"THE SECOND SPHINX THEORY"
By its original author
Lectrer and auther in Egyptolog.
Graduated of Victory Collage in Alexandria
Studied Ancient Egyption Pharaonic ,Greco-
Roman, Islamic and Modern History at the
Faculty of Tourism,Helwan University Cairo
Has lectured throughout USA ,Egypt ,Europe
South Africa .Radio and T.V. history editor.
This theory was born
at the same time that the word symmetrical was born. The ancient Egyptian
artist always depicted
his scenes, drew his characters on papyri ,painted the walls of the tombs
and temples and erected his obelisks and statues in a harmonical and symmetrical
manner. It became an artistic and religious tradition that lasted throughout
the Pharaonic epoch. The facade of the temple was a ways
built in the form of two pylons (fortress-like construction), symbolizing
the two eternal hills forming a design, which was definitely copied from
nature. With the sun setting between these two rising hills, it provided
the ancients the description of the horizon. Two mounds, with the solar disc
in between was the "AKER" or horizon.
Symetry was also in the end position of the royal statues , like those,
which are in front of the Ramses 11 pylons of Luxor Temple. There
were three in front of each pylon. Two seated and flanking the entrance
and four standing statues, two on each side of the pylon. There were
also two identical obelisks erected in front of the seate figures, the
eastern one is still there, the western one is now in the Concorde Square
There were double avenues of sphinxes to guard and protect the Pharaoh during his passing in and out of the temple. Protection always came from both sides the passerby, his left and right side. Of course, it is not logical to protect someone from one side only, as that would easily allow evil, whatever it is or wherever it is coming from, or in whatever form it comes according to the belief of the period, to attack from the unprotected side. Therefore, by adding symmetry to logic, it is only correct to believe that there should not be one lion or sphinx on its own in ancient Egypt. Moreover, there are more reasons to make us believe in this concept, this time it is documented.
According to the Heliopolitan cult, the creator of the whole universe was"Atum"(spelled Tem in some hieroglyphic texts). This was the first appearance of th sun deity of Heliopolis, who later took on many forms and various names, like "Ra" referring to the sun in its midday phase, when it is strong and most powerful. The priest also called the sun deity "Khepri," referring to the sun in its early day phase, during and after sunrise. But, Atum was the sun during sunset. Depending upon pre-dynastic beliefs, cults and traditions the priests of ancient Egypt wrote,composed and carved on the pyramids burial chambers walls hymns and magical texts. They were called "The Pyramid Texts." The most important collection of such texts are on the walls of the burial chambers of the pyramids of Pharaoh Unas or Wenis (23562323 BQ and Pharaoh Teti (2323-2291 BQ in Saqqarah. These magical utterances contain prayers and explanations of how and why the deities came into existence, also, the religious relationship between the creations and nature in the most poetic, romantic, and sometimes exotic ways. The most pioneering pyramid concerning the pyramid texts is the Wenis Pyramid, it was called, "the pyramid which is beautiful of places," it was originally 43 meters high, its angle was 56" 18' 35", its base is 57.5 meter square.Teti followed in Wenis footsteps; he called his pyramid "the pyramid, which is enduring of places."
Waenis Pyramid with its interior
walls covered by the "Pyramid Texts"
These texts told us how Atum himself came into existence in a form of what was to be known later as a pyramid. Utterance 600, in the pyrami text confirms this comment, it says, "0 Atum, Keeper you became high on the height, you rose up as the ben-ben stone in the mansions of the Phoenix in On. " The belief was that the world was but an ocean, primeval waters and no earth at all. When Atum emerged in the form of a mound called "ben-ben", he choose this form to be a sacred shape commencing in On (Heliopolis), which in turn became the Primeval Mound. The shapes of the ben-ben various. Often, the primeval mound took the form of a natural rock formation ,the ancients used it to cover their burial pits, and another shape was in the form of a superstructure, rectangular and bench-like. Lots of the separticular shapes were used in Abydos, Saqqarah and the Giza plateau to surmount the burial shafts. The French, in the 1960's, called it "Mastabah Tombs, "an Arabic word for a bench. Another ben-ben shape was in the form of a step pyramid.
Pharaoh Djoser (2630-2611 BC) 3rd dynasty, Old Kingdom built his step pyramid imitating that form of the ben-ben. This achievement was the result of the effort of one genius architect, "Imhotep." He built it in Saqqara, 60 meters high, made of six unequal steps, which started as one mastaba, then progressed to reach the shape that influenced the magnificent line of pyramids which followed afterwards.
Perhaps, the most well known shape of the ben-ben is the pointed pyramidion shape. A capstone crowning the apex of the burial constructions, like that of Amonernhat 11, in the Egyptian Museum. It is carved with scenes, eyes of inspection and hieroglyphic texts containing the royal cartouche of the Pharaoh. Ben-ben ~ were also used as a solar emblem surmounting obelisks and were outer cased by a layer of electrum (a native local metal of a mix between gold and silver). It would reflect the sunrays from the top of the obelisk and transport the rays of the sun deity all over the area to purify and ablute, also bringing sacredness to the surroundings. It was interesting to find out that the ben-ben became ben-bent in the Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 BQ Which means that the ancient Egyptian scribe converted the male ben ben into a female ben bent! The reason for this was never explained. So, by the Pharaoh believing in a burial tradition, which influenced his afterlife,. they became keener to follow the sacred shapes of Atum, so that they could associate with him and identify by him. "0 Atum, set your arms about the king, about his construction and about his pyramid as the arms of a Ka-symbol-set your protection over this king, over his pyramid of his..." Small ben ben ~ were used frequently in high title and nobles tombs like in Dier El Madinah, the work-Us valley in Luxor. Utterance 600, " .... you spat out Shu, you expectorated Tefenut." Shu seems to be created first then Tefenut came very soon after him. Utterance 660, of the pyramid texts, confirms my conclusion, "0 Shu, I am the son of Atum. You are the eldest son of Atum, his first-born; Aturn has spat you out from his mouth in your name of Shu." They were twins, though Shu was always more influential and impressive ..'He was the deity of air, wind, climate and weather. He was responsible for separating Geb the earth deity, from his wife Nut, the sky deity. The reason for this was that if they were connected there would be no place for life and the living between them. Shu was also the sacred breath that offers "Ankh", life, to all the earthling creatures. Tefenut was the lady of dew and moisture. From the nature of both son and daughter of Atum, it is easy to understand why Shu was more important than Tefenut. Without Shu, the sky would fall on earth causing life to cease. In a text Shu says, "I am life, the Lord of years, living forever, Lord of eternity, the eldest one that Atum made in his glory..." Air was essential for breathing and wind for sailing. Two indispensable features of life and existence in general.
Tefenut was a temporal effect. Dew does not last all day and without it humans will not perish, greenery will to exist due to rain and flooding, it does not have to depend on dew. The important mythological fact, which the ancient Egyptians believed in, was that Atum created Shu and Tefenut in a form of two cubs. A lion and a lioness, "...Shu and Tefenut, the pair who engendered the deities and put them in their proper places." Atum had shared his existence with the two young cubs, which grew to be mature lions. In a coffin text this belief is confirmed, "Hail Atum I am the double lion." Atum had imparted his Ka (one's double and vital force) to Shu and Tefenut." He became the sun that is similar in its power and domination to the lion. From here forward two lions became the religious duality that we today inspect everywhere in temples and funerary complexes. Beside all the responsibilities of Shu, the lion, and Tefenut, the lioness, according to the lion cult in ancient Egypt, they were responsible for most crucial solar aspects of all. Both made sure that the sunset and the sunrise operations happened every day without fail or delay. One lion (I believe it was Shu) took his place directly below the western horizon waiting for the sun disc to set, then he took it in his jaws and smoothly transported it to the other lion (I believe it was Tefenut), who is waiting under the eastern horizon. She is going to receive the ball of the sun and take it in her jaws and tenderly push it towards the eastern edge where sunrise takes place due to that sacred lion's push. This simply means that the sunset and sunrise phenomenon were explained and religiously described by the ancient Egyptian priests as the work of these two lions. Therefore, they are also related to the life, death, and then life again of the sun and the undisturbed eternal cycle of life and resurrection. The cult relied upon this belief of eternal life.
