Prehistory-1000 BC
The plains of northwestern Africa are occupied by nomads and small tribes of farmers

814 Carthage founded by Elissa (Dido), sister of the King of Tyre.
770 Founding of Gadir, gateway to Spanish silver.
675 Foundation of Cyrene by Greeks from Thera, under the leadership of Battus
654 Carthage founds colony in the Balearic Islands at Ibiza .
600 Carthage fails to prevent Phocaean Greek colony at Massilia ( Marseilles ).
580 First attempt by Greeks to drive Phoenicians out of Sicily .
574 Tyre falls to Nebuchadnezzar.
570 Battle of Irasa: Cyrene Greeks vanquish Egyptians (allied with the Libyans)
560 Foundation of Barca by dissident Cyreneans.
550 Carthage allies with the Etruscans against the Greeks.
550 Carthaginian force led by Malchus defeats Greeks in Sicily , but is vanquished in Sardinia . Malchus banished, marches on Carthage , is caught and executed.
550? Carthaginian colonies formed along coast of Africa , Algeria , Hadrumetum, Leptis.
539 Asian Phoenicia falls to Cyrus the Great of Persia.
535 Carthage , with Etruscans, destroys Phocaean colony in Corsica and closes Sardinia-Corsica off to the Greeks.
515 Attempt by a contingent of Greeks to settle at the mouth of Wadi Caam; Libyans, allied with Carthaginians, drive them back to sea.
510 Dorieus, a Spartan prince, is expelled from Tripolitania .
510 Rome throws off Etruscan rulers and establishes independent republic.
507 First treaty with Rome

Fifth Century
Rome becomes the leading city of central Italy ; Carthage explores, conquers and colonizes its surrounding African interior

498 Hippocrates and Theron seize control in Syracuse and attempt to throw Phoenicians off western part of the island.
480 Alliance with Persia fails to destroy Greeks, military defeat in Sicily as fleet is cut off by superior Athenian forces (Himera). Revolution overthrows Mago dynasty and establishes Court of 104 Magistrates.
480 Carthaginian force under Hamilcar the Magonid defeated by Sicilian Greeks at Himera cutting off access to the East. Hamilcar commits suicide on the battlefield.
479-450 Carthage conquers most of Tunisia . Colonies in North Africa founded or strengthened. Mago's expedition across the Sahara .
440 Assassination of Archesilas IV
410 Phoenicians in Spain join with Celtiberians to secede from Carthage , denying the state important silver and copper revenues. Overland tin trade cut off.
410 Himilco's expeditions in the Atlantic . Hanno's expeditions to Morocco and Senegal .
409 Carthage initiates attempts to conquer Sicily . Hannibal, grandson of Hamilcar, takes the fortified towns of Selinus and Himera by use of siege towers.
405 Hannibal Mago and hundreds of troops die in epidemic outside fortified town of Acragas . Himilco, his relative, takes over command, is defeated by force out of Syracuse , and has supply disrupted in naval action. Syracusan forces strengthen garrison.
405 Carthaginian squadron breaks through Greek blockade -- the besieged escape under cover of night, Punic forces collect spoils.
405 Himilco takes town of Gela , defeating Syracusan force, then takes town of Camarina .
405 Himilco marches on Syracuse . Army is laid low by epidemic. Himilco seeks peace. Syracuse grants control of most of Sicily and must pay tribute to Carthage . Treaty confirms Dionysius I as dictator (tyrannos) of Syracuse . First Sicilian War concluded.
400? Establishment of a frontier between Carthaginians and Greeks: the Altar of Phileni.

