SumerianGrammar-4.htm
Tlazoltotl
Silver Lion Head from Ur

Sumerian Grammar

from the perspective of
its Proto-Language origin

(Part Four)

by Patrick C. Ryan

currently under construction Copyright 1998 Patrick C. Ryan (7/24/99)






(IE entries in parentheses are keywords in Pokorny 1959)
entries marked by ** have been reconstructed by the author
[S = Sumerian; ES = Emesal dialect; B = Basque;
IE = Indo-European; E = Egyptian; A = Arabic;
numbers after Sumerian entries are
sign or combination-sign numbers in Jaritz 1967;
numbers after Basque entries are
entry numbers in the PL-IE-Basque essay at this website]
x after a Sumerian entry indicates a reading for a sign by the author which has not (yet) been acknowledged by Sumerologists; and, as a consequence, has no official number assigned

Ur Nammu, Third Dynasty  of  Ur






(continued in Part Five)







continue to

Sumerian Grammar (Part Five)













go to first 35+ root cognates (1-35) ?






PL MORPHOLOGICAL ELEMENTS IN SUMERIAN

(not included under lexical headings)

press here to see








For an INDEX (by entry number) of the Proto-Language, Indo-European, and Sumerian words discussed in these essays, press here.







to investigate these phonological correspondences in detail, see the

TABLE OF PL / IE / SUMERIAN CORRESPONDENCES








NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS





For an explanation of the Proto-Language and Indo-European notational conventions used in these essays, press here.










Combinatory Modifications

for modifications of the vowels and consonants in combination, see the

Table of Modifications






Summary of Phonological Changes

from Proto-Language to Sumerian






PROTO-LANGUAGE MONOSYLLABLES

In order for readers to judge the semantic plausibility of the analysis of Proto-Language (PL) compounds suggested here, I am including access to a table of Proto-Language monosyllables and the meanings I have provisionally assigned.

Most assignments can be exhaustively supported by data from actually attested forms but a few animates are very doubtful; and this list does not represent the "final" solution of these questions, which will only be approached when other scholars assist in refining it.

Patrick C. Ryan

Summer 1998




SUMERIAN BIBLIOGRAPHY


ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY





the latest revision of this document can be found at
HTTP://WWW.GEOCITIES.COM/Athens/Forum/2803/SumerianGrammar-4.htm

Patrick C. Ryan * 9115 West 34th Street - Little Rock, AR 72204-4441 * (501)227-9947
PROTO-LANGUAGE@email.msn.com










1. The verbal phrase may consist of a single Verb: Ea (i.e. ** -a; PL HHA-E, 'water-like=semen'), '(he) who procreates', a Sumerian epithet of En-ki; ti(l)-la, 'who resides' (Thomsen 1984: 262); Noun + Verb: DIG[~]2IREn.lil2-le g[~]ar-ra, 'whom En-lil installed'; and Nominal Phrase + Verb: An-gin7 dim2-ma, 'who was fashioned like An' (Thomsen 1984: 262).

However, the verbal phrase may also dispense with the -a-formant: sa(n)g[~]3 zig3, 'who lifted the head' (Thomsen 1984: 258); this shows that the addition of -a is stylistic.

2. Seen in Indo-European *k[^]e, 'that', and *kom (for **k[^]om, 'beside'.