Science and Technology in
United States Foreign Affairs

Copyright © 1999
by Robert G. Morris



Chapter 1: The Nature of Science and of Foreign Affairs
  • Science and Technology
  • The Universality of Science
  • Foreign Affairs

    Science and Technology in the Promotion of
    United States Security, Economic and Social Interests

    Chapter 2: Early Science and Technology Issues in Foreign Affairs
  • Facilitation of Private Exchanges of Scientists and of Conferences
  • Cooperation for Place
  • The International Geophysical Year (1957-8)
  • The Antarctic Treaty
  • Early Nuclear Energy and Space Projects
  • Chapter 3: Bilateral Science and Technology Cooperation
  • The Cooperation Agreement
  • Typical Agreement
  • Categories of Countries and Support
  • Agreements with the Soviet Union
  • Agreements with Advanced Countries
  • Domestic vs International Science
  • Apollo-Soyuz; MIR
  • Foreign Policy Tool
  • Technical Assistance not the Same as Cooperation
  • Security
  • Chapter 4: Multilateral Science and Technology Cooperation
  • The Nature of Multilateral Cooperation
  • Multilateral Forums
  • United Nations
  • CSCE
  • OECD
  • NATO
  • Economic Summits of the Group of Seven
  • International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis
  • European Union (EU)
  • Multilateral Cooperation in "Big Science"
  • International Space Station
  • Human Genome Project
  • Superconducting Super Collider
  • Chapter 5: Meeting New Conditions in International Relations
  • Beyond Cooperation
  • A Look Ahead
  • Chapter 6: Export Controls: Serious Science in Foreign Affairs
  • Strategic Science and Technology
  • United States Legislation for Unilateral Export Controls
  • Multilateral Controls
  • Nuclear Exports
  • Space Technology Exports
  • Space Vehicle Launches
  • Launches by China
  • Chapter 7: Atoms for Peace and Nuclear Nonproliferation
  • Introduction: About Nuclear Energy
  • Atoms for Peace and the International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
  • London Nuclear Suppliers Group and Other Control Groups
  • From the USSR to the Commonwealth of Independent States
  • Problem Countries
  • Nuclear Reprocessing
  • Nuclear Testing
  • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
  • India Tests Again and Pakistan Follows Suit


    Chapter 8: Global Issues I: Telecommunications, Law of the Sea, Fishing Rights, Space Research and Development and Cooperation and Space Law
  • Telecommunications
  • Law of the Sea
  • Fishing Rights
  • Space Research and Development Cooperation
  • Space Station
  • Space Law
  • Use of Science and Technology for Intelligence
  • Chapter 9: Global Issues II: Environmental Protection and Population
  • Environmental Protection: Background and Introduction
  • International Environmental Issues
  • Domestic and International Policy
  • Acid Rain
  • Global Warming and Ozone-Layer Depletion
  • Hazardous Waste Disposal: Ocean Dumping, Spills
  • Weather Modification
  • Environmental Warfare
  • Politicization of the United Nations Conferences
  • Endangered Species: Whales, Elephants, Reptiles, Birds
  • Population: Background and Introduction
  • United Nations Conferences
  • Chapter 10: National Science and Technology Policy Studies
  • Policy Choices
  • Picking Test Winners
  • Policy Issues

    Technology for Development:
    The Elusive Goal

    Chapter 11: Efforts to Use Science and Technology for Development
  • Development Studies
  • United States Science and Technology Initiatives
  • Chapter 12: Science and Technology for Development at the United Nations 1974-6
  • Sixth Special Session of the UN General Assembly (1974)
  • Seventh Special Session (1975)
  • Follow-up in the General Assembly
  • Chapter 13: Action Spreads to Other International Forums
  • CIEC (1975-7)
  • Meeting of the Organization of American States (1976)
  • Planning by the OES Bureau at State
  • Implementation Mechanisms
  • The Total Program of Initiatives
  • CIEC Concludes (1977)
  • Lost Chances: Science Initiatives Abandoned
  • Chapter 14: The United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development (1979)
  • Science Conferences
  • Institute for Scientific and Technical Cooperation

    Organizing Government to Deal with Science and Technology Issues in Foreign Affairs

    Chapter 15: Organization Takes Form
  • Special Assistants and Science Advisers
  • Science Office, Bureau Confirm Science Function
  • Congress Redesigns Science Bureau
  • Other Science and Technology Agencies
  • White House
  • The Federal Council
  • Congress
  • Chapter 16: Functions of Participants Using Science and Technology in Foreign Affairs
  • Legal Basis
  • Legislation
  • Executive Orders
  • Decision Papers
  • Main Government Agencies
  • Cooperation within the State Department
  • Policy vs Operations
  • Funding at State
  • Science and Technology Agency Funding
  • Military and Intelligence Agencies
  • Other Agencies with International S&T Programs
  • Outside the Government
  • Science Community
  • Business Community
  • Decision-Making
  • Chapter 17: Science and Technology in the Foreign Service
  • Introduction and Background
  • The Foreign Service
  • Admission
  • Specialists vs Generalists
  • Science Subcone
  • Other Agencies
  • Training of Science Officers
  • In the Embassy

    Case Studies

    Chapter 18: Case Study A: U.S.-USSR Science and Technology Cooperation
  • Cooperation and Dissidents
  • Sakharov
  • Principles Kept Alive
  • Chapter 19: Case Study B: U.S.-Spain Science and Technology Cooperation
  • Summary and Introduction
  • Cooperation Program
  • Evaluation
  • Administration
  • Phaseout
  • Renewal Problems
  • Chapter 20: Case Study C: Conference on International Economic Cooperation (CIEC), Paris 1975-7
  • Setting
  • Issues
  • United States Effort
  • Impasse
  • Delay
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 21: Case Study D: New Dialogue with Latin America
  • The Idea of a New Dialogue
  • The Dialogue
  • Science on the Agenda
  • A United States Initiative
  • Oil Muffles Dialogue
  • Chapter 22: Case Study E: Transborder Data Flow and the Protection of Privacy at the OECD
  • Technology Threatens Privacy
  • Science Committee Guidelines Protect Privacy

  • Appendices
    A. Administrators of the Science Function at the Department of State
    B. United States and Technology Initiatives and Related Commitments

    References and Sources
    Checklist of Dates
    About the Author

    All site contents copyright © 1999 by Robert G. Morris.
    All rights reserved, including translation rights to all languages.

    The following reference should accompany all citations:
    Morris, Robert G.  1999.  Science and Technology in United States Foreign Affairs.  Unpublished manuscript.  Ashland, OR (USA).

    Contact the author
    Contact  the webmaster