4. Illicit Intercourse
6. Limb of a Living Creature
The life of a human being, formed in G_d's image, is sacred.
The following verse is a reference to the prohibition against murder. G_d explicitly commands Noah
(Genesis 9:6), "If one sheds the blood of the man (HaAdam), by man shall his own blood be shed."
Human beings are not sexual objects, nor is pleasure the ultimate goal of life.
The verse below refers to sexual misconduct or adultery, as the prophet Jeremiah (3:1) says, "Saying (laymor), if a man divorces his wife..."
The following is an implicit reference to the prohibition against theft.
It shows that permission is needed to take something that is not explicitly yours. "You shall not steal; you shall not deal deceitfully or falsely with one another" (Leviticus 19:11).
Mankind is commanded to establish courts of justice and a just social order to enforce the first six laws and enact any other useful laws or customs.
Eating the flesh of a living animal is forbidden:
This teaches us to be sensitive to cruelty to animals. (This was commanded to Noah for the first time along with the permission of eating meat. The negative laws were enforced at the Garden of Eden.)
The following verse implies that there are things which may not be eaten (the limbs of a live animal): "You must not, however, eat flesh with its life- blood in it." (Genesis 9:4)
Establish Courts of Justice:
1. Against entertaining the thought that there exists a deity except the Lord;
2. Against making any graven image (and against having anyone else make one for us);
3. Against making idols for use by others;
4. Against making any forbidden statues (even when they are for ornamental purposes) [editors note: according to one rabbinic source only a three dimensional image used within the context of worship is classed as an idol] ;
5. Against bowing to any idol (and not to sacrifice nor to pour libation nor to burn incense before any idol, even where it is not the customary manner of worship to the particular idol);
6. Against worshipping idols in any of their customary manners of worship;
7. Against causing our children to pass (through the fire) in the worship of Molech [editor: Molech is the god of the ammonites whose worship included the sacrifice of children by fire - see Lev chp 18 & 20];
8. Against practicing Ov;
9. Against the practice of Yiddoni [Sorcerer, Soothsayer, Magician]; and
10. Against turning to idolatry (in word, in thought, in deed, or by any observance that may draw us to its worship). [Editors Note: We need translations/meanings for Ov.]
1. Against (a man) having union with his mother;[Note: There is some dispute as to what the correct wording it for (8) and (9), as it seems to be covered by (7).
2. Against (a man) having union with his sister;
3. Against (a man) having union with the wife of his father;
4. Against (a man) having union with another man's wife;
5. Against (a man) copulating with a beast;
6. Against a woman copulating with a beast;
7. Against (a man) lying carnally with a male;
8. Against (a man) lying carnally with his father;
9. Against (a man) lying carnally with his father's brother; and
10. Against engaging in erotic conduct that may lead to a prohibited union.
1. Against stealing;
2. Against committing robbery
3. Against shifting a landmark;
4. Against cheating;
5. Against repudiating a claim of money owed;
6. Against overcharging;
7. Against coveting;
8. Against desiring;
9. A labourer shall be allowed to eat of the fruits among which he works (under certain conditions);
10. Against a labourer eating of such fruit (when certain conditions are not met);
11. Against a labourer taking of such fruit home;
12. Against kidnapping;
13. Against the use of false weights and measures; Against the possession of false weights and measures;
14. That one shall be exact in the use of weights and measures; and
15. That the robber shall return (or pay for) the stolen object.
1. Against eating a limb severed from a living animal, beast, or fowl; and
2. Against eating the flesh of any animal which was torn by a wild beast ... which, in part, prohibits the eating of such flesh as was torn off an animal while it was still alive.
1. To appoint judges and officers in each and every community;
2. To treat the litigants equally before the law;
3. To inquire diligently into the testimony of a witness;
4. Against the wanton miscarriage of justice by the court;
5. Against the judge accepting a bribe or gift from a litigant;
6. Against the judge showing marks of honour to but one litigant;
7. Against the judge acting in fear of a litigant's threats;
8. Against the judge, out of compassion, favouring a poor litigant;
9. Against the judge discriminating against the litigant because he is a sinner;
10. Against the judge, out of softness, putting aside the penalty of a mauler or killer;
11. Against the judge discriminating against a stranger or an orphan;
12. Against the judge hearing one litigant in the absence of the other;
13. Against appointing a judge who lacks knowledge of the Law;
14. Against the court killing an innocent man;
15. Against incrimination by circumstantial evidence;
16. Against punishing for a crime committed under duress;
17. That the court is to administer the death penalty by the sword;
18. Against anyone taking the law into his own hands to kill the perpetrator of a capital crime
(this point is disagreed upon by different writers: "The Noahites are not restricted in this way but may judge singly and at once.")
19. To testify in court; Against testifying falsely.