Like the sun, humans are going to set in the
west and then live again in the east. That explains the
existence of most of the
necropolises in the West Bank of the River Nile, like the pyramids of Giza, Valley of the Kings, Queens, Nobles and Workmen in Luxor. With few exceptions,
like Beni Hassan and Tell-El Amarna cemeteries, there were no hills or
mounds on the west of the chosen place. Still, all the tombs were referring
to the deities of the West and the voyage towards eternity. The one sole fact that the sun lives, dies, and then is resurrected at sunrise, built
the whole Egyptian culture. It was the reason for all the advanced sculpture
buildings, medicine, astronomy, science, mummification, chemistry and other
achievements. This means, if there was only one lion, there will be only
sunset and no sunrise. Logically then, there would be no continuity of
life, a belief that lasted for more than 4000 years. That is the reason
we always see two lions, two sphinxes, two pylons, two obelisks, two rows
of ram-headed sphinxes, two primeval mounds, two crowns, two sacred flowers which are the lotus and papyrus, etc. Most importantly the two lions of
Ruti and double lions of Aker. Both made sure that the sunset and the sunrise
operations happened every day without fail or delay. One lion (I believe
it was Shu) took his place directly below the western horizon waiting for
the sun disc to set, then he took it in his jaws and smoothly transported
it to the other lion (I believe it was Tefenut), who is waiting under the
eastern horizon. She is going to receive the ball of the sun and take it
in her jaws and tenderly push it towards the eastern edge where sunrise
takes place due to that sacred lion's push. This simply means that the
sunset and sunrise phenomenon were explained and religiously described
by the ancient Egyptian priests as the work of these two lions. Therefore, they are also related to the life, death, and then life again of the sun
and the undisturbed eternal cycle of life and resurrection. The cult relied
upon this belief of eternal life.
The questions I put forth is, if every aspect of ancient Egypt depended upon the symmetry, why is there only one Sphinx in the pyramids area? According to all the above mentioned, there should be a two lions or lionesses adjacent to each other, one behind the so called Valley Temple and the other behind the Sphinx Temple.
If there was not a statue of a deity behind the Valley Temple, then, what is the function of this hieroglyphicless temple? Plus, it was always known that in the early archaic period, like in the seal, which was found by Emery, lions were guarding temples and temples were serving the lion deity in its different representation. On the scene of Emery's seal, we noticed that a recumbent lion is seated in connection with a construction, which had a bent top, and a square like body with a base made of what I believe is a sled. Protruding from the top left side of the construction are a number of parallel lines. This construction is exactly the same as the one used in hieroglyphics as a determinative for an archaic sacred shrine or temple. The so called Valley Temple is a mysterious building hewn, carved and built, I believe, before the Pharaohs of the Old Kingdom came into power. It wouldn't surprise me if the Valley Temple, together with the adjacent Sphinx Temple were built before the dynastic era by Egyptians. The reason for my strong belief is they are the only two temples in Egypt that have no inscriptions of scenery or texts of hieroglyphs. They were built before the language of the dynastic pharaohs came into use. Or, why did the Pharaohs go through the trouble of building two massive temples and carved no texts? No religious dedication to the deity or cause to whom this sacred chapel was constructed exists. There is no scenery of the Pharaoh who was responsible for this great achievement, and we all know how Pharaohs liked to register their royal names on the walls of their temple to be appreciated in the afterlife by the deities that the pharaohs dedicated the temple to. On the other hand, if the now dilapidated Sphinx Temple was constructed to serve the sphinx as a sacred character, that is the Valley Temple's function, if there was no lion lying behind it in the vacancy,which is still as it was since thousands of years? The only inscription is some hieroglyphics like ~ Ankh, meaning "life" and a hoeq-- , which is related to the word love or beloved. It is clearly seen on the northern side, on the face of the first part of the wall flanking the entrance of the Valley Temple. -There is a very strong reason why I believe these inscriptions were achieved in the days of the pharaonic epoch and not at the same time as the original building and hewning of the temple itself. That is, the hieroglyphics were carved on pink granite stone, which, like its sisters were used later to form an outer casing to protect the temple from destruction. The original stone is weathered and eroded to such an extent that makes anyone who looks at it believe that it was exposed for many years to wind, storms and other external natural factors. These factors participated in forming parallel concave erosions and weathering, similar to those which are naturally formed on the body of our surviving Sphinx. By comparing these limestone layers of weathering, to the very well preserved pink granite outer casing, it definitely tells us that both were not exposed to the same natural factors for the same period of time. To prove this thought even further, you will find a block of granite, which is carved in a certain shape to precisely fit inside an already weathered limestone wall. The differance between the limestone and the pink granite layers is the difference between both in time.
Parallel concave erosions and weathering
formed on the body of our surviving sphinx.
Widening the panoramic view of the whole scene,
we can see yet another proof. There are the pyramids of Khufu and Khafra,
which seem to be in the vicinity and geographically related to the Sphinx
complex. I related these two great Ben Ben's, or two hills of a sacred
nature, that we always
see forming the Akhet or horizon with the two pyramids of Khufu and Khafra.
When we separate the two hills, it simply gives us two "Tall," (Arabic
word for a mound). The sun is in between the two tall in the design of
the Akhet . Could these two sacred hills or mounds be the same as these
Could it be that Khufu and Khafra's pyramids were trying to imitate the two talls of the horizon "Akhet"? Apart from the fact that the ancient Egyptians always depicted what they saw in nature, we need to prove that from the mother rock of the Giza plateau we have two primeval mounds involved in the pyramid before it was manmade. That happens to be a true fact, beyond any shadow of doubt. The great pyramid of Khufu's nucleolus base and ground level, over which the 2.5 million blocks of stone were placed, is in the form of a sacred Tall or Kom. It is carved of the mother rock in a form of a stepped ben-ben . As a matter of fact, I believe that it was necessary for the pyramids to be dependent, in their existence in their particular places, on the fact that there is a Kom or sacred natural protrusion of the earth upon which the whole burial construction was be built. The Kom was an essential feature in all the pyramids of ancient Egypt. It started with the concept of putting a Kom of sand over the oval pit where the deceased will be buried with his personal funerary possessions in the pre-dynastic period. Then it became a widely spread cult, and commonly used feature, of the first dynasty mastabah's, like these found in Saqqarah and Memphis. During the archaic period, burial superstructures were built in the form of a sand mound, then outer cased in limestone. By the end of the first dynasty more solid burials started to take the design of steps and inner Koms, actually, each Kom as placed on one side of the Mastaba body. That means that people did not see the mounds (Kom's) because the rising steps of the mastabah itself then covered them. The outer shape of the burial construction began to develop and progress but never in its whole long-lived life did change to a sacred hill religious concept. The Mastaba progressed to become higher than one story like the pyramid of Djoser. Then the intermediate phase pyramid of Meidum built by Honi and continued by Senefru, then the Dahshur pyramids of Pharaoh Senefru the founder of the fourth dynasty, father of Khufu and the first builder of a true pyramid, his second nearby bent pyramid due to the changes of the angle of inclination at half its height (51 meters above the ground level). Many scholars believed that Senefru's builders made a mistake in their geometrical scaleOations. Senefru is the owner of the first complete pyramid in the history of the Egyptians. It is very hard to believe that the same engineers, workers and mathematicians who just achieved the perfect pyramid could fall into such a naive mistake of angle of inclination.
