F1

Future Public-Safety and Wireless Communications

By way of background, most public safety equipment in use today for voice transmission employs analog FM technology. In the future, however, digital systems will be implemented in the public safety services. Voice encryption is more easily accomplished using digital technology, and systems employing digital technology are being designed to operate effectively in the mobile environment. However, the quality and clarity of digital voice systems for public safety communications, especially on 12.5 kHz channels, has not been subjected to the variety of real world applications faced by the public safety community.

Perhaps the most significant drawback of digital technology in the context of interoperable voice communications is that equipment would have to be built to a not-yet-developed digital standard (i.e., a standard that would require the use of a common voice coder, digital modulation scheme, the APCO standard). Digital standards for interoperability should be developed soon. The use of analog FM for voice interoperability will "suffice" perhaps until 2010, but most users by then will be employing digital technology on their authorized channels and will want to operate in the digital mode on interoperability channels.

As with voice, the transmission of data using digital technology has certain advantages over the transmission of data using analog FM technology. In particular, a greater data throughput can be achieved using digital technology. For example, data speeds for current mobile data equipment using analog FM channels are on the order of 2400 to 4800 bits/sec on a 25 kilohertz channel, while the data rate for equipment using digital technology is higher than 19.2 kb/sec.

Currently there are seven digital spectrally efficient radio systems in the world today. The three FDMA systems are Project 25 (Motorola Astro, C4FM-12.5 kHz, CQPSK-6.25 kHz), Tetrapol (8 kbps), and EDACS (GE-Ericsson Aegis, 9.6 kbps). The three TDMA systems are TETRA (Europe, 4 slots, 9 kbps), DIMRS (Motorola iDEN, 6 slots, 16QAM), and IDRA (Japan, 6 slots, 16QAM). The last one FHMA (Geotek, hopping, sector antenna).

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The third-generation digital-cellular standards requirements call for data rate capabilities in the range of 384 kbits/s for stationary mobile users, and about half that rate for users who are in motion. This is for public-safety needs in the future to rapidly transmit photos, fingerprints, and limited-motion video.

Future 764-776 and 794-806 MHz are proposed for Public Safety.

Refarming and trunking of 150-174 MHz to 7.5 or 12.5 kHz bandwidth and 421-430 MHz, 450-470 MHz, 470-512 MHz to 6.25 kHz bandwidth

There are petitions for 139.0-140.5 MHz and 141.5-143 MHz for Public Safety. That spectrum is currently used by the Department of Defense and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, which will relocate most of their operations by 2008.

There are petitions for 216-220 MHz by 2002.

The 1710-1755 MHz band with federal users and that band should be reallocated on a permanent basis to Public Safety users upon termination of federal use on 2004.
The 4635-4685 MHz band should be allocated for Public Safety systems.

Future Federal
Spectrum Options     Land Mobile Use(s)
_______________________________________
174-216 MHz     Conventional or Trunked Dispatch, Paging
1390-1400 MHz     Wide Area Land Mobile
1427-1432 MHz     Wide Area Land Mobile
1670-1675 MHz     Wide Area Land Mobile
1710-1755 MHz     Wide Area and Wide Bandwidth
Public Safety, Industrial & Business
2300-2310 MHz     Wide Area Land Mobile
4635-4685 MHz     Multiple uses, including Mobile Video
5850-5925 MHz     Intelligent Transportation System
Ten megahertz within one of the following bands:
49.7-50.2 GHz     Intelligent Transportation System
50.4-51.4 GHz
68.9-72.7 GHz
168.0-168.3 GHz

4.94-4.99 GHz for high-speed data transmission to accommodate a variety of new public safety broadband applications, such as high speed on-site file transfers and specialized headsets equipped with video cameras and environmental sensors. For example, emergency personnel can use this spectrum to have instant access to maps, building layouts, emergency medical service files, and wanted or missing person images.

Users in rural areas may choose to use this spectrum to cover larger distances, while users in cities may have a greater need for mobile and “hot spot” uses.

Future Aeronautical 118-137 MHz
Beyond 2004, 25 kHz TDMA system (four independent voice and/or data link circuits on each RF channel) VHF air-ground system. An 8.33 kHz double sideband amplitude modulation (DSB-AM) voice/25 kHz VHF digital link (VDL) carrier sensed multiple access (CSMA) system.

 

OpenSky is a digital radio system sold by M/A-COM. It uses a two-slot TDMA transmission method in 25 kHz bandwidth with an aggregate data rate of 19.2 kbps. The airlink protocols are based on modified CDPD.


Below 190 kHz submarine and military backup non-voice communications. Also government bugs using the powerline and ultrasonic frequencies.

1.6-28.0 MHz government will go outside of their authorized band but not usually the CB or Amateur Bands.

The non-federal bands can be used by the federal government.

These old low bands are used less now that most communications are going to the ultra high bands.

29.89-30.55 MHz 10 kHz steps Federal
30.86-31.98 MHz 40 kHz steps Non-Federal
32.00-32.99 MHz 10 kHz steps Federal
33.02-33.10 MHz 20 kHz steps Non-Federal
33.42-33.98 MHz 20 kHz steps Non-Federal
34.00-34.99 MHz 10 kHz steps Federal
36.00-36.99 MHz 10 kHz steps Federal
37.02-37.42 MHz 20 kHz steps Non-Federal
37.90-37.98 MHz 20 kHz steps Non-Federal
38.00-38.99 MHz 10 kHz steps Federal
39.02-39.98 MHz 20 kHz steps Non-Federal
40.00-41.99 MHz 10 kHz steps Federal
42.02-42.94 MHz 20 kHz steps Non-Federal
44.62-46.58 MHz 20 kHz steps Non-Federal
46.60-47.00 MHz 10 kHz steps Federal use except cordless phone channels
47.02-47.42 MHz 20 kHz steps Non-Federal
47.46-47.66 MHz 40 kHz steps Non-Federal
49.61-49.99 MHz 10 kHz steps Federal use except cordless phone channels

117.975-136.975 MHz 25 kHz steps Aeronautical some government aircraft

137-138 MHz Satellite downlink Orbocom LEO non-voice
148.0-150.7 MHz uplink Orbocom

138.005-143.995 MHz  5 kHz steps Federal military
139.000-140.500 MHz Some future
Non-Federal
141.500-143.000 MHz Some future
Non-Federal
148.005-150.750 MHz  5 kHz steps Federal

151.010-151.475 MHz new 7.5 kHz steps old 15 kHz steps Non-Federal
153.740-154.445 MHz new 7.5 kHz steps old 15 kHz steps Non-Federal
154.650-156.240 MHz new 7.5 kHz steps old 15 kHz steps Non-Federal
156.270-157.435 MHz has been used inland away from marine areas for non-marine government communications
158.730-159.465 MHz new 7.5 kHz steps old 15 kHz steps Non-Federal
161.580-161.625 MHz could be used away from marine areas for government
161.775-162.000 MHz could be used away from marine areas for government

162.0125-173.9875 MHz new 6.25 kHz old 12.5 kHz steps Federal

220.0025-220.9975 MHz output 5 kHz steps Federal, Non-Federal, and Industry
221.0025-221.9975 MHz input

225-400 MHz mostly Military. NATO, two 5 MHz pieces (380-385 and 390-395 MHz)

399.9-401.0 MHz mobile-satellite non-voice

406.1125-419.9875 MHz 12.5 kHz steps Federal. Most use 25 kHz steps .125-.975.

