Rizwi S. Faizer Ph.D. McGill
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509-Gothic conquest of Spain
705-Oct: Accession of Khalif al-Walîd b. `Abd al-Malik
710-Roderic becomes King of the Goths; First Muslim raid on Spain;
711April: Tariq leads invasion into Spain. Defeat of Visigoths at battle of JAnda leads to occupation of Toledo. 712-Musa b. Nusair, governor of North Africa, conquers Spain; surrender of Merida;
714-Recall of Musa.
715- Musa arrives in Damascus;
23 Feb: Death of the Khalif al-Walîd; Second son of `Abd al-Malik, Sulayman is appointed caliph.
617-`Umar b. `Abd al-`Azîz is appointed khalif because of his piety.
He is reconciliatory towards the Kharijites and Shi`ites. Encourages conversion to Islam.
720-Sulayman's brother Yazîd is appointed khalif..
721 Duke of Acquitaine defeats the Muslims near Toulouse.
724-Hisham is appointed Khalif. Syrians become dominant.
743 Walîd II becomes Caliph only to be killed in 744. His successor Yazîd III dies soon after. Yazid III comes to the throne, supported by the Kalbi tribe. 929 Umayyads declare `Abd al-Rahman caliph at Cordoba.
961 death of `Abd al-Rahman.
976 -1002 Military rule of Ibn Abi Amîr al-Mansur
1010 With the death of al-Mansur's sons, power down and kingdoms spring up in almost every Spanish city. Umayyad caliphate disappears.
1050 on, `Abbasid dynasty in Seville absorbs most of South West Spain.
1056 Ibn Yasin converts the local Berbers to ISlam and establishes himself as their leader. Call themselves the Murabitun.
1064 Marrakesh founded by the Murabitun.
1085 Fall of Toledo to the Christians.
1090 Spanish Muslims invite Murabitun to help them against the Christians. The Murabitun now take power in Spain and unite the Muslims.
1100 A new leader, Ibn Tumart decalres himself the Mahdi and establishes a puritanical movement known as the Muwahhidun.
1130-1147 `Abd al-Mu'min succeeds Ibn Tumart. Leads his people against the Murabitun.
1147 Ruller of the Murabitun is executed. Muwahhidun take over in Spain.
1212Muwahhidun suffer defeat to the Christians at the battle of Las Navas de Tollosa and begin to withdraw from Spain.
1230 Muslim kingdom of Granada founded by Muhammad b. Yusuf b. Nasr. Founder of the Nasrids. Nevertheless he pays tribute to Castile.
1236 Cordova falls to the Christians.
1237Governor of Tunis is the Hafsid, Abu Zakariya Yahya.
1248 Seville falls to the Christians.
1269MArinids defeat the Hafsids and take control of Western Maghrib.
1232-1492 Nasrid Rule.
1482 The 19th Sultan, Ali Abu-l-Hasan refuses to pay tribute to Castile. Succeeded by his son Muhammad Abu-Abdullah.
1483 Muhammad attacks Castile and is captured by Ferdinand and Isabella.
1490 Muhammad is forced to surrender his city to Castile.
1491 Granada surrenders on the agreement that Muhammad receives an estate, and the Muslims be allowed to practice their faith.
1492 The Castillians enter Granada. Muhammad retires to Fez.
1499 Forced conversion of Mulims in Granada begins. Burning of Arabic manuscripts.
1501 By royal decree all Muslims in Leon and Castile are required to recant or leave.
1556 Philip 11 requires all muslims to abandon their faith and their language--Arabic.
1609 Mass deportation of 500,000 Muslims to North Africa.
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