Particularly when you find the angle changing precisely at half the height of the pyramid, plus it has the best surviving outer casing in Egypt today. Actually, I believe that Senefru did achieve the greatest ben-ben over his eternal mound. This perfect combination resulted in a shape identical to the concept of the deity of creation, Atum, according to the pyramid texts. The builders of the Khafra pyramid carved few steps of the rocky ground forming the nucleus core of the base of the pharaoh's pyramid.
Together with the stepped core of the pyramid of Khufu, which is not visible from outside like Khafra's, both form two tells, ben-ben or primeval eternal hills. It is typically similar to the two mounds that when added to each other form the Akhet horizon sign. The distance in the middle is the area between the two pyramids in actual reality. The pyramid of Kufu is 146 meters high and Khafra's pyramid is 143.5 meters high. According to my theory they represent the two hills of Akhet, they must be equal in height, if this is true. Notice that the second pyramid is built over a higher plateau than Khufu's pyramid to compensate for the 2.5 meters difference, plus it is from a certain angel in front of the Great Sphinx that you see both pyramids are accurately equal in height. We always notice the Akhet in the Reu Nu Pert Em Hru, or chapters of coming forth by day, that were interpreted wrongly by Lepsius in 1842, as the "Book of the Dead".
The whole collection consists of chapters. Ani's papyrus (1420 BC), is one of the best surviving examples of the so-called "Book of the Dead." It contains the most important religious magical spells and the identification of the deceased with Osiris, deity of the afterworld. The texts depend mainly on the coffin texts of the Middle Kingdom, which in turn copied its religious beliefs from the original pyramid texts. That means that any belief or ritual mentioned in the "Book of the Dead" always had its identical roots in the pyramid texts. One part of the Ani papyrus shows the key to the whole "Second Sphinx Theory." It shows two lions flanking two eternal mounds. The two lions are shown back to back, one facing the north the other facing the south, with the sun setting between them. Above all this is Nut the sky. These two lions are given the names of Yesterday and Today. In the translation of some scholars it is interpreted as Yesterday and Tomorrow. This discrepancy is not an obstacle to our theory. In reality, it works in its favor. The question is where in Giza do we have a scene similar to this? Two identical mounds with the sky above protected by lions? These two profile drawn lions on the papyrus are, I believe, the two lions behind the Sphinx Temple and the Valley Temple. As with the two equal pyramids behind them and sky above, this is the exact scene drawn on the papyrus but with two vital differences There is a sun setting between the two pyramids (hills) and the lions on the papyrus-are profile, while the ones we have in the Giza area are full face.
The solution for this problem is easy; the sun does set between the two pyramids in reality, during the days of the solstice phenomenon, when the sun changes the place it that sets in normally. The problem of the two lions being in profile is really of no harm to the Second Sphinx Theory, as the ancient artists always believed that it is more practical, productive and faster to draw and carve depicted scenery in profile, but in actuality they meant it as full faced. Notice all the Pharaohs, deities and the majority of sacred characters on the walls of the tombs and temples. The faces are profile but the shoulders are completely full faced. Some statues of sphinxes and lions have their head perpendicular on the body with the face turned towards the left or the right. They face the sacred direction that needs attention, while on a depicted scene or a drawn lion you always find it in profile. That was a characteristic of the ancient Egyptian art that lasted throughout its history. Very few deities, like Hat-hor, the cow deity of beauty, love and music, are most of the time presented in a full face, the reason for this is that she needed to show all her facial features frequently. These two lions are, I believe, originally Shu and Tefenut. The one on the right is Shu, and that is the surviving one refereed to in the text as Today, as it is a survival and indispensable deity. While the other lion, Tefenut (the Second Sphinx), on the left was Yesterday, as it was destroyed. I am going to explain later why and how.
Atum himself always associated himself more with Tomorrow, yet still claimed ownership of Tefenut, who is Yesterday. Chapter 17 provides us with sentences to confirm that thought. Aturn says, 14mine is Yesterday, I know Tomorrow." Other sentences mention, "Osiris is Yesterday, Tomorrow is Atum." Remember Atum is embodies in the two lions as well, "I am the double lion." The ancients emphasized the fact that the double lion is but a manifestation of Shu and Tefenut. Each lion is on one end of the edge of the world; each was guarding one gate of the underworld. This double lion was called "The Aker," its best example could be seen in the pyramid texts and the burial tomb of Ramses VI.
When the pharaoh wanted to associate himself with the powerful lion, Aker, Shu, Atum and the sun, the priests had to change the head of the lion of Aker into a human head of the pharaoh and relate it to Horus of the horizon, the good deity falcon, to become the so-called Sphinx. Another great example of the two protective lions with the Akhet is drawn in amazinglgy vivid colors on the walls of the burial coffin box of Sennedjem, servant in the place of truth, who lived during the reign of Seti I and Ramses 11, 19 1h dynasty.'His tomb as found in 1886, completely in tact. The funerary belongings are now in the Egyptian Museum.
Two Lions Of Ruti
The two lions "Ruti" became related to life and afterlife for thousands of years. In reality it was interesting to find out that lioness' on average give birth to two cubs at a time, Shu and Tefenut. For some historians the Ruti lions in this particular scene, which is repeated in more than one papyrus and definitely on the walls of more than one tomb, to them it represents the earth deity, Aker who was associated with the assembly of the east and the west horizon in the underworld. Photo of Sennedjem Being always beside the Benu Bird of creation, the two lions were always connected to the journey of the sun and thus to the sailing of the deceased through the celestial river Nile; the milky way during his voyage both to join the indestructible stars and through the world of what is in the beyond. Excellent as these scenes are, generally and in particular, the Ruti and Aker scenes always leave me with one impression. I noticed that some of these scenes are without the deceased involved in person.
Like the Aker of the tomb of Queen Nefert-iri the principle wife of Ramses 11, and a great lady of the two lands. In her tomb in the Valley of the Queens, West Bank, Luxor, onthe top left hand side as you enter the first chamber. But if the deceased is involved (like the case concerned) praying veneration, paying respect and raising his arms supplicating to the Aker scene with the horizon in the middle of the two Eons, it is always the right side of the Aker to the faced viewer, that the deceased is praying to as in the tomb of the foreman, Inherkho, which is number 359 at Thebe* The wall painting shows the magical spell, number 17, of the "Book of the Dead." The lion on the right side is shown with thicker mane hair, indicating that it is the male lion, Shu If you place this scene in the Giza panorama, looking from the east looking west, and facing the Great Sphinx, the scene proves that the deceased in his afterlife is always adoring the existing Great Sphinx, the male, Shu and not the female, Tefenut the destroyed Sphinx situated on the right side of the primeval hill in the profile scene. The Tefenut sphinx here correlates with the Second Sphinx in front of the Khafra pyramid, behind the Valley Temple. In concussion, the deceased depicted the second lion because it completes the religious aspect of the holy idea, but not adorning it because it was cursed and destroyed. This provides to with yet another corroboration as to -why Tefenut's lioness statue at the pyramids area, has not been there since before the dynastic era.
