The Translator's Dilemma


Words are the expressions of the thoughts, concepts, beliefs, values and
philosophies of a group of people and their culture, and vice versa.
Words are an approximation to the thoughts, emotions, and feelings of
the speaker. A simple word-for-word translation from one language into
another often results in nonsense or humourous writings instantly
recognizable as the products of non-native speakers. In the 1950s and
1960s, exporters in Japan, Hong Kong, and China included English
instructions with their electronic exports. Although largely
understandable, these attempts at English translations from the Japanese
or Chinese originals were quite amusing and gave rise to the name
"Chinglish".

Apart from the problems arising from simple word substitution, there are
more serious difficulties caused by idioms and figures of speech in one
language which are meaningless in another. The soft drink slogan "Coke
adds life!" has been reported as machine translated into Chinese as
"Coke brings your ancestors back!".

A translator is expected to convert ideas from one culture into those of
another, perhaps separated by oceans and continents and millenia of
time. One of the obstacles facing a translator is how much to translate
the original. The translator's dilemma is: should an idiom be translated
in the best sense even with a complete change of words, or should the original
wording be retained with the expectation that the reader will recognize
and understand the figures of speech in the original? If a literal
translation is presented, those who do not understand the original
figure of speech are likely to be misled. A further problem with Bible
translations is that people have often seized upon the English
translation and read meanings which were lacking in the original.
English words have been carefully examined and new churches set up on
the strength of the English meaning. The Bible student needs to be aware
of these problems and to be careful in formulating doctrines.

An Example -- Ben


An example of the differences in meaning and usage is the Hebrew word
"ben" (and its many variations). This word is used over 5550 times in
the Old Testament with a great variety of meanings. It is commonly
translated as "son" and frequently corresponds to the English concept of
"son". Most people have seen the award-winning epic movie "Ben-Hur"
which was another triumph for the star, Charlton Heston, who played
the part of a Jew in Palestine at the time of Christ, Ben-Hur, the son
of Hur. This surname practice of that time continues among various
groups even today. However this interpretation of "ben" as "son" is a
very narrow confining of its meaning to an Old Testament Hebrew. A
Hebrew would not have limited its meaning as is done in English.

If we look at a word or phrase translated as "son" or "son of ..." and
read into it all sorts of meanings based on the English word "son", we
can be wide of the original meaning in Hebrew.

What does "son" mean in English? Cassell's Compact English Dictionary
defines the word as "noun. A male child in relation to a parent; (fig.)
a descendant". The Grosset Webster Dictionary has "1. A male child; a
male descendant. 2. Term of affection for a young man. 3. A native or
inhabitant of a country. 4. Member of a faith or sect. 5. [cap.] Jesus
Christ."

What does "ben" mean? According to Vine's "Complete Expository
Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words", "ben" is a noun derived from
the Hebrew verb "banah" meaning "to build". Ben refers to things that
can be built, not just literally but also figuratively. A man can build
a family and ben can refer to a literal son in that family, but ben is
used in a much wider sense. In Isaiah 21:18, there is a phrase "sons of the
(threshing) floor", using ben. To us English speakers, this is nonsense
but to a Hebrew it made perfect sense. It is translated into English as
"(threshed) grain". This is an example showing that ben need not refer
to a person, and need not even refer to a living being of any type.


Ben of Oil


In Zechariah 4:12, the word ben occurs again, as "ben of oil", or sons of
oil. Again, this is nonsense in English. In Hebrew, it refers to the
branches of the olive tree, again nothing whatever to do with persons.
These two examples have nothing to do with sons in the English language
sense, but do fit loosely with the "build" origin of "ben".

Other examples are "ben of the bow" and "ben of the quiver", which could be
translated poetically as sons of the bow and sons of the quiver, but are
translated in English simply as arrow.


The Children of Belial


The children (ben) of Belial are referred to 16 times in the King James
Version of the Old Testament, over centuries.

Around 1406 BC, in Deuteronomy 13:13, Moses wrote a  warning against
listening to the children of Belial enticing others to serve other gods.
Many years after Moses, around 1360 BC, sons of Belial in Gibeah
attacked the Levite and his concubine in Judges 19:22.

