CHRONOLOGIE DO 1914
1839 Treaty of London. Despite occuring some 75 years earlier, this treaty
was actually used as the excuse by Britain
for entering the war. In the original treaty, the five great powers (including Britain)
as an 'independent and perpetually neutral state.'
Franco-Prussian War. The defeat of France
by the Prussian state was deeply humiliating to the French. The fact that Prussia
took the French regions of Alsace
and Lorraine as reparations was
even more humiliating. The Prussians declared themselves to be the head of a
German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace
The 1879 Dual Alliance
Only fifteen years earlier, Germany
and Austria had
been at war with each other. In 1879, Bismarck
had improved relations so much that they could enter into an alliance with one
The 1882 Triple
was annoyed with the French annexation of Tunisia.
As Tunisia was
the closest African territory to the mainland of Italy,
Italy had had
plans to colonise Tunisia
itself. It therefore joined with Germany
as a form of protest.
The 1882 Egypt
Riots in Alexandria lead to an
Anglo-French force being sent to Egypt.
At the last moment, the French pull back from the mission. The British take
charge in Egypt
The 1884 Berlin
Conference Bismarck used this
conference to discuss colonial affairs to maintain rivarly between France
and Britain. Germany
also takes colonies of its own in Africa.
The 1887 Russian
Reinsurance Treaty Bismarck
created this Treaty to stop the Russians being worried by the strength of the
is sacked Two years after the Kaiser came to power, Bismarck
and Wilhelm clash over their respective styles. Bismarck
Reinsurance Treaty lapses Germany's
new Chancellor Caprivi drops the agreement Germany
had with Russia.
Franco-Russian Alliance France
agree to help one another against the powerful Triple Alliance
The 1896 Adowa
The Italian army was humiliatingly defeated by an Ethiopian army at the battle
The 1898 Fashoda
came close to war when British troops in Sudan
discovered that a French force was claiming the Sudan
1899 - 1902 Boer
War Fought by the British against the Boers, this war demonstrated how
alone Britain had
become. No European power was willing to help the British in any way.
Russo-Japanese War Russia
was humiliated by defeat on the land and on the sea by the relatively unknown
power of Japan.
Riots and strikes in Russia
were one other result of this humiliation.
Cordiale The Francophile King Edward VII visited France
and helped pave the way for a warming of relations between France
Moroccan Crisis Rioting in Casablance killed some Europeans. When the
French respond to these attacks by using French soldiers, Wilhelm demands that
if France takes
Morocco as a
should also receive a similar sized colony.
managed to get Britain
and Russia to
bury their differences with one another - most notably over India.
to back France's
claim to Morocco,
agrees to back Britain's
claim to Egypt.
1911 - Libya
Italy invaded Libya
and took it from the Ottomans.
1911 - Second
Moroccan Crisis The Germans sent a small gunboat, the Panther, to the small
Moroccan port of Agadir
to protect its citizens which it said were still being attacked. They are also
concerned about French troop deployments in the region. The French asked for
British support which was received. The Germans asked for compensation for
leaving. No compensation was granted.
1912 - First
Balkan War Greece,
to try and gain territory and independence.
1913 - Second
Balkan War The Balkan powers fell out over their gains from Turkey.
Turkey and Romania
fight against Bulgaria
who they thought had been too greedy.
Rivalry. The world view of economics at this time thought that the industrial
countries needed colonies to gain raw materials for its industries and then to
act as markets to sell them in. They thought that it was good to have lots of
colonies producing a variety of raw materials.
Arms Race As the European nations had industrialised so much in the
late nineteenth century, it was becoming easier to produce the weapons of war.
Troops could be armed with better rifles and more modern machine guns. Ships
were becoming larger and more powerful. The British Dreadnought Battleship
built in 1906 redefined the power of the Navy.
Education and the Press Many European nations had
begun to educate their people during the nineteenth century. However, this
education was very limited. It usually concerned reading, writing, some
mathematics and some religion. It meant that many working class people could
now read the popular tabloid newspapers that were being produced. Often, these
newspapers were fiercely patriotic and did little to explain different points
Religion Most established churches were happy to say that God was on
their side. The clergy were often very patriotic themselves and thought that it
was fine to fight against those who were not following the true Christian path.
Patriotism This was a period when very few ideas reached people
from other countries, cultures and points of view. Most of the press was owned
by the elite of the same nationality. This was also the era of Social Darwinism
when it was common to think that weak nations would lose out to stronger
The Balkans The Balkans was a real problem area. There had been so
many invasions, empires and wars in the area that it was difficult to figure
out what belonged to what group. In a period of increasing national awareness,
the fragmented nature of the Balkans was becoming a more and more serious
problem. Most diplomats agreed that there was little chance of pleasing all the
peoples of the Balkans.