Moreover, the convergence of the pre-dynastic lion cult and the Aker in the pyramid texts, supports the analysis that the Second Sphinx or lioness was existing and then destroyed before the first dynasty. From one demonstration to another, the coming three evidences are perhaps the easiest to see, inspect, witness, analyze, reach. They are all colored with the paint of logic and supported by he pillars of order.
AUTHER EXPLAINING THE DREAM STELA.
The first evidence is the Stela of Amonhotep 11 (1427-1401 BQ, which is erected at the end of his temple, which is located northeast of the forepaws of the Great Sphinx. The temple was dedicated to Hor- M-Akhet or Horus in the horizon (the New Kingdom name for the Great Sphinx), as was the stela. It is 4.25 meters, 2.53 meters wide and .53 meters thick.
DREAM STELA - Details
Selim Hassan mentioned in his informative book "The Sphinx: Its History under the Light of the T4ew Excavations," that he noticed two very eroded sphinx scenes at the top part of the stela. It is hardly visible and it seems, that since Selim's comment, until I saw it in 1999, it has eroded even more. On a more optimistic note, Selim Hassan deciphered the 27-line hieroglyphic text, which reads: "Long live Hor the strong bull, the very strong, King of Upper and Lower, with extreme sovereignty, the distinct King of Thebes, the Golden Hor who opens everything with his scepter in all lands. King of Upper and Lower ('a-Khepru-Ra), Son of Ra, Amonhotep the Divine Ruler of Heliopolis, the Son of Amon who created him, off-spring of "Hor-akhety," the elite seed from the sacred organs, he who his image was created by "Neit," and the first deity of the two lands gave him life so that he takes the monarchy that he opened, and let him to appear showing himself as a king upon the throne of the living, and offered him."
Egypt to under his sovereignty and the desert as his subject, from him the heritage is transported for eternity, and monarchy forever, and he who gave him the throne of earth, and the job of a deity, the elite Atum, and the possessions of Horus and Set, and the share of the two goddesses of Upper and Lower and their years in his life as for leisure, him who he placed his daughter "Maat," on his body, for him hefixed his crown on his head. The Nubian were under his sandals, the people of the north bends for his power, and all the foreign lands are terrified of him, all the deities are in the shadow of his love, and it as "Amon" himself who elevated him to be a ruler over all what surrounds his eye and what the solar disc illuminates, and he took all of Egypt, the land of the south and the land of the north under his care, and the red lands (the desert) is offering him its production, whilst all the foreign land is under his protection, about his boundaries it reaches what the sky surrounds it, as the lands are in his hand in one know, a king has appeared on the great hrone gathering for himself the two great magicians, and the two strong ones has been connected, Ra with his Atef (a name for crown), he beautified the part of the hair with the two crowns of Upper and Lower, he took the bandages and the Kheprish (the blue crown of war), the scarf, the two great feathers on his head, the "Nemes " covering his shoulders, then the crowns of "Atum" has assembled and were added to his image as the deities ordered. As for Amon the first deity who made him appear, he gave his orders to all the land, united without any decrease he is the son of Ra, "Amonhotep" the ruler of Heliopolis and the elite seed to Amon and the magnificent egg of the sacred organs, the noble owner of power, him who during his exist from the womb, he took the white crown, he who invaded the land including what it possess of the Egypt water (meaning Egyptian blood) no enemy for him, Atum's eye sends its rays and the power of Montu in his organs, he who his victories are similar to the victories of the son of "Nut", he who tied the plant which is the sign of the south and the sign of the north, the people of the south and the people of the north are of fear of him and his possession are raised upon by Ra. I I For him what the great ocean surrounds and endure, him who the arm of his messenger is never disappointed all over the Fenkhu lands (Syria and Palestine), he who have no other against the enemies of Hor and there is protection for humankind but from him, to him the southerners come kneeling and the northerners come to him on their bellies, all gathered in his palm, him who his mace-head destroys their heads as Amon-Ra.-Atum ordered, he who opens all the land victoriously without any double for him forever. And now his majesty shone as a king, when he was young with a complete body after he became 18 years on his feet with strength and he knew all the works of Montu (deity of war tactics and training), no one is like him in the battlefield, he knew about horses, he had no equal among those many soldiers, o one is able to take away his bow, nor catch up with him, he have strong arms does not get tired of rowing, he was rowing his falcon ship of 200 sailor, they left the shore and rowed for half a mile but they became weak, their organs languished, they failed to breath after that but his majesty was strong with his oar of 20 arms long. He left the shore then docked after he sailed for three miles rowing against the current without ceasing to work whilst the people were in likeness with him as they looked at him. Then he did the following job: he took 300 bows comparing between its manufacturers so that he separated the ignorant from the clever. Then he came to do what is in front of your faces. He entered in his northern place and he found out that there are four targets made of Asiatic copper set for him, the thickness of each one is equal to the width of a hand, between every pillar and the one after it was 20 arms, then his majesty appeared on is horse like "Montu" in his strength, he took his bow and held four arrows together, then he waled towards the north, then he shot it like "Montu" in his preparation for the war, the arrow penetrated till the back then he attacked another one. That did happen before and was never heard before in a story, that an arrow pierced through a copper target that fell on the ground, but, that what happenned with a very strong king and it was Amon-Ra who gave him power , the king of Upper and lower " a-Khepru-Ra." the courageous like "Montu." When he was a young prince, he was fond of his horses3, happy with her, rejoiced for its loyalty and knows it sign, he was clever in training it, very dened with a very strong king and it was Amon-Ra who gave him power, theeep in its matters.
When that was heard of in his father's palace, Hor, the strong bull who shone in Thebes, his majesty's heart rejoiced when he heard and became happy concerning what was said about his eldest son and he said in his heart, "It is going to him who is going to be the master of all the lands, no one can attack him as he stands with his heart courageous and become happy when victorious and even if is still a young delicate child and he did not yet reach the age of "Montu", but witness ... he put aside the desires of the flesh and he loved courage because it was the deity who placed in his heart doing that so that Egypt become protected by him and bow for him. It was then that his majesty told to whom were with him in his courtiers: let him be given the best of what is in the farm of horses that are in Memphis and let him be told, "Take care of it and make it easy to be led and make it walk nicely and tame it if it was wild."
And then it was offered to the son of the king to become involved in taking care of the horses in the King's farms, and as he was doing what he was asked to achieve and reshape and Ashtarl (two western Asiatic deities who had military nature) were happy of him that he does everything to his hearts content, he bred horses which had not equal, tiredness never gets it and if he took its reins he did not sweat even it was a far away distance. He tied his horses in Memphis while he was still a young boy and he stopped by the niche of r-mAkhet (Sphinx), he spent some time there circumambulating around it with his chariot wheel feasting his eyes on the beauty of the venerated niches of Khufu and Khafra and his heart longed to keep their names alive so he studied them in heart, he was use to achieve what his father Ra ordered him to do. And after that his majesty was appointed King, the crown found its place on his head and the symbol .orientation of the two sphinxes. It is the same direction of the previously mentioned Akers and Ruti. So, it is now obvious that in the northern side, he is depicted in front of the northern sphinx and in the southern side he is depicted in front of the southern sphinx. That means two different Sphinxes. If the owner of the stela wanted to convey the idea of being depicted in front of one sphinx why should he be depicted twice in front of two sphinxes. He could have done like the owners of the votive stela, ears stela (stones with the deity and humans are depicted to allow the deity to listen to all the devotee's prayers and question).