Around 1100 BC, in 1 Samuel 1:16, Hannah begged Eli not to mistake her
for a daughter of Belial. In 1 Samuel 2:12, we are told the sons of Eli
were also the sons of Belial! How can that be?

Around 1050 BC, the children of Belial despised Saul, the newly
appointed King of Israel.

1 Samuel 25:17,25 tells us that Nabal who insulted David was a son of
Belial.

1 Samuel 30:22 they are league with all the wicked men that went with
David.

2 Samuel 23:6 has a pronouncement by David of evil upon the sons of
Belial.

The children of Belial are around again in 2 Chronicles 13:7 in 910 BC,
at the time of Rehoboam the son of Solomon.

The latest use of the sons of Belial is in 1 Kings 21:10,13 about 856
BC, at the time of Ahab and Jezebel. Belial does not occur in the
writings of the minor prophets. It seems that with the passing of time
the Hebrew use of the term "ben of Belial" was dropped from the written
language.

In every case, these sons of Belial are wicked scoundrels. If we take
the literal translation of ben of Belial (sons(s) of Belial) to be the
correct meaning, we have this person Belial producing male children over
a period of more than four centuries, yet we do not have any other
information of this person who outlived his own grandchildren. Who was
this long lived Belial who was still producing children after his
grandchildren had died?

Unger's Bible Dictionary has an entry which states that "Belial" means
"worthlessness" or "wickedness". "Belial is often used in the A. V. as
if it were a proper name, but beyond question it should not be regarded
in the Old Testament as such; its meaning being 'worthlessness', hence
'recklessness, lawlessness'. The expression 'son' or 'man of Belial'
must be understood as meaning simply a worthless, lawless fellow. In the
New Testamen the term appears (in the best manuscripts) in the form
'Belias', and not 'Belial' as given in the A. V. The term, as used in II
Corinthians 6:15, is generally understood as applied to Satan, as the
personifiction of all that is bad."

Belial was not a person who lived for centuries, producing many
offspring who were involved in crimes and wars, as a literal
interpretation such as the KJV would indicate. A "son of Belial" was not
a son of a person named Belial, but a person with the characteritics of
belial (worthlessness)  or a belial-like person, i.e. a worthless
person. The next section presents some other uses with this same
descriptive sense of meaning.


Used for Description


Ben can be used in a descriptive manner, where English speakers would
use an adjective.

The Complete Word Study Old Testament (AMG International, 1994)
tells us "1121. Ben: son, child, boy, young one; grandson, grandchild,
descendant, a member of a group; pupil; subject, disciple, favourite,
When ben occurs with a subst. noun, it FUNCTIONS AS AN ADJECTIVE (e.g.
"a son of fat" means "stout")". (My emphasis)

The use of ben as descriptive is in the term "ben of man" as applied by
God when addressing Ezekiel, e.g. Ezekiel 6:2. The word for "man" is
"adham", for which The Complete Word Study Old Testament has a lengthy
entry. Some excerpts are: "this noun usually refers to mankind in the
collective sense (Gen. 1:26, 27)". "The word is generally used in the
Hebrew Bible to denote the human race and its characteristic nature in
contrast to God in heaven."  "Adham refers to generic man as the image
of God, the crown of his creation, distinct from the rest of creation."
Thus the phrase which occurs fifty seven times in the book of Ezekiel is
better regarded as "ben of mankind" of "ben of humans". Ezekiel had only
one human father, not all of mankind as his father. We conclude that the
term "ben of mankind" is descriptive of Ezekiel's humanity, in contrast
with God's divinity.

Another example is in Deuteronomy 25:3 where the original has ben of a
beating, which could be translated as sons of a beating, but is
translated as deserving of a beating.


Subjects and Subordinates


Ben is sometimes used in the sense of followers, disclipes, students,
subjects, servants, as built outcomes from their leaders, teachers, or
mentors. 1 Kings 28:35 refers to the students at a theology school as
"sons of the prophets", the prophets being the teachers or trainers.