421-430 MHz Non-Federal at Detroit, Cleveland, and Buffalo.

453.0125-453.9875 MHz output new 6.25 kHz old 12.5 kHz steps Non-Federal. High power 25 kHz steps .025-.975
458.0125-458.9875 MHz input
460.0125-460.6375 MHz output new 6.25 kHz old 12.5 kHz steps Non-Federal. High power 25 kHz steps .025-.975
465.0125-465.6375 MHz input

462.95000-463.19375 MHz output new 6.25 MHz old 12.5 kHz steps Non-Federal
467.95000-468.19375 MHz input

470.0125-511.9875 MHz Non-Federal only allowed at designated metro areas of Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, San Francisco, and Washington.

851.0125-865.9875 MHz output 25 kHz steps Non-Federal and Nextel iDEN digital and Industry
806.0125-820.9875 MHz input
866.0125-868.9875 MHz output 12.5 kHz steps Non-Federal
821.0125-823.9875 MHz input

869.04-893.97 MHz output 30 kHz steps cellular phones. AMPS-FDMA, CDMA (TIA IS-95A), or DAMPS-TDMA (IS-136/IS-54B) multiplexing. Two service providers per same area.
824.04-848.97 MHz input

849-851 MHz output 10 channel blocks Aircraft digital phones 3 different systems
894-896 MHz input

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Frequency Allocations for the 806-960 MHz Band

Frequency    Service                          Year    Paired Channel
 in MHz                                     Allocated             Spacing-kHz

806-821   m  Private Land Mobile              1975    851-866   b 25
821-824   m  Private Land Mobile Pub. Safety  1986    866-869   b ??
824-825   m  Public Cellular Non-Wireline     1986    869-870   b 30
825-835   m  Public Cellular Non-Wireline     1975    870-880   b 30
835-845   m  Public Cellular Wireline         1975    880-890   b 30
845-846.5 m  Public Cellular Non-Wireline     1986    890-891.5 b 30
846.5-849 m  Public Cellular Wireline         1986    891.5-894 b 30
849-851      Temporary Reserve                1986    894-896
851-866   b  Private Land Mobile              1975    806-821   m 25
866-869   b  Private Land Mobile Pub. Safety  1986    821-824   m ??
869-870   b  Public Cellular Non-Wireline     1986    824-825   m 30
870-880   b  Public Cellular Non-Wireline     1975    825-835   m 30
880-890   b  Public Cellular Wireline         1975    835-845   m 30
890-891.5 b  Public Cellular Non-Wireline     1986    845-846.5 m 30
891.5-894 b  Public Cellular Wireline         1986    846.5-849 m 30
894-896      Temporary Reserve                1986    849-851
896-901   m  Private Land Mobile Non-PubSaf   1986    935-940   b 12.5
901-902      General Purpose Mobile           1986    940-941     ??
902-928      Amateur & ISM
928-929      Fixed Multiple Address                   952-953     25
929-930      Private Paging                   1982                25
930-931      Paging Reserve                   1982
931-932      Public Common Carrier Paging     1982                25
932-935      Fixed Point-to-Point             1985    941-944     ??
935-940   b  Private Land Mobile Non-PubSaf   1986    896-901   m 12.5
940-941      General Purpose Mobile           1986    901-902     ??
941-944      Fixed Point-to-Point             1985    932-935     ??
944-952      Broadcast Aural STL                                  25-300
952-953      Fixed Multiple Address                   928-929     25
953-960      Fixed Multiple Address                               50,100,200

b: base station
m: mobile

--------------------------------------------

935.0125-939.9875 MHz output 12.5 kHz steps Industry. Future plans are to change from analog FM to digital iDEN.
896.0125-900.9875 MHz input

1427-1435 MHz Non-Federal

1525.0-1559.0 MHz downlink sat-phones Polarization circular Inmarsat data/fax/voice
1626.5-1660.5 MHz uplink

1610.0-1616.0 MHz
1616.0-1626.5 MHz uplink Iridium (DOD and non-DOD use) FDMA, TDMA, QPSK at 2400 baud. Globalstar CDMA
2483.5-2500 MHz downlink. Globalstar

Above 2 GHz Low power wireless video, audio, and emission bugs and relay amplifiers to extend their range for Government use. Military and Government top-secret communications.

2483.5-2500.0 MHz Mobile-satellite
2450-2500 MHz Non-Federal
10.55-10.68 GHz Non-Federal


Classified Federal Frequencies

The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), Office of Spectrum Management (OSM) [not the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)] manages the Federal government use of the radio spectrum and Federal government frequency allocations.

 

The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) requires that all Federal Government radio systems, Very High Frequency (VHF, 162-174 MHZ) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF, 406-420 MHZ), be converted to narrowband (VHF 6.25 and UHF 12.5 kHz channel spacing) operation. Transition must be completed by January 1, 2005 for VHF systems and January 1, 2008 for UHF systems. The number of discrete channels available for assignment will basically double after the transition is completed. This will allow more radio systems to be put into operation and reduce chances of interference between VHF and UHF systems.

The requirements are for "Project 25" compliant narrow-band, VHF high-band and UHF land-mobile radio systems including warranty maintenance. Project 25 is a reference to TIA-102 standard which, when implemented, allows digital radios to operate between one another. These radio systems are required to meet National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) and Project 25 standards as defined in APCO Project 25.

The basic characteristics of Project 25 radios are:

A Phase I emission designator 8K10F1E (C4FM [compatible four-level frequency modulation]) for operation in a 12.5 kHz channel and a Phase II emission designator of 5K76G1E (CQPSK [compatible quadrature phase shift keying]) for operation in a 6.25 kHz channel

Use of a common receiver for both C4FM and CQPSK to assure full interoperability between the two signals

Encryption defined for the U.S. Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithms, but other techniques can also be employed

Use of an IMBE (Improved MultiBand Excitation) vocoder with 4400 bits/s of digitized voice, 2800 bits/s of error correction on the voice, and 2400 bits/s of signaling overhead, for an aggregate bit rate of 9600 bits/s.

Phase II shall provide for 6.25 kHz bandwidth channels or equivalent. TDMA transmitters and receivers shall be capable of operating in either a 12.5 kHz or a 25 kHz channel bandwidth with a minimum spectrum efficiency of 6.25 kHz per time slot.

Subscriber units shall communicate in either a conventional or trunked environment using clear (unencrypted digital), digitally encrypted voice, or data modes regardless of the manufacturer of the equipment. All systems and subscriber equipment shall use the P25 defined vocoder. Systems and subscriber equipment that are intended to support the encryption option shall use P25 defined encryption algorithms. These are required to facilitate mixed mode (FDMA/TDMA) end-to-end delivery of both clear and optionally encrypted voice and data.