There are many examples of these stela which show the devotee depicted in front of one sphinx, including Tut-mosis IV, they were excavated around the Great Sphinx area. Here I mention some: The clever scribe Mer-Yuh, the clever scribe "montu-hr" who shows one sphinx and two pyramids in the background in perspective, confirming my theory that if he wanted to show two sphinxes he was free to do that without being chained by the artistic imaginary duality concept, he showed two pyramids (Khufu and Khafra), because in reality behind the Sphinx they exist, he showed one Sphinx because the second one had been long destroyed. The number of objects in the scene indicated the ---Sl calculation and enumeration of the figures and matters mentioned in the scene . If, according to the orientation of the Giza area, in the field of the pyramids and sphinx, the existing surviving sphinx is the northern one, so the southern sphinx is the one behind the Valley Temple, my "Second Sphinx." It should be a little bit to the south of the main axis of the Valley Temple, to be harmonically and symmetrical in place and shape to the existing surviving sphinx, which is a little bit diverged to the north of the Sphinx Temple axis.
The text of the Dream Stela is destroyed at the lower part but the surviving upper part contains very essential information to us. Once again, I am translating the text from Selim Hassan's book;"The first year, third month of the first season, the 19'hday, under the rule of Hor,the strong bull, sources of radiation, beloved of the two goddesses Nekhbet and Buto) surviving in royalty like Atum, golden Hor, the one with the strong sword, pursuer of the nine bows (enemies of Egypt), king of Upper and Lower, MinKhepru-Ra, son of Ra, Tut-mosis IV, the illuminating in the crowns, beloved off Amon, offerer of life, stability and content like Ra forever. Long live the good deity son of Atum, protector of Hor-Akhety, the living image of the deity of all, the heir, born to Ra, the heir of Khepri the excellent, beautiful of face like his father, the young who are provided by the image of Hor on him, the King who is........the favored by the nine deities purifier of On (Heliopolis), who makes Ra satisfied, he who beautifies Memphis who brings justice closer to Atum who offers it to him, who dwells in north of the walls (Ptah), who made a monument by the daily offerings to the deity who created everything, who searched for the good to the deities of the south and the north, maker of all their offering, son of Atum from his body, Tut-mosis IV, illuminated on his throne, Min-Khepru-Ra, giver of life.
When his majesty was young, like Horus the young in Khamis (Kom El Khobiezah in the northern Delta), his body was like the protector of his father, Hor, he appeared like the deity himself and the army was happy with their love to him, and he was practicing the features of his strength like the son of Nut (Osiris) and all the prices and all the greats. Look ... he did some work that makes him content on the Memphis heights, he was shooting towards a target made of layers of copper, and hunting lions and the small animals of the desert, fast with his chariot, as his horses are faster than the wind, with two of his followers without one soul knowing. When the hour came to allow his followers to rest, it was always in the temple of Setpet (Hor-m-Akhet temple) beside Soker in Rostaw and Renenutet in the verses of Tamout ... in the desert (or the Necropolis) ... and his friend Mut ... the northern, lady of the southern wall, Sekhmet the rising on the excellent primeval mountain .The first year, third month of the first season, the 19'hday, under the rule of Hor, the strong bull, sources of radiation, beloved of the two goddesses Nekhbet and Buto) surviving in royalty like Atum, golden Hor, the one with the strong sword, pursuer of the nine bows (enemies of Egypt), king of Upper and Lower, MinKhepru-Ra, son of Ra, Tut-mosis IV, the illuminating in the crowns, beloved of Amon, offerer of life, stability and content like Ra forever .Long live the good deity son of Atum, protector of Hor-Akhety, the living image of the deity of all, the heir, born to Ra, the heir of Khepri the excellent, beautiful of face like his father, the young who are provided by the image of Hor on him, the King who is ... the favored by the nine deities purifier of On (Heliopolis), who makes Ra s, he who beautifies Memphis who brings justice closer to Atum who offers it to him, who dwells in north of the walls (Ptah), who made a monument by the daily offerings to the deity who created everything, who searched for the go"The first year, third month of the first season, the 19'hday, under the rule of Hor, the strong bull, sources of radiation, beloved of the two goddesses Nekhbet and Buto) surviving in royalty like Atum, golden Hor, the one with the strong sword, pursuer of the nine bows (enemies of Egypt), king of Upper and Lower, MinKhepru-Ra, son of Ra, Tut-mosis IV, the illuminating in the crowns, beloved of Amon, offerer of life, stability and content like Ra forever. Long live the good deity son of Atum, protector of Hor-Akhety, the living image of the deityof all, the heir, born to Ra, the heir of Khepri the excellent, beautiful of face like his father, the young who are provided by the image of Hor on him, the King who is ... the favored by the nine deities purifier of On (Heliopolis), who makes Ra satisfied, he who beautifies Memphis who brings justice closer to Atum who offers it to him, who dwells in north of the walls (Ptah), who made a monument by the daily offerings to the deity who created everything, who searched for the good to the deities of the south and the north, maker of all their offering, son of Atum from his body, Tut-mosis IV, illuminated on his throne, Min-Khepru-Ra, giver of life.
The very great statue of Khepri is located in this place, he who is great in his courage which thes hadow of Ra rests upon and toward him comes the lands of Memphis and all the cities that he has got, raising the hands of tanks toward his face, carrying the offerings to his spirit. In one of these days it happened that the son of the King, Tut-mosis came at noon time where he rested in the shade of the great deity, so he fell asleep when the sun was at its peak, so his majesty found that venerated one, talking with his mouth like a father talking to his son saying, "look at me, my son, Tut-mosis, I am your father, Horm-Akhet-Khepri-Ra-Atum, I am going to give you my kingdom on earth upon the heads of the living. You shall wear the White Crown and the Red Crown, over the throne Geb, the hereditary prince, and the land; its length and width are going to be yours, that which the eye of the great deity rises over, the food of both lands is going to be yours, and the tributes from all the nations throughout the long years, and I am orienting my face towards you and my heart toward you, you are going to be the one who cares about m affairs because I am feeling pain in all my organs. The sands of the temple that am in have caught me (reached me), so pay attention to me so that you do what I desire, I know that you are my son and my protector, look ... I am with you. I am your guide." When he was through with his speech, the son of the king was awake as he heard that ... he understood the words of the deity and he placed it in his heart. He said, "come, let us hasten to our houses in the city, they will keep to this deity the offering that they bring to him, oxen ... and all the fresh vegetables. We shall give our thanks to Wen-nefer ... and Khafra. . .and the statue, which was made for "Atum-Hor-m-Akhet."
