Reference Site Map
For an excellent source on writing footnotes and endnotes using MLA style, please go to the official:
Information relating to MLA style as presented here has been based mainly on this authoritative publication from the Modern Language Association of America.
Note: Detailed Footnotes and Endnotes are needed only for sources cited for the first time. When citing the same work more than once, it is no longer fashionable to use ibid. or op. cit.; the current trend is to use the short title or the author's last name instead. Indent the first line of a Footnote or Endnote entry. Second and subsequent lines are not indented. Double space between lines. Treat each entry as one statement or sentence. Put a period at the end of each entry. For further details and more samples, see How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes, Footnotes - Sample Page, and Endnotes - Sample Page.
1. Book with one author or editor
2. Book with two authors or editors
3. Book with three or more authors or editors
4. Book with no author or editor stated
5. Book that has been translated
6. Article in a collection by several authors, with one or more editors
7. Article from an encyclopedia with no author stated
8. Article from an encyclopedia with one author
9. Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with no author stated
10. Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with one or more authors
11. Pamphlet or brochure with no author stated
12. Book, movie, film, product, or software review
13. Government document
15. Film or video recording
16. Audio recording
17. Televisioin or radio
18. Computer software or CD-ROM
20. Reference to Shakespeare
21. Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts
22. Citations for a single work throughout essay
23. Sources used more than once - See also Use of ibid and op. cit.
1 Brian Mulroney, Memoirs: 1939-1993 (Toronto: McClelland,
2007) 26. 1 Jerry White, ed. Death and Taxes: Beating One of the Two Certainties in Life (Toronto: Warwick, 1998) 7-8.
2 Alex Goldfarb and Marina Litvinenko, Death of a Dissident:
The Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko and the Return of the RGB
(New York: Free Press, 2007) 125. 2 Andrew Cohen and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau's Shadow: The Life and Legacy of Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Toronto: Random, 1998) 391.
3 Jack Canfield, et al., Chicken Soup for the Kid's Soul: 101 Stories of Courage, Hope and Laughter (Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 1998) 68. 3 Mans O. Larsson, et al., eds. Let's Go: Germany 1998 (New York: St. Martin's, 1998) 96-98.
4 The 1990 Charlton Coin Guide, 29th ed. (Toronto: Charlton, 1989) 39.
4 Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step, (Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001) 235.
5 Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, trans. M. Moyaart-Doubleday (Toronto: Bantam, 1993) 95.
6 Carmen DaSilva, "Life Insurance as a Tool for Estate Planning," Death and Taxes: Beating One of the Two Certainties in Life, ed. Jerry White (Toronto: Warwick, 1998) 57-71.
6 Maryann G. Valiulis, "Power, Gender and Identity in the Irish Free State," Irish Women's Voices Past and Present, ed. Joan Hoff and Moureen Coulter (Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, 1995) 118.
7 "Malcolm X," Encyclopedia of Social Issues, 1997 ed.
8 Lawrence A. Presley, "DNA Fingerprinting," World Book Encyclopedia, 2000 ed.
Click here to see Abbreviations of Months of the Year
9 "25 Cars Stolen from Police Force," Times [London]
25 Jan. 2008: 29.
9 "Lighting Up the World: A Canadian's Obsession Has Helped Thousands," Maclean's 4 Nov. 2002: 42-43.
9 "Man Who Shot Cat Must Work with Animals," Buffalo News 13 Jan. 2007: A8.
10 Bob Koslow, "More Owners Losing Homes: Foreclosures Jump 82 Percent in Dec.,"
Daytona Beach News-Journal 15 Jan. 2009: 1A+.
10 Charles Bremner, Adam Sage, and Marie Tourres, "The 'Lowly, Fragile'
Employee Behind World's Biggest Scam," Times [London] 25 Jan. 2008: 2.
10 Graeme Samuel, "Bank Robbers Queue Online," Harold Sun [Victoria] 6 Aug. 2007: 28.
10 Haya El Nasser, "Life on the Great Plains Is Anything But Plain,
Simple," USA Today 13 Aug. 2007: A1+.
10 Kate Moran, "Housing Bust Hits North Shore: Overbuilding, Credit Crisis Are Blamed," Times-Picayune [New Orleans] 16 Nov. 2008: E1-2.
