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        Modern World Bio Technology
There are also applications of biotechnology that do not use living organisms. Examples are DNA microarrays used in genetics and radioactive tracers used in medicine. Red biotechnology is applied to medical processes. Some examples are the designing of organisms to produce antibiotics, and the engineering of genetic cures.

         Radioactive used in biotech
White biotechnology, also known as grey biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical. White biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to produce industrial goods. Agricultural biotechnology is biotechnology applied to agricultural processes. An example is the designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environmental conditions or in the presence of certain agricultural chemicals. One hope is that green biotechnology might produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture. An example of this is the engineering of a plant to express a pesticide, thereby eliminating the need for external application of pesticides. An example of this would be Bt corn.

         Red & White Biotechnology
Whether or not green biotechnology products such as this are ultimately more environmentally friendly is a topic of considerable debate. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques. The field is also often referred to as computational biology. It plays a key role in various areas, such as functional genomics, structural genomics, and proteomics, and forms a key component in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector. The term blue biotechnology has also been used to describe the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare. Improved yield from crops. Using the techniques of modern biotechnology, one or two genes may be transferred to a highly developed crop variety to impart a new character that would increase its yield.However, while increase in crop yield is the most obvious application of modern biotechnology in agriculture, it is also the most difficult one. Current genetic engineering techniques work best for effects that are controlled by a single gene. Many of the genetic characteristics associated with yield are controlled by a large number of genes, each of which has a minimal effect on the overall yield.There is, therefore, much scientific work to be done in this area. Reduced vulnerability of crops to environmental stresses.

         Bio In Crops Field
Biotechnologists are studying plants that can cope with these extreme conditions in the hope of finding the genes that enable them to do so and eventually transferring these genes to the more desirable crops. One of the latest developments is the identification of a plant gene, , from thale cress, a tiny weed that is often used for plant research because it is very easy to grow and its genetic code is well mapped out. When this gene was inserted into tomato and tobacco cells, the cells were able to withstand environmental stresses like salt, drought, cold and heat, far more than ordinary cells. If these preliminary results prove successful in larger trials, then genes can help in engineering crops that can better withstand harsh environments. Researchers have also created transgenic rice plants that are resistant to rice yellow mottle virus. In Africa, this virus destroys majority of the rice crops and makes the surviving plants more susceptible to fungal infections.

Later other cultures produced the process of Lactic acid fermentation which allowed the fermentation and preservation of other forms of food. Fermentation was also used in this time period to produce leavened bread. Although the process of fermentation was not fully understood until Louis Pasteurís work in , it is still the first use of biotechnology to convert a food source into another form. Combinations of plants and other organisms were used as medications in many early civilizations. Since as early as people began to use disabled or minute amounts of infectious agents to immunize themselves against infections. These and similar processes have been refined in modern medicine and have lead to many developments such as antibiotics, vaccines, and other methods of fighting sickness. A more recent field in biotechnology is that of genetic engineering. Genetic Engineering has opened up many new fields of biotechnology and allowed the modification of plants, animals, and even humans on a molecular level. The special Centre of Biotechnology was established in the year under joint sponsorship of the UGC and the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India. Realizing the importance of availability of trained manpower in the area of Biotechnology in the country a Master of Science programme in Biotechnology was started at the Centre in JNU in the same year with funding from the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India. This programme aimed at generating skilled manpower in different areas of biotechnology which would not only feed the Biotechnology related industries but also would provide trained and motivated persons required by other institutions.

Traditionally, a fermentation process has been used to produce an insecticidal spray from these bacteria. In this form, the Bt toxin occurs as an inactive protoxin, which requires digestion by an insect to be effective. There are several Bt toxins and each one is specific to certain target insects. Crop plants have now been engineered to contain and express the genes for Bt toxin, which they produce in its active form. When a susceptible insect ingests the transgenic crop cultivar expressing the Bt protein, it stops feeding and soon thereafter dies as a result of the Bt toxin binding to its gut wall. Bt corn is now commercially available in a number of countries to control corn borer a lepidopteran insect, which is otherwise controlled by spraying a more difficult process. Crops have also been genetically engineered to acquire tolerance to broad-spectrum herbicide.

CHROMOSOME WALKING A technique used to create a clone contig by identifying overlapping fragments of cloned DNA. 1