Tut-mosis IV used an interesting and crafty way in this text to prove and confirm his mixed legitimacy with cleverness. The dream that came as a prophecy was mentioned 123 against the master of the Khur-'aha (old Cairo now) and the path of the sacred deity towards the western necropolis in Heliopolis. The very great statue of khepri is located in this place, he who is great in his courage which the shadow of Ra rests upon and toward him comes the lands of Memphis and all the cities that he has got, raising the hands of tanks toward his face, carrying the offerings to his spirit. In one of these days it happened that the son of the King, Tut-mosis came at noon time where he rested in the shade of the great deity, so he fell asleep when the sun was at its peak, so his majesty found that venerated one, talking with his mouth like a father talking to his son saying, "look at me, my son, Tut-mosis, I am your father, Horm-Akhet-Khepri-Ra-Atum, I am going to give you my kingdom on earth upon the heads of the living. You shall wear the White Crown and the Red Crown, over the throne Geb, the hereditary prince, and the land; its length and width are going to be yours, that which the eye of the great deity rises over, the food of both lands is going to be yours, and the tributes from all the nations throughout the long years, and I am orienting my face toward you and my heart toward you, you are going to be the one who cares about my affairs because I am feeling pain in all my organs. The sands of the temple that I am in have caught me (reached me), so pay attention to me so that you do what I desire, I know that you are my son and my protector, look ... I am with you. I am your guide." When he was through with his speech, the son of the king was awake as he heard that ... he understood the words of the deity and he placed it in his heart. He said, "come, let us hasten to our houses in the city, they will keep to this deity the offering that they bring to him, oxen ... and all the fresh vegetables. We shall give our thanks to Wen-nefer ... and Khafra. . .and the statue, which was made for "Atum-Hor-m-Akhet."
Tut-mosis IV used an interesting and crafty way in this text to prove and confirm his mixed legitimacy with cleverness. The dream that came as a prophecy was mentioned and written with proficiency. Furthermore, it mentioned the name Khafra in relation to the Sphinx but did not say directly and clearly that he had carved the Sphinx or that he was its owner or that he ordered his workers to chisel it. It is a very obscure hieroglyphic sentence to be the one and only evidence in writing that Khafra, building of the second pyramid was the man who originally pioneered the idea of ordering the carving of the Sphinx. It is also worthy of a second look at the southern side of the top scene, to the south of the scene, which shows the pedestal's facade like design. The destroyed part did not go all all in vain. There were two hieroglyphic characters waiting for my eyes to inspect and feast on. And feast on it I did, as my heart felt happiness the second, I saw the two characters. The top one was( hr ) a full face of a man which is the first letter of many interesting words which from one side can prove that the southern Sphinx (my Tefenut second sphinx) was destroyed and from the other side to also open another gate of another exciting theory. The face hr is at the top of a longitudinal register of hieroglyphic sentence, which does not exist on the northern part of the Dream Stela top scene. That means that these words were meant to be directed only to the southern Sphinx, "The Second Sphinx." Perhaps hr the full face remaining was a part of:
1.(Hr tiwy r): Keep away . . from or avoid
. . which shows that it was cursed, not
to be touched or dealt with statue.
2. (Shr): banish, which shows the decision of the sacred deity of creation concerning the statue disapproval and that it is not liked, desired and wanted among the sacred. It was expelled.
3.( Hryt): dread proving, its horrible and frightful existence.
4. Unplanned tomb, which indicates the possibility of a connection between the statue and a burial place or chamber of some sort.
Supporting this thought of burial though under the ground is the book "Astonishments of Construction," Agaib-EI- Benian, it mentions, "at the pyramids are a head and neck, emerging frome earth that is so great, people call it Abu El Houl (the father of terror) and they claim that his body is buried under the ground, or, they would make the stones of the statue useful to be used in building tombs which explains the vicinity of some tombs and false doors to the area behind the Valley Temple where I believe the "Second Sphinx" was.
Below that character, the only surviving character
is A which allowed me to prognosticate that the letter was a part of
a word ( Htm), which means perish. It states clearly
the final destiny of the poor, doomed statue of Tefenut, in a form of a
lioness. Tefenut, in mythology was not built as a character to last forever
like Shu. She was moisture and dew so her features are not that of a surviving
nature. Atum said, "I produced offspring in the form of Shu and produced moisture in the form of Tefenut."
His human kind generation in the form of Shu,.so Shu had to survive or else
there will be no existing mankind. In the very same text Atum confirms
that it was Shu and Tefenut (the two lions among other deities who helped
in defeating "Apip" (the evil serpent), ". . .who was held by means of the two hands of
Aker (the double lion). This symbolic religious contention reflected clearly on
the historical topography of the pyramid area. The area behind both the Sphinx Temple
and the Valley Temple was but a real stage of an on going historical play
where mythology mingled with reality with an exquisite script and clever scenario
to produce an influential act which impressed the whole population. Tut-mosis
IV, mentioned all its scenes in pure probity. He venerated the destroyed statue
as well, using it in proving that he respects the past, pays homage to
all deities and gives tribute to those who do not occur more, from the sympathetic point
of view. Other pharaohs did the same to strengthen their roots and relate
themselves to the ancestors, their beliefs and their traditions. Take for example,
Ramses 11, in the hypostyle hall of Karnak Temple. He depicts his royal name on
most of the 134 columns of this grand room. Not only that he uses the oblong
royal cartouche, which was quite normal during his time, but he placed a Serekh
beside it. "Serekh" was a rectangular design imitating
the archaic and Old Kingdom palace walls. It was used to place the name of the
royal character inside, before the invention of the cartouche. Reviving the old
tradition is not only attempted by historians and Egyptologist of the modem times
but was a task followed by many Pharaohs.
THE INVENTORY STELA
The third evidence, is what historians refer to as "The Inventory Stela" or "Khufu's Daughters Stela," because of its vicinity to Khufu's daughters pyramid. It was excavated by Mariette. Personaly, I would use the term "Inventory Stela" as it is more appropriate and correct. The reason being it contains scenes of a number of deities who Khufu found when he was restore the temple. Made of limestone, its dimensions are 70-cm height and 43 cm wide. It is dated to the Saitic period, 26 th dynasty (663 to 525 BQ. It is an honest and genuine copy of a very important text with sacred character and scenes explaining, in fine details and rich information, an incident, which occurred in the pyramids area. Khufu, Isis lady of the pyramid, the Sphinx and Rastaw were involved in this superb dramatic true story. The Saitic copied it from an original text without changing converting, adding, distorting or even exaggerating . The hierarchy at that time would not have accept any misrepresentation of a, text which they are attempting to keep intact for following generations, as an attempt by the Saitic to venerate the incident and confirm its authentic origin. The Saitic's whose intentions were oriented toward restoring and reerecting temples and Statues. They were true believers in heterodoxy to the Pharaonic style and artistic features. Rightfully, we can say that if anyone states that the Saitic copied stories they are then doing injustice to a group of very loyal people, of the Egyptian civilization. They are culminating the Saitic work to revive the Egyptian pharaonic culture. Saitic kings like, Psmatik 1 (664-610 BC) attempted to expand Egypt's boundaries by campaigning in Syria, Necho 11 (610-595 BC) protected Egypt from an attack charged by the Babylonian army lead by its famous leader King Nebuchadnezzar 11 (604-562 BC). Pioneering attempts to link the Red Sea with the Nile, by digging a canal, is proof of the Saitic good intentions toward the land of Egypt.