Fourth Century
Numidian kingdoms begin to form beyond Carthaginian frontiers

398 Dionysius sacks Motya -- Carthaginians permanently relocate main Sicilian base to fortified town of Lilybaeum .
397 Himilco drives Dionysius back to Syracuse and resumes siege. In naval action, sinks or boards 100 Syracusan naval vessels and takes 20,000 prisoners.
396 Epidemic lays Punic forces low for a third time in Sicily . Dionysius capitalizes and defeats Himilco in pitched battle. He survives, but upon return to Carthage , starves himself to death. Fighting continues.
393 Carthaginian force under Mago, nephew of Himilco, defeated trying to re-take Messana.
392 Mago defeated a second time. Truce signed.
384 Carthage renews war, initiating minor skirmishes.
375 Carthage defeated at Cabala -- Mago and 10,000 soldiers killed. Mago's son Himilco defeats Dionysius near Himera -- truce favorable to Carthage concluded.
367 Dionysius attacks Carthaginian base at Lilybaeum -- stopped when fleet defeated by warships under Hanno the Great.
366 Dionysius I dies, still at war with Carthage .
360 Hanno the Great crucified following unsuccessful attempt to usurp power.
350 Carthage leading Western power.
348 Second treaty with Rome .
343 Mago sails to Syracuse to drive out the usurper. Fails and commits suicide in order to avoid court martial upon his return. Hasdrubal and Hamilcar make a second attempt, losing a battle at Segesta . Hasdrubal executed. Gisco, son of Hanno the Great, authorized to make peace -- Sicily divided along Halycus River . 2nd Sicilian War ends.
340 Power struggle in Syracuse ends with Timoleon of Corinth victorious.
338 Uneasy, yet prosperous peace in Sicily .
334 Alexander the Great conquers the Eastern World. Carthage makes peace with the Greek empire and with the Lagos monarchy in Egypt .
323 Alexander dies.
315 Agathocles of Syracuse takes Messana.
312 Cyrene revolts against Egyptian domination.
311 Agathocles lays siege to Acragas and crosses the Halcyus, violating the peace treaty.
310 Carthaginian force under Hamilcar, grandson of Hanno the Great defeats Greek force at Himera. Siege of Syracuse begins.
309 Agathocles sails force of 14,000 to Africa . Carthage meets with 40,000 foot, 1000 cavalry and 2000 chariots under Bomilcar and Hanno. Greeks are victorious, Carthage losing 3000 on the battlefield, but city is impregnable. Siege of Syracuse continues.
308 Greeks form local allies -- Egypt contributes 10,000. Greeks control Tunisian province and fighting continues.
308 Bomilcar tries to make himself dictator in Carthage . Is defeated and tortured to death.
307 Greek victory outside Syracuse . Hamilcar captured and killed.
307 While Agathocles oversees events in Syracuse , Carthage defeats the Greek and allied forces. Despite Syracusan reinforcement, Greek cause in Africa is doomed. Greeks desert to Carthaginian commanders Hanno and Himilco in vast numbers. Treaty favorable to Carthage concluded.
306 Third treaty with Rome .
300 Pytheas explores the Atlantic , Euthymenes the coasts of Africa .
300 Magas is governor, than king, of Cyrene .
300 Birth of Zilalsan, first known tribal leader of Numidia

Third Century
The first and second Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome take place.

289 Agathocles dies. Pre-war division of Sicily resumes. 3rd Sicilian War ends.
279 Pyrrhus of Epirus , relative of Alexander the Great, invades southern Italy and Sicily . Defeats Phoenicians and forces them off the island, leaving Lilybaeum as the only remaining stronghold.
279 Agreement with Rome against Pyrrhus.
277 BC
Magas' revolt against half-brother Ptolemy II declares himself king of
277? Carthage sinks 70 of Pyrrhus' 110 ships and Pyrrhus gives up the war.
272 A woman hurls a tile from a rooftop as Pyrrhus invests Argos , killing him before he can begin his second invasion of Sicily .
264-241 BC
First Punic War
263 First War with Rome begins over Sicily .
262 Rome victorious at Messana. Syracuse goes over to Romans. Acragas falls to Romans.
261 Carthage raids Italian coast. Rome builds its first fleet. Carthaginian defeat at sea off Mylae. Commander Hannibal crucified. Victory at Thermae.
257 Another sea defeat and Romans land in Africa , take Tunis . Carthage , under forces led by Hasdrubal and Bostzer, defeats Rome before the gates, largely with Numidian cavalry, led by Greek mercenary leader Xanthippus.
256 Hanno the Great II expands territory in North Africa .
253 Rome wins a brilliant naval victory off the Aegates Islands , west of Sicily , cutting off African supply bases. Hasdrubal defeated outside Panormus and is executed by his own forces. Truce called.
247 Hamilcar Barca re-organizes forces on Sicily , but receives no reinforcement.
246 Marriage of Berenice, Maga's daughter, to Ptolemy III: Cyrene reunited with Egypt
241 War ends in defeat. Sicily is lost, fleet destroyed and finances ruined due to crippling indemnity.
241-237 Mercenaries revolt and stir up poverty-stricken peasants in Libya and Utica . Eventually defeated by Hamilcar. Rome obtains Sardinia-Corsica as price of staying neutral.
237 Hamilcar Barca reconquers Spain .
229 Hamilcar dies, succeeded by son-in-law Hasdrubal.
228 Carthago Nova ( Cartagena ) founded by Hasdrubal.
226 Treaty with Rome defines Ebro River as boundary between spheres.
221 Hasdrubal assassinated by an Iberian -- succeeded by Hannibal .
219 Hannibal and brother Hasdrubal conquer the entire Peninsula up to the Ebro .