A Wide Range of Meanings

                  

Here are meanings of ben as described in "Unger's Bible Dictionary":

* Production or offspring of any source
---------------------------------------

"sons of the burning coal" in Job 5:7
Coal does not produce male children.
bene of the burning coal is better translated as sparks

"sons of the bow" in Job 41:28
A bow is not even a living creature and is incapable of producing a son
(in English).
ben of the bow is better translated as arrow

"sons of the quiver" in Lamentations 3:13
Same remark. ben of the quiver  is better translated as arrow

"sons of the floor" in Isaiah 21:10
Same remark. ben of the floor is better translated as threshed grain

"sons of oil" in Zechariah 4:14
ben of oil is better translated as branches of the olive tree

"sons of beating" in Deuteronomy 25:3
Translation of ben as son becomes even more stupid, doesn't it?
ben of beating is better translated as deserving of beating

* Indicate age
--------------

"son of one year" in Exodus 12:5
1 year old

* Nation
--------

"sons of the east"  1 Kings 4:30; Job 1:3

* Students, disciples
---------------------

(Samuel and Eli) 1 Samuel 3:6

"sons of the prophets" in 1 Kings 20:35
It is commonly believed that these were not exclusively the biological
descandants of a group of prophets but were students at some form of a
theological school.
ben of the prophets is better translated as disciples or students.

* Disposition or conduct
------------------------

"sons of Belial" in  Judges 19:22  1 Samuel 2:12
bene of Belial has been discussed above.

"sons of the mighty" in Psalm 29:1
Who were the mighty who produced these children? The literal translation
tells us nothing about these children; the parents were mighty but the
chidren may have been mighty or may have been cowards. The context shows
that the alleged children were mighty in deeds and the phrase is not
intended to refer to the parents. Considering these facts, ben of the
mighty is better translated as heroes.

"sons of the band" in 2 Chronicles 25:13
Again, they weren't the sons of the band in the English sense.
ben  of the band is better translated as soldiers

"sons of the sorceress" in Isaiah 57:3
Again, they weren't literally. bene of the sorceress is difficult to
translate into English otherwise but most people would not be confused.


* Adopted son
-------------

Ephraim & Manasseh Genesis 48


* Remote descendants
--------------------

Numbers 2:14, 18

* Grandson
----------

Laban, "son" of Nahor Genesis 29:5; 24:29
Mephibosheth, "son" of Saul 2 Samuel 19:24

* Immediate Offspring
---------------------

At last we come to the correct English translation, which is the way ben
is mostly (but not exclusively) used.


Sons of God?


Ben of God is used in Genesis 6, in the early chapters of Job, and in
several Psalms. The literal translation is commonly used, "sons of God".
The common belief is that, at least in Job, the writer is referring to
angels. Are angels the biological descendant of God, the same biological
species, or is one of the other meanings of ben more appropriate? Recall
the ben of Belial, ben of fat, Ezekiel ben of mankind, the ben of the
prophets, the ben of the band, the ben of the sorceress, ben of oil, ben
of a beating, etc.

Scientists classify life forms into general groups and refine these into
finer groups. The scientific levels of classifications are as follows,
with the most general at the top, the most specific at the bottom.

Kingdom
Phylum
(Subphylum)
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

The best known of the five kingdoms of life on earth are Kingdom
Animalia (animals) and Kingdom Plantae (plants). Even though animals and
plants have many attributes in common, they differ in even more. All
life forms can be classified by this technique. For example, the
classification of us humans (commonly referred to as Homo Sapiens) is:

Kingdom - Animalia
Phylum - Chordata
Subphylum - Vertebrata
Class - Mammalia
Order - Primates
Family - Hominidae
Genus - Homo
Species - Sapiens

A law of biology is that only beings of the same species can possibly
produce sons of the same species. Apple trees don't produce lemons as
offspring; apple trees always produce only apples. A sockeye salmon
will never produce a giraffe as offspring; it reproduces only sockeye
salmon. A human cannot give birth to a turtle. Sons of humans are always
humans.

God can be classified scientifically into a biological Kingdom, so can
angels, as humans and all earth-bound life forms are. For ben of God to
mean literal biological sons of God, God and angels must be of the same
Kingdom, Phylum, Subphylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species. If
you believe this is so, then use the translation "sons of God"; if not,
consider a more appropriate phrase, e.g. glorious beings, angels, godly
beings.


Written by Selwyn Russell, December 1996. This version 10 March 1997.


Copyright (C) 1996 Selwyn Russell. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to copy and distribute this article royalty free if the article is retained in its entirety along with the author information and source.


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Latest Text Update: 10 March 1997


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