isolated from western Oregon wineries. Includes strains Ey2d and Er1a. Excellent for high acid wines and low pH. Can be added to juice any time after the onset of yeast fermentation when sulfur dioxide is less than 15 ppm. This product retails in the $4-5 range for a 5-gallon treatment, but I have seen it listed as high as $7.50.