218-202 BC Second Punic War

218 Hannibal takes Roman-supported town of Saguntum .
218 Hannibal marches over the Ebro , into the Alps and invades Italy with the help of Gallic allies. Victory over Cornelius Scipio at Ticinus. Victory at Trebia over Sempronius Longus. Rome defeats Hanno in Spain and Rome is victorious at sea near Lilybaeum -- Malta lost to Carthage .
217 Victory at Lake Trasimene over Flaminius.
216 Victory at Cannae over Terentius Varro. Greek sovereigns Philip V of Macedonia and Hiero of Syracuse join Carthage 's cause, though without committing deeply.
214 Syracuse falls to Roman forces commanded by Marcellus.
211 P. Cornelius Scipio the elder killed by Massinissa cavalry in Spain
210 Massinissa meets with M. Junius Silanus and switches allegiance to Rome and Syphax switches to Carthage .
210-205 Scipio with aid of Numidian Prince Massinissa conquers Spain for Rome . Scipio invades Africa , takes Tunis .
204 P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus lands in Africa . Carthage backs rival Carthage Numidian ally Syphax along with Hasdrubal Gisco is defeated by Scipio in two successive battles. Mago is defeated in northern Italy attempting to reinforce Hannibal . A peace treaty is declared and Hannibal returns to Africa .
202 Carthaginan attack on Roman convoy which has run aground re-opens the war. Hannibal defeated at Zama to end Second War with Rome . Fleet reduced to ten triremes, domain limited to eastern Tunisia , Massinissa installed as king of the Numidians at Cirta (Constantine), high indemnities and Carthage denied permission to wage war.

202-148 BC Masinissa King of Numidia
202-150 Trade with North Africa and Greece continues. Agriculture improved to bring in new revenues.

Second Century
The rise of Numidia and the Juguthan wars

195 Hannibal becomes Suffete. State reform, new methods of election.
194 Hannibal flees to court of Antiochus to escape his Roman enemies.
183 Hannibal dies by his own hand to escape Romans in Bithynia .
161 The Numidian king Massinissa takes the Emporia from Carthage with Rome 's consent
158 Mastanabal (one of Masinissa heirs) is victories in the Panathenaia.
150 Carthage attacks Numidians in response to Massinissa's land grabs. Numidia victorious and further indemnities exacted.

149-146 BC Third Punic War. Carthage destroyed. Africa Vetus founded; the rest of Africa is divided between its native kings

149 Rome declares war with Carthage in retaliation for treaty violation.
146 Carthage falls to Scipio Aemilianus. City burnt to the ground. "Delenda est Carthago."

145-118 BC Micipsa King of Numidia

123 Beginning of Africa 's land exploitation by Roman land speculators.

118-112 BC Adherbal, Hiempsal I and Jugurtha Kings of Numidia

118 Assasination of Hiempsal I

118-112 BC Adherbal and Jugurtha Kings of Numidia

112 Fall of Cirta and the murder of Adherbal and Roman citizens

112-106 BC Jugurtha King of Numidia

112-105 BC Jugurthine War

111 Lepcis signs alliance treaty with Rome .
110 Jugurtha visits Rome
109 C. Marius arrives in Numidia as aid to Q. Caecilius Metellus.
109 Unsuccessful siege of Zama , Battle of Muthul River
108 Capture of Capsa and Roman troops temporarily garrison Lepcis.
107 C. Marius given sole command of Numidian campaign
106 Jugurtha eventually betrayed by King Bocchus of Mauretania
103 Veterans of Roman Army given African land grants.

