Rizwi S. Faizer Ph.D. McGill
rfaizer@sympatico.ca

 
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<< Pre-Islamic Arabia
   From A to K
Time Line 570 A. D. - 632 A. D.
570-Known as the Year of the Elephant, sees the birth of Muhammad, son of `Abd Allah and Âmina, into the clan of the Banû Hâshim, members of the Quraysh, the ruling tribe of Mecca, and keepers of the Meccan temple, the Ka`ba. He was orphaned at the age of six and raised by an uncle, (Abu Tâlib), to be a trader.
595-Muhammad marries Khadija, a rich widow, and several years his senior, with whom he has 4 daughters. At this time Muhammad comes to be known as al-Amîn 'the trustworthy'.
610-Muhammad receives his first revelation, while meditating in a cave on Mt. Hira outside Mecca, through the Angel Gabriel. The earliest converts include Khadija, his wife; `Ali, his nephew, Abu-Bakr b. Quhâfa, a merchant and very dear friend, and Zayd, his adopted son.
613-First public preaching of Islam takes place. Muhammad invites the people in Mecca to submit to the one God and accept Muhammad as the last of God's prophets. Muhammad wins converts especially among younger members of the less powerful clans and slaves.
615-Emmigration of about 80 Muslims to Abyssinia to find asylum among Christians. Most of them return later to join Muhammad in Medina.
616-Clans unite to boycott the Banû Hâshim for protecting Muhammad.
619-The death of Muhammad's wife, Khadija, is followed soon after by the death of his uncle and protector Abu-Tâlib, who incidentally, never accepted Islam.
620-Muhammad meets some converts from Yathrib who invite him to be their leader in Yathrib (later known as Medina).
622-Muhammad emigrates to Yathrib/Medina. The event is called the hijra, and the Muslim calander begins with this event.
The tribes of the Aws and Khazraj accept Islam and promise to protect the Prophet. They become known as the Ansâr. The Meccan believers who came to Medina are known as the Muhâjirûn.
Muhammad also establishes an agreement with the Jewish tribes living in Yathrib, promising them the right to practice their faith in return for which they were NOT to join or help the unbelieving Quraysh in Mecca against him.
Soon after moving to Medina the Prophet marries Sawda, a widow, and then `Â'isha, the young daughter of Abu Bakr. The only virgin he ever took to wife, `Â'isha is recognized as "The Beloved" of Muhammad.
624-Battle of Badr fought and won in the month of Ramadân, the same month in which the Qur'ân was first revealed. These events are comemorated by Muslims with a fast during the 30 days of Ramadân, from sunrise to sunset.
It is soon after the battle of Badr that the direction of prayer or qibla is changed from Jerusalem to the Ka'ba in Mecca.
There is a dispute and a fight with the Jewish tribe, the Banû Qaynûqâ` and they are defeated and forced to leave Medina.
625-Prophet marries Hafsa the daughter of `Umar b. al-Khattâb.
-Battle of Uhud fought against the Meccan polytheists.
-Fâtima the daughter of the Prophet, now married to `Alî the young cousine of the Prophet, gives birth to a son, Hasan.
-The Jews of the Banû Nadîr are exiled.
The Prophet takes to wife Zaynab bint Jahsh, who was previously the second wife of Zayd b. Hâritha, the adopted son of the Prophet. It is soon after his marriage to her that he prescribes the veil, or hijâb for women.
627-Battle of the Ditch fought against the combined forces of the Meccan polytheists and some Jewish tribes.
-The Jews of the Banû Qurayza are defeated, and their adult males executed.
628-Muhammad marches with 1000 men, for the hajj pilgrimage, to Mecca. Instead, he signs the treaty of Hudaybiyya with the Meccans and withdraws.
-Muhammad defeats the Jews of Khaybar but agrees to let them continue living there in return for the payment of a poll tax or jizya.
629-The Prophet makes a pilgrimage(Umra) to Mecca.
630-Muslims conquest of Mecca. The Quraysh accept Islam. All the idols and shrines found in Mecca are destroyed.
631-Year of the deputations. Tribes from Hijaz and Najd adopt Islam.
632-Arabs who remain polytheists are forbidden from participating in the hajj pilgrimage.
Muhammad makes his only hajj pilgrimage, known as the farewell pilgrimage, in person and establishes the rituals for Muslim pilgrimage.
-During the Prophet's return to Medina he stops at Ghadir Khumm, where, according to many traditionists, he asks the community to support `Alî just as they have supported him. This gesture is taken by the Shi`ites to indicate the fact that the Prophet wished `Alî to succeed him.
-Muhammad dies in Medina, in the house of `Â'isha.

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