The system shall provide up to four levels of encryption with compatible modes of operation and shall provide the same functions associated with clear (unencrypted digital) operation. Subscriber units shall be capable of zero, one or multiple types of encryption, as required. Systems and subscriber equipment that are intended to support the encryption option shall use P25 defined encryption algorithms. These are required to facilitate mixed mode (FDMA/TDMA) end-to-end delivery of both clear and optionally encrypted voice and data.
Type 1 is for classified national government communication.
Type 2 is for unclassified national security-related communications.
Type 3 is for unclassified sensitive government communications (e.g., Public Safety).
Type 4 is for other purposes, (e.g., exportable).

Multiple radio subsystems, regardless of the Air Interface, must be capable of interconnecting into other systems. Further, subscriber unit units must be able to roam between different radio subsystems. Up to 64,000 different radio subsystems shall be uniquely identifiable. Further, each radio subsystem shall provide for up to 2,000 uniquely identifiable functional talk-groups or vertical partitions for distinct and separate organizations, and at least 48,000 individually identifiable subscriber units. Through hierarchical numbering, individual subscriber units and talk-groups from any radio subsystem are uniquely identifiable in any radio subsystem in concert with their home subsystem identification (similar to hierarchical telephone numbers and area codes). Where TDMA and FDMA systems are interconnected, it is desirable that all system and subscriber equipment ID's (Talkgroup, Unit, etc) be aligned with the Project 25 ID coding format to facilitate inter-system interoperability.

Data transmission between a public or private switched telephone network access point, standard SNA, X.25, or TCP/IP networks and mobile (or portable) Data Terminal Equipment (DTE), over the RF link, are required. Data transmission shall operate at a speed of at least 9600 bps (including overhead) with minimal error retransmissions. All host applications on SNA, X.25, or TCP/IP networks shall have the ability to identify, and transparently communicate with any subscriber unit linked DTE device.

As a standard option, the system shall have over-the-air-re-keying (OTAR) of encryption keys, and utilize a single key management system with interoperability regardless of Air Interface. If encryption is implemented as a standard option, the system shall provide a mechanism to transfer initial and subsequent keying information into the encryption sub-system (a key fill device).

The system shall allow mobiles and portables to roam over a wide coverage area with automatic connection as the unit enters a new site coverage area within any radio subsystem. The system must provide for registration and authorization control over subscriber units roaming between radio subsystems. Manual and automatic roaming capabilities shall be provided between radio subsystems.

The system shall have over-the-air programming to enable making software change to mobile and portable subscriber units. Specifically to include:
a. Programming the radio switches, scan list, phone list, etc.;
b. Service programming the transmitter and receiver parameters and alignment;
c. Upgrading new software versions of the radio operating system; and
d. Cloning radios for duplicate programming of several radios.

The system shall have an automated method of assigning radio identification (ID) numbers to consoles, control stations, and mobile and portable subscribers in ascending order as part of the system management network system database.

Digital data shall be transmitted in either packet mode or circuit mode with a spectral efficiency of at least 1.44 bits per Hz gross transmission rate. Transmission of digital data may use dynamic allocation of channel bandwidth, up to the maximum possible for a particular channel width. Digital packet data may be statistically multiplexed over the available time slots of a radio channel. Appropriate status indication shall be established to identify the mode of digital data being transmitted.

One channel bit-rate, modulation, and link layer shall be utilized for all voice and data capabilities, with backward compatibility. For single channel operation, control, voice, or data, features must be integrated into a common channel.

A standard service set composed of the following.
1. group calls
2. private calls
3. interconnect calls
4. voice encryption control
5. data messages
6. site registration
7. RF subsystem registration (roaming)
8. dynamic subscriber unit talk-group regrouping
9. emergency alarm
10. User ID

Encryption requirements are FIPS PUB 46-3 DES (Data Encryption Standard) and FIPS 140-2.

Land Mobile Radio Service (LMRS) Frequency Bands
138 - 174 MHz
406 - 512 MHz
764 - 869 MHz

 

Federal classified frequencies [there use was classified by President Reagan (R-CA) by Executive Order 12356 on November 8, 1982] are mostly used by Federal Law Enforcement Agents using Land Mobile radios with voice encryption capability. FIPS 140 encryption is used such as Motorola’s DES, DES-MAC, Triple-DES, AES, DES-XL, DVI-XL, DVI-SPFL, DVP-XL, SHA-1, HCA; M/A Com's EDACS Orion Aegis DES, etc. The encryption keys can be changed by Key Variable Loaders (KVL) or Over-The-Air-Rekeying (OTAR) with the ability to store multiple encryption keys in one radio.

For extra security secret voice/data encryption algorithms, spread spectrum and true pseudo-random frequency hopping with random-dwell [instead of sweep] is used to elude detection.

http://www.tscm.com/stu.html

 

Classified users Federal law-enforcement departments:

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
U.S. Secret Service
U.S. Customs Service
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF)
U.S. Marshals Service
Postal Service includes Postal Inspectors
Treasury Department includes Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)
Border Patrol
Federal Bureau of Prisons
Department of Energy (DOE) includes nuclear material and Nuclear Emergency Search Teams (DOE-NEST)
General Services Administration (GSA) includes federal building and property protection
Federal Protective Service includes Federal witness protection
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Department of Justice (DOJ) includes U.S. Attorney Offices
Federal Emergency Mangement Agency (FEMA)includes Urban Search Teams
White House Communications Agency (WHCA)
White House Staff
Department of Defense (DOD)
etc.

 

Keep in mind that the federal government can use virtually any frequency, especially during national emergencies. In special cases, such as the September 11 terrorists attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center, NTIA responded with a 24 hour-a-day, 7 days-a-week special frequency operation to process special requests by Federal agencies for search and rescue and associated operations at the site of the attacks, related law enforcement activities, and spectrum requirements for DOD special operations. NTIA processed emergency requests from DOD, the Departments of Justice, Treasury and Energy, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the White House Communications Agency, and the American Red Cross.

Note: The information provided here is not classified material. It is not from the Classified National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) Federal government frequency assignments. Unclassified NTIA Federal government frequency assignments were available prior to 1983 but are now mostly obsolete.

http://www.tscm.com/access.html ADJUDICATIVE GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION
http://www.tscm.com/eo12968.html EXECUTIVE ORDER #12968 ON ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION

http://www.tscm.com/bugfrqfed.html obsolete Federal Surveillance Frequencies


Interagency non-classified

Note: These frequencies have not been heard put to any real use.