106-88 BC Gauda King of Numidia

First Century
Civil War in Rome

96 On the death of Ptolemy Apion, Cyrene "bequeathed" to Rome .

88-60 BC Hiempsal II King of Numidia

86 Hiempsal expelled by Hiarbas (a possible Gaetulian)
82 Cn. Pompeius (Magnus) lands at Utica and defeats Hiarbas who is supported by anti-Sulla elements restoring Hiempsal
80's Africa becomes refuge for Sulla's opponents
74 Organization of the province of Crete and Cyrenaica
62 Julius Caesar speaks for Masintha as the legitimate king of Numidia . Juba is physically assaulted by Caesar

60-46 BC Juba I King of Numidia

49 Scribonius Curio with two legions defeated the Pompeian forces in Utica , North Africa
49 Scribonius Curio attacked in the Bagradas River by Numidian (allies of Pompey) cavalry. The Numidians defeated the Romans and Curio comits suicide.
47 Q. Caecilius Metellus Scipio and M. Porcius Cato arrive in Africa
46 Caesar defeats the followers of dead Pompey and their ally, King Juba of Numidia ; Juba 's young son is taken to Rome ; Africa Nova founded
44 Proconsular Africa created. Foundation of the colony of Carthage which becomes the capital of Africa Proconsularis
40 The two provinces of Africa are reunited, first de facto then de iure

- 33 BC Bocchus

29 Carthage refounded, Augustus founds many veterans colonies
25 Octavian Augustus gives Mauretania to Juba II as a client kingdom

25 BC- 23 AD Juba II King of Mauretania

20 Cornelius Balbus' expedition against the Garamantes, occupies Garama, capital of the Garamantes
12 Rights of 'free city' granted to Lepcis and others
6 Introduction of the cult of Emperor Augustus in Lepcis

First century after Christ
Beginning of high prosperity for Roman Africa

2 Rome suppresses the raising of tributes in Marmarica.
3 Gaetulian War begins
6 Cossus Lentulus quells the Gaetuli; Quirinius quells the Marmaridae allied to the Garamantes
14 Legion III Augusta at Ammaedara, first mlitary frontier road

17-24 AD Suppression of Tacfarinas' revolt.

23 - 40 AD Ptolemy King of Mauretania

33 Simon of Cyrene carries Jesus cross

40 Murder of Ptolemy by Caligula and Mauretania annexed by Rome

42 Suetonius Paulinus crosses Mt Atlas and penetrates Western Sahara
44 Municipal status granted to Volubilis
68 Lucius Clodius Macer a legatus of the Roman Empire in Africa revolts against Nero and raises legion Legio I Macriana liberatrix
69 War between Oea, allied to the Garamantes, and Lepcis, which seeks aid from Rome.
74 Lepcis becomes a municipium within the Roman empire .
80 Legion III Augusta moved to Theveste with advanced post at Lambaesis
86 Suellius Flaccus' expedition against the Nasamons.
100 Former African proconsul Marius Priscus stands trial before the Senate in the presence of Trajan: Lepcis, his victim, prosecutes, and the proconsul is condemned.
c. 100 Legion III Augusta moved to Lambaesis, colony founded at Thamugadi

Second century
Spread of olive cultivation and road networks. Africans achieve political influence in Rome Sabratha and Oea become Roman colonies.

108 Lepcis acquires juridical status as a Roma colony. Sabratha and Oea become municipii
115 Jewish revolt in Cyrenaica is harshly suppressed.
117 Hadrian rebuilds Cyrenaica ; Hadrianopolis is founded.
128 Hadrian visits Africa and inspects the army
145 April 11, Birth of Lucius Septimius Severus in Lepcis.
180 First evidence of Christianity in Africa

189 First African Pope, Victor I

193-211 AD Septimius Severus Emperor
197 Clodius Albinus dies outside Lyons.
200? Construction of legionary forts in the pre-desert and apparently Ghadames
202 Severus visits Africa; Lepcis comes under the ius italicum and takes the title Septimia

217-218 AD Macrinus born in Mauretania declared Emperor

238 Battle of Carthage, Troops loyal to the Roman Emperor Maximinus defeat and kill the usurper Gordian II

238 Disbanding of III Augustan Legion, garrison withdrawn from desert outpost of Castellum Dimmidi
240 Sabinianus revolt

248 St Cyprian becomes bishop of Carthage
253 Aemilan born in Mauretania declared Emperor

253 Reformation of III Augustian Legion to combat insurrection on southern frontier
260 Lepcis receives an imperial benefit and takes the title Salonina, after Gallienus' wife
262 Earthquake in Cyrenaica .
268 Threats from the Marmarica tribes.
297 Maximian quells an uprising in Carthage . Cyrenaica becomes the province Libya Superior or Pentapolis. Capital: Ptolemais.