10 Moira Welsh, "Compost Can Create More Contented Cows," Toronto Star 24 Jan. 2009: A10.
10 Paul Waldie, Tara Perkins, and Wendy Stueck, "Fuel Costs Predicted to Soar Past $1.30 in Months," Globe and Mail [Toronto] 4 Jan. 2008: A1+.
10 Peter Prestipino and Mike Phillips, "The ABC's of SEO," Website May 2007: 26+.
10 Rachel Sa, "Bllame Cookie Monster," Sunday Sun [Toronto] 2 Dec. 2007: C7.
10 Robin E. Bell, "The Unquiet Ice," Scientific American Feb. 2008: 60-67.
11 2001 Chevy Tracker: Chevy Trucks (General Motors of Canada, 2000).
11 Fosamax (Kirkland, PQ: Merck Frosst Canada, 2007).
12 Henry Gordon, rev. of China! The Grand Tour, CD-ROM, Hopkins Technology, We Compute Feb. 1998: 15.
12 Katrina Onstad, "Not Too Naughty, Not Too Nice," rev. of The Santa Clause 2, dir. Michael Lembeck, National Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM5.
13 Canada, Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan (Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2000) 12-13.
13 United States, National Council on Disability, Carrying on the Good Fight - Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 - Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures (Washington: GPO, 2000) 6.
14 Hellmut Longin, Personal interview, 1 Feb. 2009.
15 The Pacifier, dir. Adam Shankman, perf. Vin Diesel, DVD,
15 A Simple wish, dir. Michael Ritchie, writ. Jeff Rothberg,
perf. Martin Short and Mara Wilson, VHS, Universal, 1997.
16 Ginger, Solid Ground, Nettwerk, Vancouver, 1994.
17 Larry King Live Autism Story, CNN, 27 Feb. 2008.
17 Abbey Lincoln Sings Her Career, WBGO, Newark, NJ, 4 Mar. 2002.
18 National Parks: The Multimedia Family Guide, CD-ROM, Woodland Hills, CA: Cambrix, 1995.
18 Norton AntiVirus, CD-ROM, Symantec, 2006. 18 QuickTax: Standard Tax Year 2007, CD-ROM, Intuit Canada, 2008.
19 Canada, Indian and Northern Affairs, "Aboriginal Peoples
Survey: From APS I to APS II." Facts from Stats, Corporate Information Management Directorate, Issue No. 15, Mar. 2000, 15 Dec. 2004 <http://www.inac.gc.ca/nr/nwltr/sts/2000-03_e.html>. 19 Christine Delphy, "A War for Afghan Women," keynote address, 3-7 July 2002, Townsville International Women's Conference, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia, 28 July 2006 <http://www.austdvclearinghouse.unsw.edu.au/Conference%20papers/ TIWC/DelphyC.pdf>. 19 James Henretta, et al., "Richard Allen and African-American Identity," America's History, Spring 1997, 18 June 2008 <http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/spring97/allen.html>. 19 "Edsitement," 1 Jan. 2009 <http://edsitement.neh.gov>. 19 Abdullah al-Shiri, "Danish Cartoon Prompts Protest," Sunday
Herald 29 Jan. 2006, 12 Feb. 2006 <http://ww1.sundayherald.com/53793>.
20 Hamlet IV, i, 15-18.
20 Lear sums up his whole tragedy when he says, "I am a man
more sinned against than sinning." (III, ii, 57)
See also: How to Cite the Bible from Henry Buhl Library.
Click here to see Abbreviations of Books of the Bible
An interesting reference was made to the picking of corn on the Sabbath.1
1 Matthew 12:1-8.
1 Mt 12:1-8.
The New Jerusalem Bible: Reader's Edition. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that "Because of its common origin the human race forms a unity, for 'from one ancestor [God] made all nations to inhabit the whole earth.'" 2
2 Catechism of the Catholic Church (New York: Doubleday,
3 Catechism, 360.
4 Catechism, 1499.
Catechism of the Catholic Church. New York: Doubleday, 1994.
5 Pius XII, encyclical, Summi Pontificatus 3. 6 Roman Catechism I, 10, 24.
Stephen King, Carrie (New York: New American, 1974) 40. All subsequent quotations are from this edition.
Sheriff Otis Doyle testified that Miss Snell told him that "Carrie did it. Carrie did it." (198)
1 King 197.
2 King, Fire-Starter 279.
2 King, It 13.