Wide area itinerant frequencies: 163.10, 418.05, 418.575 MHz - until the end of 2004
Common-use itinerant frequencies: 168.35, 408.40, 418.075 MHz - until the end of 2004

New wide-area common-use channels shared by all federal agencies on a nationwide or regional basis.
Repeater output and simplex frequencies: 163.10, 168.35*, 409.05, 409.3375, 412.825, 412.8375, 412.85, 412.8625, 418.05*, and 418.3375* MHz.
(*) normally used for repeater inputs, but may be used for simplex if busy

New inter-agency channels for itinerant (temporary) local-area activities on a shared basis by federal agencies.
Repeater output and simplex frequencies: 163.7125, 167.1375*, 168.6125, 407.525, 409.075, 412.875, 412.8875, 412.90, 412.9125, 416.525*, and 418.075* MHz.
(*) normally used for repeater inputs, but may be used for simplex if busy

The new change of UHF band federal agency frequencies will have their repeater outputs assigned between 406.10 and 411.00 (in 12.5 kHz steps). The paired repeater input, portable and mobile frequencies will be exactly 9 MHz higher (i.e., the 415.10-420.00 MHz band segment). The band segment between 411.00 and 415.00 MHz is set aside for simplex comms (12.5 kHz
channel spacing).

SHARED FEDERAl LAW ENFORCEMENT
Only for interagency coordination during specific incidents.

Frequencies 167.0875 MHz and 414.0375 MHz are designated as National Calling Channels for initial contact and will be identified in the radio as indicated below. Initial contact communications will be established using analog FM emission (11KF3E). The agency in control of the incident will assign specific operational channels as required for incident support operations.
The interoperability frequencies will be identified in mobile and portable radios as follows with Continuous Tone-Controlled Squelch Systems
(CTCSS) frequency 167.9 Hz and/or Network Access Code (NAC) $68F:

Mobile Mobile
Identifier Transmit (MHz) Receive (MHz)
Natl Call 167.0875 (Simplex) 167.0875
Inop 1 162.0875 167.0875
Inop 2 162.2625 167.2500
Inop 3 162.8375 167.7500
Inop 4 163.2875 168.1125
Inop 5 163.4250 168.4625
Inop 6 167.2500 (Simplex) 167.2500
Inop 7 167.7500 (Simplex) 167.7500
Inop 8 168.1125 (Simplex) 168.1125
Inop 9 168.4625 (Simplex) 168.4625

Mobile Mobile
Identifier Transmit (MHz) Receive (MHz)
Natl Call 414.0375 (Simplex) 414.0375
Inop 1 418.9875 409.9875
Inop 2 419.1875 410.1875
Inop 3 419.6125 410.6125
Inop 4 414.0625 (Simplex) 414.0625
Inop 5 414.3125 (Simplex) 414.3125
Inop 6 414.3375 (Simplex) 414.3375
Inop 7 409.9875 (Simplex) 409.9875
Inop 8 410.1875 (Simplex) 410.1875
Inop 9 410.6125 (Simplex) 410.6125

SHARED FEDERAL (NON LAW ENFORCEMENT) INCIDENT RESPONSE
Only for interagency coordination during specific incidents.

Frequencies 169.5375 MHz, paired with 164.7125 MHz, and 410.2375 MHz, paired with 419.2375 MHz, are designated as the calling channels for initial contact and will be identified in the radio as indicated below. Initial contact will be established using analog FM emission (11KF3E). CTCSS will not be used on the calling channels to ensure access by stations from outside the normal area of operation. The agency in control of the incident will assign specific operational channels as required for incident support operations.
The Interoperability frequencies will be identified in mobile and portable radios as follows:

Mobile Mobile
Identifier Transmit (MHz) Receive (MHz) CTCSS
VHF Calling 164.7125 169.5375 None
VHF 1 165.2500 170.0125 As required
VHF 2 165.9625 170.4125 As required
VHF 3 166.5750 170.6875 As required
VHF 4 167.3250 173.0375 As required
VHF 5 169.5375 (Simplex) 169.5375 As required
VHF 6 170.0125 (Simplex) 170.0125 As required
VHF 7 170.4125 (Simplex) 170.4125 As required
VHF 8 170.6875 (Simplex) 170.6875 As required
VHF 9 173.0375 (Simplex) 173.0375 As required

Mobile Mobile
Identifier Transmit (MHz) Receive (MHz) CTCSS
UHF Calling 419.2375 410.2375 None
UHF 1 419.4375 410.4375 As required
UHF 2 419.6375 410.6375 As required
UHF 3 419.8375 410.8375 As required
UHF 4 413.1875 (Simplex) 413.1875 As required
UHF 5 413.2125 (Simplex) 413.2125 As required
UHF 6 410.2375 (Simplex) 410.2375 As required
UHF 7 410.4375 (Simplex) 410.4375 As required
UHF 8 410.6375 (Simplex) 410.6375 As required
UHF 9 410.8375 (Simplex) 410.8375 As required


FEDERAL GOVERNMENT MOBILE FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS

Federal & non-Federal Government mainly use:
806-821 851-866 MHz Nextel & Private SMRs
824-849 869-894 MHz Cellular
1850-1910 1930-1990 MHz PCS
896-901 935-940 MHz Commercial SMRs
901-902, 930-931, 940-941 MHz Two-way Paging
One-way Paging
Mobile Satellite Services (MSS)
Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWAN)
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
Wireless Private Branch Exchange (PBX)
Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

UPPER CASE LETTERS = PRIMARY BAND USAGE
Lower Case Letters = Secondary Band Usage
Red = Federal Government only
Black = Federal & non-Federal Government shared

[kHz]
14-19.95 MARITIME-MOBILE
20.05-59 MARITIME-MOBILE
61-90 MARITIME-MOBILE
110-160 MARITIME
-MOBILE
160-190 MARITIME-MOBILE
200-285 Aeronautical-Mobile
325-415 Aeronautical-Mobile
415-495 MARITIME
-MOBILE
495-505 MOBILE (Distress and Calling)
505-510 MARITIME
-MOBILE
510-525 MARITIME
-MOBILE (Ships Only)
525-535 MOBILE
1605-1615 MOBILE
1705-1800 MOBILE
2000-2065 MOBILE
2065-2107 MARITIME
-MOBILE
2107-2170 MOBILE
2170-2173.5 MARITIME
-MOBILE (Telephony)
2173.5-2190.5 MOBILE (Distress and calling)
2190.5-2194 MARITIME
-MOBILE (Telephony)
2194-2495 MOBILE
2505-2850 MOBILE
2850-3025 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (on routes)
3025-3155 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (off routes or government use)
3155-3230 MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (on routes)
3230-3400 MOBILE except aeronautical mobile
3400-3500 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (on routes)
4000-4438 MARITIME
-MOBILE
4438-4650 MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (on routes)
4650-4700 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (on routes)
4700-4750 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (off routes or government use)
4750-4850 MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (on routes)
4850-4995 MOBILE
5060-5450 Mobile except aeronautical mobile
5450-5680 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (on routes)
5680-5730 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (off routes or government use)
5730-5950 MOBILE except aeronautical mobile (on routes)
6200-6525 MARITIME
-MOBILE
6525-6685 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (on routes)
6685-6765 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (off routes or government use)
6765-7000 Mobile
7300-8100 Mobile
8100-8815 MARITIME
-MOBILE
8815-8965 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (on routes)
8965-9040 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (off routes or government use)
10005-10100 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (on routes)
10150-11175 Mobile except aeronautical mobile (on routes)
11175-11275 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (off routes or government use)
11275-11400 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (on routes)
12230-13200 MARITIME
-MOBILE
13200-13260 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (off routes or government use)
13260-13360 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (on routes)
13410-13600 Mobile except aeronautical mobile (on routes)
13800-14000 Mobile except aeronautical mobile (on routes)
14350-14990 Mobile except aeronautical mobile (on routes)
15010-15100 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (off routes or government use)
16360-17410 MARITIME
-MOBILE
17900-17970 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (on routes)
17970-18030 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (off routes or government use)
18168-18780 Mobile
18780-18900 MARITIME
-MOBILE
19680-19800 MARITIME
-MOBILE
20010-21000 Mobile
21924-22000 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (on routes)
22000-22855 MARITIME
-MOBILE
23000-23200 Mobile except aeronautical mobile (on routes)
23200-23350 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (off routes or government use)
23350-24890 MOBILE except aeronautical mobile
25070-25210 MARITIME
-MOBILE
25330-25550 MOBILE except aeronautical mobile
26100-26175 MARITIME
-MOBILE
26480-26950 MOBILE except aeronautical mobile

