What is 1300°C?: Heatwork Chart

Kiln Color Cone °F °C Notes
white 14 2552° 1400° Porcelain.
bright yellow 10 2372° 1300° High-fire/Stoneware: cone 8-10
Above 1250°C the glow in the kiln is intense, making it difficult to see inside the kiln.
  6 2192° 1200° Mid-fire pottery: cone 2-7
yellow 03 2012° 1100°

Low-fire/Earthenware: cone 08-1

yellow- orange 06 1832° 1000° Minimum temperature for oxidising atmosphere inside kiln.
Silver melts at 960°C.
orange 010 1652° 900° Clay particles beginning to vitrify.
Bisque is between 900°C and 1000°C.
bright cherry red 015 1472° 800° The glowing hot coals of a campfire reach this temperature.
Enamel kilns are fired to between 750°C and 850°C.
cherry red 018 1292° 700° Between 700°C and 800°C the substances of carbon and sulphur are burned off, giving a strong smell.
dull red   1112° 600° A dull red color is visible.
color visible   932° 500° At 573°C, a reaction called quartz inversion in both heating and cooling stages takes place.


  752° 400° Although the pots are dry to touch when put in the kiln, trapped in the clay is chemically combined water, and this is driven off between 350-500°C


  572° 300° Kitchen stoves only get this hot.

  392° 200° Vegetable matter, such as grass or paper, is burned off as smoke.
dark   212° 100° Water boils and vaporises into steam.


To convert °C to °F, multiply by 1.8 and add 32
eg. 100 x 1.8 = 180 + 32 = 212
To convert °F to °C, deduct 32 and divide by 1.8
eg. 212 - 32 = 180 / 1.8 = 100.

A Cone is a stick made of ceramic mixtures which will bend at a certain known temperature.
In the chart above the cone numbers do not match exactly the temperatures given. They are guides to temperature ranges only.

Chart with thanks to Linda Mosley, and A.M.Smithson. (modified)

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