WHAT IS DIABETES MELLITUS?
Diabetes Mellitus is a common metabolic endocrinopathy resulting from absolute or relative deficiency of insulin and leading to metabolic disturbance of carbohydrate, fat and protein. The disease is frequently followed by water-electrolyte imbalance and acid-base disturbance. According to the age of the patients, clinical manifestations and requirements for insulin, diabetes can be divided into many types. In Acupuncture, this disease is defined as 'xiao ke' which means diabetes.
1. The characteristics of a typical case of diabetes mellitus are often polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria and loss of body weight. Early or asymptomatic patients only show abnormal release of cortical hormone and insulin inside the body. The level of fasting blood sugar is elevated with abnormal glucose tolerance test. Symptomatic patients are frequently complicated by other symptoms of dermal, neural and endocrinous disorders, besides polyphogia, polyuria and loss of body weight.
2. The main complications and concomitant diseases of diabetes mellitus are diabetic ketoacidosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetic renopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Cardiovascular complications are the chief causes of death.
3. Diabetes mellitus is classified into juvenile and adult types according to the clinical features. The age of onset of the juvenile type is young and has a tendency to inheritance. Blood sugar fluctuates widely and is quite sensitive to insulin. Treatment is difficult and it is often named insulin-depending diabetes or unstable diabetes. The age of onset of adult type is above 40. This type is relatively mild and can be controlled by dietary restriction or oral antidiabetics. Therefore it is also named non- insulin depending diabetes or stable diabetes.
4. Accessory examination
a) Fasting blood-glucose is higher than 130 mg. Blood glucose after meal is more than 160-180 mg. Urine is positive for glucose. If complicated by ketosis, urine is positive for ketone bodies.
b) Glucose tolerance test can be used to diagnose early or suspected cases and is the principle test in diagnosis.
c) New diagnostic techniques such as testing blood insulin levels are quite helpful in understanding the pathological changes of pancreas and in obtaining information concerning treatment.
TYPES OF SYNDROMES
1. Dryness-heat in the Lung and Stomach Main Symptoms : Restlessness, polydipsia, polyphagia with tendency to hunger, dryness of the mouth and tongue, polyuria, red tongue with yellowish fur, slippery and rapid pulse.
2. Deficiency of the Kidney Main Symptoms : Polyuria with turbid discharge, soreness and debility of the lumbus, dryness of the mouth and tongue, dyshopria with feverish sensation in the chest, palms and soles, red tongue, deep, thready and rapid pulse.
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia (high glucose blood sugar), among other signs.
Diabetes is a problem with the body's fuel system. It is caused by lack of insulin, a hormone made in the pancreas (an organ that secretes enzymes needed for digestion) that is essential for getting energy from food.
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic medical condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose). This sugar is vital to your health because it's your body's main source of fuel.
Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose, or sugar, for our bodies to use for energy.
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