[MHz]
27.54-28 MOBILE
29.89-29.91 MOBILE
30-30.56 MOBILE
32-33 MOBILE
34-35 MOBILE
36-37 MOBILE
38-39 MOBILE
40-42 MOBILE
46.6-47 MOBILE
49.6-50 MOBILE
74.6-74.8 MOBILE
75.2-75.4 MOBILE
117.975-121.9375 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (on routes)
121.9375-123.0875
AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE
123.0875-123.5875 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE
123.5875-128.8125 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (on routes)
128.8125-132.0125
AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE
132.0125-136 AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE (on routes)
136-137
AERONAUTICAL-MOBILE
137-137.025 MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink)
137.025-137.175 Mobile-Satellite (downlink)
137.175-137.825 MOBILE-SATELLITE(downlink)
137.825-138 Mobile-Satellite (downlink)
138-144 MOBILE
148-149.9 MOBILE & MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink)
149.9-150.05 MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink)
150.05-150.8 MOBILE
157.0375-157.1875 MARITIME-MOBILE
162.0125-173.2 MOBILE
173.4-174 MOBILE
216-220 MARITIME
-MOBILE & Aeronautical-Mobile & Land-Mobile
220-222 LAND-MOBILE
225-235 MOBILE
235-322 MOBILE & MOBILE-SATELLITE
322-328.6 MOBILE
335.4-399.9 MOBILE & MOBILE-SATELLITE
399.9-400.05 MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink)
400.15-401 MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink)
406-406.1 MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink)
406.1-420 MOBILE
1350-1390 MOBILE
1395-1400 LAND-MOBILE
1429-1432 LAND-MOBILE

1432-1435 MOBILE
1530-1535 MARITIME
-MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink) & MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink) & Mobile (Aeronautical telemetering)
1535-1544 MARITIME
-MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink) & MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink)
1544-1545 MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink)
1545-1549.5 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink) (on routes) & Mobile-Satellite (downlink)
1549.5-1558.5 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink) (on routes) & MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink)
1558.5-1559 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink) (on routes)
1610-1613.8 MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink)
1613.8-1626.5 MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink) & Mobile-Satellite (downlink)
1626.5-1645.5 MARITIME
MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink) & MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink)
1645.5-1646.5 MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink)
1646.5-1651 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink) (on routes) & mobile-satellite (uplink)
1651-1660 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink) (on routes) & MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink)
1660-1660.5 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink) (on routes)
1710-1755 MOBILE 1999-2004 mixed services
1755-1850 MOBILE
2200-2290 MOBILE
2290-2300 MOBILE except aeronautical mobile
2310-2360 Mobile
2360-2390 MOBILE
2483.5-2500 MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink)
4400-4660 MOBILE
4685-4990 MOBILE
7250-7300 MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink)
7300-7750 Mobile-Satellite (downlink)
7900-8025 MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink)
8025-8400 Mobile-Satellite (uplink) (No Airborne Transmissions)

[GHz]
14.4-14.7145 Mobile
14.7145-15.1365 MOBILE
15.1365-15.35 Mobile
20.2-21.2 MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink)
21.2-22 MOBILE
22-22.5 MOBILE except aeronautical mobile
22.5-23.6 MOBILE
25.25-27.5 MOBILE
30.0-31.0 MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink)
36.0-38.6 MOBILE
39.5-40.5 MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink)
42.5-43.5 MOBILE except aeronautical mobile
43.5-45.5 MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink)
45.5-47.0 MOBILE & MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink)
47.2-50.4 MOBILE
50.4-51.4 MOBILE & MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink)
54.25-58.2 MOBILE
59-64 MOBILE
65-66 Mobile
66-71 MOBILE & MOBILE-SATELLITE
71-74 MOBILE & MOBILE-SATELLITE (uplink)
74-75.5 MOBILE
81-84 MOBILE & MOBILE-SATELLITE (downlink)
92-95 MOBILE
95-100 MOBILE & MOBILE-SATELLITE
102-105 MOBILE
116-134 MOBILE
134-142 MOBILE & MOBILE-SATELLITE
149-164 MOBILE
168-182 MOBILE
185-190 MOBILE
190-200 MOBILE & MOBILE-SATELLITE
200-217 MOBILE
231-241 MOBILE
252-265 MOBILE & MOBILE-SATELLITE
265-300 MOBILE


Military Communications Summary

Wideband Networking Waveform operation are being developed by the government. It is expected the waveform will operate in the 2 MHz to 2 GHz frequency range at up to 5 MBPS networked throughput. Standards for the WNW waveform are currently under development.

BOWMAN will operate in the HF/VHF/UHF frequency ranges with will support for analog and 16 KBPS digital voice and data at rates to be determined by the government. The government will determine standards for interoperability.

VHF ATC Data Link operates in the 2-30 MHz frequency range with analog voice and data at 300, 600, 1200 and 1800 BPS. VHF ATC Data Link is compliant with RTCA DO-265, ARNIC 635-3 and 735-3, FAA TSO C31d and C32d.

VHF FM operates in the 30-88 MHz frequency range with analog voice and digital voice at 16 KBPS. VHF FM is compliant with MIL-STD-188-242.

SINCGARS Enhanced operates in the 30-88 MHz frequency band with analog and 16 KBPS digital voice as well as at data rates of 75 BPS and 16 KBPS. SINCGARS is compliant with MIL-STD-188-220 and 241-1/2.

VHF AM ATC operates in the 118-137 MHz frequency range with analog voice communications. VHF AM ATC is compliant with RTCA DO-186a and ARINC 716.

VHF AM ATC (Extended) operates in the 108-156 MHz frequency range with analog voice communications. VHF AM Extended is compliant with QSTAG-706, RTCA DO-186a, DO-195, DO-196, and ARINC 716.