The Inventory Stela's text illuminated my theory's path. It mentioned that Khufu saw, restored and venerated the Sphinx, which confirms my theory that the Sphinx existed Ion" before Khafra. As Khafra came after Khufu, who felt forced by his love and respect to the deity, Hor-m- Akhet, to restore its weak body, which means that the Sphinx was already exposed to erosion, weathering and natural factors of destruction for enough Time to cause the damage that Khufu attempted to restore. It also proved many other theories correct.. It starts by mentioning how Khufu, the great pyramid's owner has restored and rebuilt a temple for the sacred mother, "Isis'. This confirms that not only was Isis a well known, venerated goddess in the days of Khufu (4hdynasty) but she was respected even before Khufu. The reason I believe so strongly in this text as, it mentions that the pharaoh is restoring a temple, renovating what was already there, meaning that it was an archaic and perhaps pre-dynastic sacred chapel. Isis, among the titles she was given, she was called the lady or mistress of the pyramid. A unique extolment title, which proves traditional historians wrong, as they believed that Isis was not a wide spread cult in the days of Khufu and his dynasty. There is also an indication that it was due to this temple's existence, in its location, that Khufu decided to build his pyramid in the vicinity. Describing the sphinx as, "he who directs the winds by the means of his consideration" confirms two important facts. The first is, the Sphinx he is referring to is the surviving statue of today, the northern one, that I previously proved was Shu the wind, air and breathe deity. The second is, if Shu is the one, which Khufu mentioned in the text, the other one should be Tefenut as they came into existence together, namely the two cubs. The Inventory Stela of Khufu awarded me with the reason why "The Second Sphinx," behind the Valley Temple is not there, and how and why it was destroyed. The dilemma of its nonexistence is justified through this text. It says there was a strong thunderbolt that descended on the area where the Sphinx is located, as a result of a decision made by the "Deity of the Skies." Khufu went to inspect the traces of the bolt of lightening and its destructive effect on the back of the royal headdress, "Nemes, "where he ordered carved a new ponytail for the nemes. The missing part was calculated according to the text to be seven arms, which are equal to 3.70 meters. Confirmably, I can insist that this is the truth as the missing part until today is about 3.7 to 4 meters long.
Another useful and historical evidence of the destruction of the "Second Sphinx" is that this lightening hit some branches of a sycamore tree, which are in the vicinity of Hor-makhet. The truth in this comment is undisturbed because Selim Hassan believes that perhaps the sycamore tree that is on the southern side of the Sphinx today is the offspring of the hit and burnt ancient tree, especially when he confirms that sycamore trees live for a very long interval of time and it was calculated in his time of excavation (1936) that it could have reached more than 2000 years. It is only fair to say that if thunder and lightening hit the sycamore tree and the northern sphinx, why did it not hit what is between, which is the southern sphinx, the "Second Sphinx?"
The text of the "Inventory Stela" is translated as follows; "Life to Hor-Mezer, the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Khufu the offerer of life, he made to his mother, Isis, his sacred mother, mistress of the western mountains, a decision on a tablet, and he contributes new sacred offerings to her. He founded a temple made of stone, renewing what was found, that is these deity statues which are in their places. Life to Hor-Mezer, king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Khufu, offerer of life, he found the house of Osiris, "Deity of Rastarv," then he built his pyramid beside the temple of this goddess, he also constructed a pyramid for the daughter of King "Hemut-Sen" beside this temple.
The place of "Horona-Hor-MAkhet" is on the southern side of the house of Isis, mistress of the pyramid, and north of Osiris, "Deity of Rastw." Drawings of the image of "Hor-m-akhet" were brought so that what was said concerning the nature of the magnificent statue is reviewed. So, the statue, which is outer cased (covered) all in paint, was restored. The guardian of the surroundings, who directs the winds by consideration, and he ordered the carving of the missing part from the back (rear) part of the Nemes of golden stone, its length reaches approximately 7 cubits (3.7 meters). He came to make a tour so that he could see the lightening that is in the place of the sycamor tree, called like this because of a great sycamore tree, its branches were stricken when the deity of the skies (heavens) descended on the place of Hor-m- Akhet and over this image following the scratches according to what was mentioned from the written situation ... for all the slaughtered animals in "Rastaw." It is a table for the jar which is full of these animals which are to be eaten, except for its thighs, beside these seven deities, asking for ... (the deity have given) the idea that is in his heart, by putting a written decision on the side of this Sphinx during one of the hours of the night. The statue of this deity, because it is hewn off the rock and it will remain forever, with his face looking toward the east."
Notice that in the text there is a comment about the great deity descending like lightening on the sphinx and then he mentions directly after this, ". . and also over (on) this image." He is referring to (in my opinion) to the image of Hor-m- Akhet depicted on the left side to the viewer, at the bottom of the stela. They depict the Sphinx on this side to correlate with the southern destroyed Sphinx. Had it been depicted on the right side of the stela then it would, correlate with the northern existing sphinx. Notice, the owner of the tablet has carved one sphinx, and two, so that he emphasized the fact that he was referring to the south of the causeway. When Khafra comes to power he wanted to link the mortuary temple, beside his pyramid, to the Valley Temple by building a causeway. Remember, the so-called Valley Temple was already there, so was the lion (northern sphinx), so his workers had to diverge to the south. That is why the causeway is not like Menkawra's, owner of the third pyramid, for example which is perpendicular (90 degree angle).
I noticed, though, that the eastern end of the causeway is not opening into the middle of the Western wall of the Valley Temple, as it is usual in all the cases of ancient Egypt. Traditionally, in the days of the ancient Egyptians, the walls of the facades of temples or tombs were always entered or exited from an opening in the middle, so to keep the harmony, symmetry and equalization between the left and the right side of the wall. However, in the case of Khafra's causeway, the opening is on the far northern end of the temple, which is very unusual and traditionally incorrect. Unless, he was forced not to shift all the way till the middle of the wall with his causeway. The only reason why he could not take his causeway more to the south is that a reason occurred which is equal in size, height, importance, measurements and sacredness to the northern Sphinx that stopped him. He could not have built his causeway over the body of the southern sphinx even after it destruction. Remains of the destroyed doomed southern lioness statue were still there, and the builders of the causeway had to avoid it. Bearing in mind the southern lion was not situated exactly facing the middle axis of the Valley Temple, rather a little to the south, like its equal, when according to the axis of the Sphinx Temple it had to be carved to its north to make the axis line go through the southern paw of the lion. One reason is due to its importance and veneration. The second reason could be that he did not want to come to the vicinity of the doomed, touched by thunder and lightening area.
Khufu, in the inventory stela, besides confirming that the Sphinx existed before Khafra, was anxious to associate his text and his sacred self with many of the most venerated deities. By doing that, he proved that all these sacred characters had approved him as the king of Upper and Lower Egypt. At the top register of the scene, on the left part, there are standards and staffs holding sacred emblems like the ibis, the falcon and the dogs. On the far right there is Min, wearing the two plumes in a form of an embalmed body, with one arm lifted in the air, holding a flagelleu. Min was the deity of fertility and the eastern desert, originally worshiped in his place. Qift and Akhmin. Qift was the same place where Romans carved intricately composed Sphinxes. In the second register, we noticed Isis and Horus, the young, her child; Isis was the guardian, sacred mother, magician and lady of the pyramid. Selket the scorpion goddess and Nephtys the guardian and mourner are flanking the sacred lady. To the right of the scene is the sacred boat lying on a pedestal. On the third register, a magnificent scene gathering of Isis, Sekhmet, the lioness headed, Ptah, patron deitY of-Memphis and the sacred supporter of the craftsmen and workers. In the middle is the most important of the whole group, Osiris in his sacred shrine, crossing his arms and holding toward his chest the scepter and the flagellum, wearing the white crown with two plumes flanking it. Osiris was the deity of the netherworld and the father of Horus. He was assassinated by his jealous brother, Set. The fourth and last bottom register has on the left, Hor-m-akhet (the Sphinx) recumbent on a pedestal. On the far right the Apis bull is depicted. Apis bulls were always mummified and buried with honor, in magnificent sarcophagi in places like Saqqarah, in the Sera peum, the most exciting underground labyrinth.