Third Century
Fast spread of Christianity through Numidian countryside

308 - 311 AD Alexander leads a revolt against Maxentius

312 Donatist schism begins
334 Vandals refugees from the Goths are allowed to cross the Danube and settle within the Empire.
340 Axumite leader Ezana defeats Beja (Blemmy) Dynasty, destroys Meroe , becomes King


354 - 430 St. Augustine, bishop of Hippo Regius in North Africa, one of the most influential of the Christian Church Fathers; among his best known works are The Confessions and The City of God.

355 Donatus dies in exile
363 Austurian raids on Lepcis: the Lepticians clash with imperial power.

372 Revolt of Firmus  in the Kabylie mountains supported by Donatists
373 Count Theodosius (father of Theodosius the great) puts down insurrection in Morocco.

395 Augustine becomes bishop of Hippo

386-398 AD Revolt of Gildo (Firmus's brother)

Fourth Century
Vandal invasion of Africa

400? The Austurians threaten Cyrenaica.
405 Donatism officially declared heresy
409 The Vandals pour into Gaul .
409 The Vandals pour into Spain .
411 The Donatists form a sect called the Circumcelliones or Prowlers, the first Robin Hoods, robbers with a social cause. Council of Carthage condemns the Donatist heresy officially

416 Visigoths make an abortive attempt to invade Africa

428-477 AD Gaiseric, King of the Vandals

429 Invasion of Africa by the Vandals who are invited by the Roman governor Boniface.
430 The Vandals aided by the moors and the Donastists besiege and eventually take Hippo, with Augustine dying during the siege.
431 Peace between Rome and the Vandals.
439 Gaiseric breaks the peace and the Vandals seize Carthage
455 Gaiseric attacks and loots Rome . Pope Leo obtains a promise from Gaiseric for the Vandals not to burn the city. Gaiseric returns to Carthage with the Empress Eudoxia and her two daughters.
469 The western empire supports the eastern empire under Leo I in an attempt to invade N. Africa . The attempt fails.

477-484 AD Huneric, King of the Vandals

484-496 AD Gunthamund, King of the Vandals

496-523 AD Thrasamund, King of the Vandals

Fifth Century
Byzantine Empire retake Africa and Africa starts slow decline

514 Kaleb is emperor in Axum . The empire covers modern Ethiopia , Sudan , northern Uganda , Eritrea , parts of Egypt , Yemen and Arabia .
ca. 517-537 Emperor Kaleb Ell Asheha, later called Saint Elesboam (ca. 500-540) of Aksum (in modern Ethiopia ), conquers Himyar at the request of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (r. 527-65). Byzantium supplies ships, not troops, for the effort.

523-531 AD Hilderic, King of the Vandals

531-534 AD Gelimer, King of the Vandals

533 Belisarius with his wife to support him and his secretary Proopius to write of his victories sets sail for Africa .
533/34 AD Belisaius defeats King Gelimir and takes Carthage ending Vandal rule of Africa . Is recalled by Justinian but returns soon after to save Carthage from the Moors.
543 bubonic plague reaches Africa
570 Khosrow I invades Yemen and expel the Axumites

595 Heraclius, general of Emperor Maurice becomes exarch of Carthage


Seventh Century
Arab Invasion

602 Emperor Maurice murdered by Phocas, Heraclius leads opposition to the usurper.
609 The Byzantines appeal for deliverance from Phocas to the military governor of Roman Africa, Heraclius. The governor sends his son, also Heraclius.

618-628 A.D. Sassinid Occupation of Egypt

November 18 th 643. Tripoli falls and Libya is lost

646 Exarch Gregory declares himself Emperor, remains in Africa and moves his capital to Sufetula
647 the Arabs attacked the Exarchate of Carthage, kill Gregory, take a great booty and they returned in Egypt .
652 the Arabs arrived in Nubia. Afterwards the Christian kingdoms of Dongola and Axum will stop the Arabic advance toward south

695 Carthage captured by Hassan, Arabs deteated by Kahena Queen of the Aures
697 Carthage captured by Byzantine

698 Carthage conquered by the Arabs for good

Eight Century
Local Resistance to Arab sovereignty

708 Septem (Ceuta) Byzantium's last outpost in Africa falls to the Arabs

740-742 Berbers' revolt against the Arabs

740 the Berbers defeated the Arabic troops in the plain of Tangier.
742 Berbers win a second battle near the river Masfa and are joined by the Berbers in Andalusia
742 The Arabs send a third army that defeated the Berbers and succeeded in taking back the control of Africa and Andalusia .