VHF ATC Data Link (NEXCOM) operates in the 118-137 MHZ frequency range with digital voice at 4.8 KBPS and data at 31.5 KBPS. VHF ATC Data Link (NEXCOM) is compliant with RTCA DO-186a and DO-224a.

LINK 11/TADIL operates in the 2-30 MHz and 225-400 MHz frequency ranges with data mode 1364 and 2250 BPS. Link 11 is compliant with MIL-STD-188-203-1A and STANAG 5511.

Link 11B operates in the 225-400 MHz frequency range with data at 600, 1200, and 2400 BPS. Link 11B is compliant with MIL-STD-188-212 and STANAG 5511.

Link 22 operates in the 3-30 MHz and 225-400 MHz frequency ranges with data at rates that will be determined by the government in the future. Link 22 will be compliant with STANAG 5522 and STANAG 4539, Annex D.

UHF AM/FM PSK operates in the 225-400 MHz frequency ranges with analog and 16KBPS digital voice and data at rates up to 16 KBPS. UHF AM/FM PSK is compliant with MIL-STD-188-181B and MIL-STD-188-243.

Have Quick II (UHF AM/FM/PSK) operates in the 225-400 MHz frequency band with analog and 16 KBPS digital voice as well as at data rates of 75 BPS to 16 KBPS. HQ II is compliant with MIL-STD-188-220 and 243 and JIEO-9120A.

Link 4A operates in the 225-400 MHz frequency range with data at 5 KBPS. Link 4A is compliant with MIL-STD-188-203-3.

SATURN will operate in the 225-400 MHZ frequency range and will support digital voice and data rates that will be determined by the government in the future. SATURN will be compliant with STANAG-4372 and JIEO-9120A.

COBRA will operate in the 340-400 MHz frequency ranges. Modes and data rates will be determined by the government.

MUOS operates in the 240-320 MHz frequency range with data at rates of 2.4, 9.6, 16, 32 and 64 KIBPS. MUOS will support the Common Air Interface. Standards for MOUS are being developed.

Integrated Broadcast Service-Module (IBS-M) IBS-M will operate in the 225-400 MHz frequency range. IBS-M will support data at 2.4, 4.8, 9.6 and 19.2 KBPS. Compliance standards for IBS-M will be developed by the government in the future.

VHF/UHF FM LMR operates in the 136-174 MHz, 380-512 MHz, and 764-869 MHz frequency ranges with analog voice and 16 KBPS digital voice and data rates up 16 KBPS. VHF/UHF FM LMR is compliant with APCO 25 Common Air Interface (CAI).

EPLRS operates in the 420-450 MHz frequency range with a data mode at 57 KBPS VHSIC SIP and 228 KBPS VECP. EPLRS is compliant with CDRL-4002W-001A.

Cellular Radio operates in the 824-894 MHz, 890-960 MHz and 1850-1990 MHz frequency ranges with voice and data at 10 KBPS nominal rates and 3G data at rates up to 144/384KBPS and 2 MBPS. Cellular Radio is compliant with TR-45.1 AMPS, IS-54 TDMA, IS-95b CDMA, IS-136HS TDMA and GSM and 3GSM, 2.5G, 3G, WCDMA and CDMA-2000.

LINK 16 operates in the 960-1215 MHz frequency range with support for voice mode of operation at 2.4 and 16 KBPS and data with FEC at rates of 28.8 KBPS to 1.137 MBPS. Link 16 is compliant with MIL-STD 6016 and STANAG 5516.

IFF/ADS/TCAS operates at 1030 and 1090 MHz with data at 689.7 BPS. IFF/ADS/TCAS is compliant with STANAG 4193.

DWTS will operate in the 1350-1850 MHz frequency range with support for analog and digital voice and data at rates of 144, 256, 288, 512, 576, 1024, 1152, 1544, 2048 and 2304 KBPS. DWTS will be compliant with Army MSE equipment.

Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) operates in the 1.61-2 GHz frequency range with digital voice at 2.4 to 9.6 KBPS. MSS will be compliant with emerging LEOSAT and MEOSAT standards.

Soldier Radio and WLAN operates in the 1.755-1.850 GHz frequency range. The Solider Radio and WLAN will support digital 16 KBPS voice and data at 1 MBPS. The WLAN is compliant with IEEE 802.11b, 802.11e and 802.11g.

 

The AN/ARC-210(V) radios provide full AM and FM coverage of the Military bands in the 30-400 MHz range. TSEC/KY-58 secure voice compatible:

30-88 MHz FM
Close Air Support (Tactical)
normal/secure voice, 150 Hz tone, SINCGARS-V, 243 MHz guard
108-156 MHz AM
Air Traffic Control
normal/secure voice, 1020 Hz tone, ADF, 121.5 MHz guard (108-118 MHz receive only)
136-174 MHz FM
Land Mobile, Maritime
maritime normal/secure voice, 243 MHz guard
225-400 MHz AM
Air-to-Air (Tactical)
normal/secure voice, 1020 Hz tone, ADF, CASS/DICASS, HAVE QUICK I/II, 243 MHz guard
225-400 MHz FM
Air-to-Air (Tactical)
normal/secure voice, HAVE QUICK I/II, 243 MHz guard

Old List

138-144 MHz
Land Mobile Radio
Tactical Air/Ground/Air

225-400 MHz
Tactical Air/Ground/Air
Data Links
Satellite Communications
Military Air Traffic Control
Search and Rescue
Executive Communications
Tactical Communications

400.15-401 MHz
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program

420-450 MHz
Ballistic Missile Surveillance and Early Warning Radars
Shipboard/Airborne Early Warning Radars
Missile/Air Vehicle Flight Termination
Air Vehicle Command Links
Troop Position Location
Anti-Stealth Radar
Foliage Penetration Radar

1215-1390 MHz
Long/Medium Range Air Defense
Radio Navigation
Air Route Surveillance Radars
Tactical Communications
Test Range Support
Air/Fleet Defense
Drug Interdiction
Global Positioning System
Remote Satellite Sensors
Nuclear Detection

1435-1525 MHz
Telemetry Supporting Areospace Industry

1755-1850 MHz
Department of Defense Satellite Tracking, Telemetry and Control
Point-to-Point Microwave
Air Combat Training Systems
Tactical Communications
Tactical Data Links

2200-2290 MHz
Department of Defense Satellite Tracking, Telemetry and Control
Guided Missile Telemetry
Point-to-Point Microwave

3100-3650 MHz
High Power Mobile Radars
Shipboard Air Traffic Control
Missile Links
Airborne Station Keeping

4400-4990 MHz
Fixed Wideband Communications
Mobile Wideband Communications
Coomand Links
Data Links

 

Aeronautical Summary

The Airborne Integrated Terminal Group (AITG) operates in the 30 to 512 MHz frequency band which covers Army FM (30 to 90 MHz), Air Traffic Control (108 to 128 MHz), Land Mobile (128 to 160 MHz), UHF LOS (225 to 400 MHz), UHF SATCOM (270 to 320 MHz) and UHF Land Mobile/special purpose (405 to 512 MHz). It includes an embedded DAMA modem and embedded COMSEC. The modem is interoperable with the MD-1324 DAMA modem and also operates in high speed UHF SATCOM mode per MIL-STD-188-181B. The modem will run up to 56 Kbps in the SATCOM mode and at up to 64 kbits/s in the LOS mode. Embedded COMSEC functions include KY-58, KYV-5, KG-84 and KG-10 and KG-11 TRANSEC devices.