The decision of Atum (the father) to destroy Tefenut (his daughter) might come as a surprise to some readers. It is not. in reality, by any means indifferent. It was a punishment that the father is proving hegemony and domination through it. Tefenut being a factor supporting the destruction of temples, tombs and statues (as she was moisture and dew) had to be punished, but, not eternally. Tefenut was allowed to return but in a different form and shape after she was deserted by Atum and then destructed in her lioness form in the pyramids area.
Utterance 80, of the coffin texts, which depended on the pyramids texts, said, "At the beginning (Atum says) I lived with my two children, my two little ones, one in front of me and the other is behind me. I placed life in peace with you (female) "order," once inside me (male) and the other without me." The last words indicate Atum's desertino, Tefenut. That was not the only time that deities punished members of their families, and members of the population of their own Kingdoms. One of the best examples, proving my theory, is the infamous story of "Ra and the annihilation of human kind or destruction of mankind." Ra himself in this very serious admonishing manner is showing his reven;e from those who did not comply with what he said. He decided to utterly wipe out mankind because they did not show respect in his old age. The doomed people lacked obedience and that is why they deserved to be exterminated. Herein, the story of annihilation of mankind, "Ra" is the deity who created himself then rose in domination upon the people and the deities and upon everything . . .the only one ... the humans uttered words of lying. "Look now his majesty whose power goes and life and health became old.
His bones became like silver and his libs became like gold and his hair is like true stone. Now his majesty heard the words that the people talked concerning him, and said to those who were with him, scream and bring me my eye, Shu, Tefenut, Geb and Nut, the fathers deities, the mother deities that were with me when I was in Nun (the primeval ocean), bring over Nun also, let him bring his servants as well. Let then all come in silence so that the humans do not notice the escape with their hearts." The text goes on about how Ra asked his group of deities how to find him away to punish the humans, ". . .1 am not going to slaughter them until you say what shall I do concerning them. . ." Deities decided to advise Ra to send his own eye in the form of the sacred cow, Hat-hur, to ". . Destroy those who uttered the evil words. . ." Hat-hur directly slaughtered the humans who were over the mountains. After goddess has slaughtered the humans during their festival, she sailed upon the river, but it was then that Ra decided to stop his revenge, ". . .1 have to protect the human race from her. . .". He offered her a drink which made her heart happy and she became drunk, ". . she is not any more interested in people." The dramatic text becomes eroded after that, leaving us with the last surviving sentence, "for the time my limbs lost their abilities, I am not going to allow this thing to happen again." This lugubrious story can be seen inscribed and carved on the walls of the tombs of Seti I and Ramses IV in the Valley of the Kings in the West Bank of Luxor.
Another revenging story is the famous Horus and Set, his uncle, who was accused of murdering his father Osiris. A story of revenge, violence and many participants. The examples are too many but the result is one. The decision of A turn to destroy "The Second Sphinx" was not a weird or exotic one if compared to the other stories we read in ancient Egyptian Mythology. But, do I believe that my lucubration in finding the second lioness is gone without a trace? The answer is "no." First, I believe that the base of the destroyed statue still exists, albeit buried under the hot dry sand behind the Valley Temple. Also, there is a possibility that a pedestal is surviving or even a part of it. Seismo- tectonic devices will prove me correct. If you stand behind the Valley Temple you will see where the sand has parted, giving a glimpse of what lies beneath, the remainder of the lost Second Sphinx. The thunderous end of "The Second Sphinx" was filled with gloominess, but the ancient Egyptians believed in resurrection. We can achieve this for them by bringing the lioness back to life; we need simply to remove the sand behind the Valley Temple, to reveal the remainder of the statue. Succeeding in doing this will once again make the scene on the Giza Plateau look symmetrical and logical.
A Radar Proof
New theories, like the Second Sphinx be tested. The elements of a theory must be examined to prove their faultless nature. Using the amity between science and Egyptology, we can reach the shores of the truth. Once this happens a theory then becomes fact. This is when "Keepers of the Truth" can warble the lyrics of the song of trueness and correctness. A theory is always in need of a savior, the doubtful thought that visits ones mind when you hear for the first time a new theory makes the path tougher and more challenging. However, when scientific proof lands on the ground of reality, it is accompanied by comfort for both the owner of the theory and the receiver. That is exactly what occurred in this case.
On the internet, a radar image of the Giza plateau was downloaded which benefits the Second Theory. The process was named SIR-C/X-SAR imagery works by NASA. Simply stated, it is a colored analysis of the different geological layers of the Giza Plateau and its constructions, those layers which are toward the Southside of the existing sphinx across the causeway, reflect a yellow signal indicating the existence of a structure. This radar signal is normally received in the form of pulses at particular microwave wavelengths in the range of I cm to I m, which in turn corresponds to a frequency range of about 300 MHz to 30 GHz and polarizations. The echoes are converted to a digital data which then is displayed as an image. This image is composed of many dots or elements of a picture, each represents the radar back scatter for a particular area on the ground. In our case it is the remaining of the "Second Sphinx."
The question remains though, if that curious bright yellow area is what
remained from the Second Sphinx why are the head and paws not detected?
The answer is, the sphinx was, like her brother, at one point in time, wearing a beautiful crown (sometimes a double crown). A hole at the top of the existing sphinx's head proves that it was used to fit in it the stand that held the crown. The fact that sphinxes wore crowns is not strange for the ancient Egyptians, as, many still existing ones are shown wearing it. The hr-m-aket of Giza in particular was wearing it as shown in the many steala found and excavated from around the statue itself in the vicinity of the body of the sphinx itself. Votive stelae dedicated by many people like priests and scribes. Now, all these confirming stelae are in the Egyptian Museum in front of the room of Akhenaton, to the right of its exit, erected on the ground level are these curtail stelae supported by the left side wall. These crowns that the second sphinx was wearing were made of metal which attracts lightening. So, it destroyed the crown head and front paws completely as the charge of the full charge of the lightning's energy, at its peak left the head area destroyed. The lioness body and tail remains is what I believe still exists and is reflected by the yellow colored signals is reflected and bounced back the yellow colored signals, proving that there is a structure behind the Valley Temple. The anomaly of one sphinx in Giza is now corrected and the lone sphinx is no more, as we are about to uncover his sister. No more lonely nights.
This radar image shows the area west of the
Nile River near Cairo, Egypt.
The Nile River is the dark band along the right side of the image and it flows
approximately due North from the bottom to the right. The boundary between
dense urbanization and the desert can be clearly seen between the bright and
dark areas in the center of the image. This boundary represents the approximate
extent of yearly Nile flooding which played an important part in determining
where people lived in ancient Egypt. This land usage pattern persists to
NASA image-Geza and desert around,the thumbnail left upper corner image shows the site of the 3 pyramids.
The pyramids at Giza appear as three bright triangles aligned with the image top just at the boundary of the urbanized area. They are also shown enlarged in the inset box in the top left of the image. The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops in Greek) is the northern most of the three Giza pyramids. The side-looking radar illuminates the scene from the top, the two sides of the pyramids facing the radar reflect most of the energy back to the antenna and appear radar bright; the two sides away from the radar reflect less energy back and appear dark Two additional pyramids can be seen left of center in the lower portion of the image.
The modem development in the desert on the
left side of the image is the Sixth of October City, an
area of factories and
residences started by Anwar Sadat to relieve urban crowding. The image was taken
on April 19, 1994 by the Spacebome Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic
Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR,
a joint mission of the German,
Italian and the united States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered on latitude 29.72 degrees North latitude and 30.83 degrees East longitude. The area shown is approximately 20 kilometers by 30 kilometers. The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. Spacebome Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X- SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Domier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.