The FAA provides air-ground communications support for enroute, terminal, and flight services to end users such as the commercial airlines, general and private aviation, the military services and law enforcement agencies such as the Drug Enforcement Administration and the U.S. Customs Service. The Federal Government's use of aeronautical communications plays an important part of national defense. The FAA provides ATS to the military services on allotted frequencies in the 225-400 MHz band. The military services make extensive use of the 225-400 MHz band, which helps to avoid impacting national airspace air-ground communications.

Federal Government aeronautical mobile requirements are also accommodated in the HF and VHF portions of the radio spectrum and are used to provide aviation services to commercial airlines and general aviation. Over 90 percent of the Federal HF spectrum use is accounted for by the Air Force and Navy, while the FAA accounts for over 80 percent of the VHF spectrum use in its support to aeronautical mobile requirements of the flying public. DOD uses the HF band for a variety of functions, including but not limited to, tactical air-ground communications, command and control communications, and for communications supporting disaster relief operations. HF communications is the only communications means available between DOD aircraft transiting oceanic regions and many continental land masses lacking in other modes of communications. Some specific examples of HF aeronautical mobile service spectrum include National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) support of the space shuttle operations. The U.S. Air Force uses HF for global command and control stations, flight testing, tactical communications, data coordination and satellite recovery operations. The U.S. Navy utilizes HF aeronautical mobile spectrum for close air support, tactical support for anti-submarine warfare communications, and training. The Army uses the 30-88 MHz and 138-150.8 MHz bands for close air support training with ground troops via air-ground communications. The DOD has stated that the "30-88 MHz band is vital to tactical mobile communications."

Federal agencies make extensive use of the 225-400 MHz band for aeronautical mobile operations. This band is used primarily for military functions, including air-ground communications and ATC for military aircraft. The FAA provides ATC functions for military aircraft essentially identical to the ATC communications in the VHF band. In fact, in most areas the FAA transmits ATC information simultaneously on VHF and UHF channels for military aircraft not VHF-equipped so that military aircraft remain aware of civilian aircraft, and vice versa. Military uses include, but are not limited to, coordination of in-flight refueling, vectoring of aircraft to targets, and large scale training exercises. Military ATC (i.e., ground control, approach control, training flights, combat, etc.) would typically use UHF exclusively. The FAA, Air Force, Army and Navy account for nearly all of fixed and mobile spectrum use in this band.

There are aeronautical systems operating under the more general mobile service allocation. These systems operate above 1 GHz and generally provide non-voice communications referred to as telemetry, data, and video links. The main categories of mobile systems that involve aeronautical mobile operations are described below.

Air Combat Training (ACT) systems are more complex by nature of their operation, as both fixed and aeronautical mobile equipment are used. The military uses them at more than 21 sites across the United States to provide realistic tactical simulation and pilot training in a peacetime environment. Training is provided in air warfare operations and maneuvers without actually firing weapons. The systems provide real-time altitude, location, velocity, angle of attack, simulated weapon status, and other data on participating aircraft. A typical configuration for a system consists of a master control station, six or more remote tracking stations and up to 24 participating aircraft. Aircraft altitude of up to 35,000 feet is typical during exercises that may last for up to ten hours per day. Recent system upgrades provide for multiple control stations and up to 36 aircraft. These are tied together via radio links, nine or ten of which are required for each system. The 1760-1840 MHz frequency range supports this type of operation.

Air-ground video systems primarily provide real-time television displays from cameras on aircraft, typically flying at 10,000 to 15,000 feet. Some typical functions include video images of missile, drone, and remotely piloted vehicles testing, flight testing of new aircraft, and airborne monitoring of civil disturbances. The majority of operations are on the military test ranges. The most widely used bands for the air-ground video telemetry operations are the 1710-1850 MHz, 2200-2290 MHz, and 4400-4990 MHz bands.

The Federal Government uses various telemetry systems to support a variety of test flight and equipment development functions. The 1435-1525 MHz and 2360-2390 MHz bands support these functions at nine major military and NASA test ranges/centers and numerous smaller facilities. These bands are the most important aeronautical flight test telemetry bands in the United States. A number of complex and organizationally independent functions must be successfully coordinated to complete a mission. Examples of some of these are: range safety (e.g., flight termination capability and clearing the range of non-participants); chase aircraft; weather; measurement support (e.g., radar and recorders); target drone aircraft; nominal test system operation; and aeronautical telemetry support.

The DOD operates a variety of radio-based target scoring systems (airborne and seaborne) for training and weapons testing purposes. Because of the need to maintain a high level of combat readiness, these systems are tested on a regular basis. Currently, the airborne training activities are at recognized national test ranges. In recent years, the target scoring systems have become quite complex and provide multiple functions, such as: indicating whether a target was hit, how much of the target was destroyed, projectile velocity, and target tracking. The frequency bands supporting these systems are the 1710-1850 MHz, 2200-2290 MHz, and 4400-4990 MHz bands.

 

The US military currently uses SINCGARS (Single Channel Ground And Airborne Radio System) frequency-hopping radios in the field. These radio sets are categorized as Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) transceivers. It employs a narrow band carrier, shifting frequency in a pattern known only to the transmitter and the receiver. The frequency can be changed several hundred times per second.

The FHSS military radios are synchronized daily to use the same frequency modulation algorithm. The synchronization process occurs either through a direct physical connection of the radio sets to each other or to a special device known as the programmer. Some radios can also synchronize frequency modulation algorithms via an encrypted transmission of the frequency modulation algorithm in a non-frequency-hopping mode, although this method is generally considered to be less secure.

The military radios in the US armed forces commonly use encryption and the frequency hopping methods providing an additional layer of security during transmission of the encrypted signal.

A frequency-hopping field VHF/FM transceiver covers the 30-88 MHz frequency range. It also has 10 programmable simplex or half-duplex channels out of its 2,320 channels. Hopping in narrowband (6.4 MHz) and wideband (30 to 87.975 MHz) orthogonal modes. It contains high-level internal digital encryption. Insertion of frequency and security codes is accomplished using a programmer or fill gun. A reset switch on each radio is used to erase codes rapidly. The synchronization function is broadcast, requiring about 6 seconds. Other features include receive-only selective calling, frequency barring and `hailing' by fixed-frequency radios when in the hopping mode.

Special Operations Forces (SOF) teams are tasked to support special operations air, ground, and maritime missions. SOF teams require communications to support Direct Action (DA), Unconventional Warfare (UW), Foreign Internal Defense (FID), Counterterrorism (CT), Special Reconnaissance (SR), Coalition Warfare (CW), Humanitarian Assistance (HA), and Operations Other Than War (OOTW) such as Security Assistance (SA) and Counternarcotics (CN). In addition, SOF teams support missions such as pararescue, search and rescue, drop zone/landing zone (DZ/LZ) surveys, establishment of DZ/LZs, terminal guidance operations, air traffic control, establishment and management of assault zones, conducting direct action and personnel recovery missions, medical care and evacuation operations, and for coordinating, planning and conducting air, ground and naval fire support operations. To accomplish these missions, SOF operators must communicate with Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force forces on several separate frequencies and frequency bands. Presently, SOF teams must carry multiple radios and associated external COMSEC equipment to ensure positive and successful communications. New multiband multimission embedded COMSEC radios (MBMMR) provide the required communications to support these SOF missions by providing a "full-range/band" manpack radio with embedded COMSEC, reduced weight and volume, and full logistics support. The MBMMR transmits and receives voice and data in both line-of-sight (LOS) and satellite communications (SATCOM) operations. It provides six basic modes: LOS, Maritime, HQ I/II, SINCGARS, SATCOM, and DAMA. Other operating modes include Beacon, Scan, Retransmit, and a LOS sub-mode, Carrier Tone Controlled Squelch System.

Frequency Bands: User selectable from 30-512 MHz.
30-89.995 MHZ VHF FM SINCGARS/Combat Net Radio (CNR) Band
108-173.995 MHz VHF AM ATC Band, VHF FM Public Service Band
225-399.995 MHz UHF AM HAVE QUICK I/II/Ground-to-Air, UHF SATCOM Band
403-511.995 MHz UHF FM Public Service Band
Channel Bandwidth: 5, 6.25, 8.33, 12.5, 25KHz
Data Rate: FM LOS: 64kbps (+)
Non-DAMA 5 kHz: 1.2, 2.4, 9.6, 4.8, 7.2, 8.0, or 9.6 kbps
Non-DAMA 25 kHz: 9.6, 16.0, 19.2, 28.8, 32.0,38.4, 48.0 or, 56.0 kbps
5 kHz DAMA: 75 bps to 2.4 kbps
25 kHz DAMA: 75 bps to 16 kbps
Embedded US Type I Encryption:
VINSON: Voice/Data
FASCINATOR: Voice/Data)
ANDVT/KYV-5: Voice/Data
KG-84A: Data
OTAR/OTAT: Tx/Rx SARK
Power Requirements: 21-32 Volts DC
Antennas: LOS Broadband, 30-512 MHz
LOS High Performance, 30-88 MHz
UHF SATCOM Antenna (User Provided)
RF Power Out Selectable Up To: LOS (AM): 10 Watts
LOS (FM): 10 Watts
SATCOM: 20 Watts

The AN/PRC-150(C) provides the required communications to support SOF missions by providing a Beyond Line of Sight (BLOS) HF and LOS FM radio with embedded encryption, reduced weight, and volume. Specific features include embedded encryption, Automatic Link Establishment (ALE), embedded high performance HF data modems, improved power consumption management, and variable power output. The AN/PRC-150(C) includes the Railman INFOSEC module that supports transmit and receive Over the Air Rekey (OTAR). The high performance data modems include 39-tone, Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) and serial (single tone) modems.

Frequency Range: 1.6-59.999 MHz
Modes of Operation:
Lower Side Band (LSB)
Upper Side Band (USB)
Amplitude Modulation Equivalent (AME)
Continuous Wave (CW) Modulation
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Power Output:
1, 5, 20 Watts PEP/avg. HF
1, 5, 10 Watts PEP/avg. FM
Data Rate: 39 tone data to 2400 bps; Serial tone data to 2400 bps (TX), 75 bps (RX);
FSK data to 600 bps
Embedded US Type I Encryption:
VINSON (Voice & Data)
ANDVT/KYV-5 (Voice & Data)
KG-84C (Data)
Power Requirements: Input 23 - 30 VDC
Ancillary Equipment: HF Whip Antenna Y-Adapter Cable
VHF/FM Antenna Battery Box
Handset, H-250/U Keypad Display Unit (KDU) Cable

 

Note: these are some old U.S. ARMY non-FHSS frequencies
(MHz)
29.90, 30.09, 30.10, 30.11, 30.20, 30.29, 30.30, 30.31, 30.40, 30.45, 30.49, 30.50, 30.51, 30.70, 31.00, 31.50, 31.60, 32.05, 32.09, 32.10, 32.11, 32.20, 32.25, 32.29, 32.30, 32.31, 32.41, 32.49, 32.50, 32.51, 32.53, 32.60, 32.69, 32.70, 32.71, 32.80, 32.89, 32.90, 32.91, 33.00, 34.00, 34.09, 34.11, 34.15, 34.19, 34.29, 34.30, 34.31, 34.33, 34.40, 34.45, 34.49, 34.50, 34.51, 34.55, 34.69, 34.70, 34.71, 34.80, 34.85, 34.89
34.90 Civil Emergencies
34.91, 35.00, 36.00, 36.05, 36.09, 36.10, 36.11, 36.29, 36.30, 36.31, 36.49, 36.50, 36.51, 36.54, 36.55, 36.63, 36.69, 36.70
36.71 Dangerous Materials
36.75, 36.79, 36.80
36.89 Dangerous Materials
36.90, 36.91, 36.99, 38.00, 38.20, 38.30, 38.40, 38.45, 38.49, 38.50, 38.51, 38.53, 38.55, 38.60, 38.65, 38.69, 38.70, 38.71, 38.80, 38.83, 38.85, 38.89, 38.90, 38.91, 38.93, 38.95
40.05, 40.09, 40.10, 40.11, 40.20, 40.30, 40.40, 40.41, 40.49
40.50 Distress Net
40.51, 40.60, 40.70, 40.77, 40.80, 40.83, 40.89, 40.90, 40.91, 40.93, 40.95, 41.00, 41.05, 41.20, 41.25, 41.30, 41.37, 41.40, 41.45, 41.49
41.50 Aircraft
41.51, 41.59, 41.60, 41.70, 41.75, 41.80, 41.90, 42.00, 42.25, 42.35, 43.25, 46.70, 46.79, 46.80, 46.85, 46.90, 46.95, 47.00, 49.40, 49.63, 49.65
49.70 Explosives Disposal
49.80 Explosives Disposal
49.85, 49.90, 49.95 , 55.55

126.2 Control Tower to Aircraft

138-144
148-150.8

162.225, 162.250, 162.700, 162.800, 163.000, 163.025
163.100 Government All-Call
163.125, 163.375
163.4125 Corps of Engineering
163.4375 Corps of Engineering
163.5375, 163.5625, 163.6375
163.725, 164.025, 164.050, 164.100, 164.200, 164.350, 164.375, 164.500, 164.550, 164.625, 164.700, 164.775, 164.9625, 164.9875, 165.0125, 165.0375
165.0625 Military Police
165.0875, 165.1375, 165.1625, 165.1875, 165.3375, 165.3875, 165.4375, 165.5625, 165.5875, 165.7875, 166.200, 166.225, 166.350, 167.175, 167.925, 167.975, 168.125, 168.325
168.350 Government All-Call
169.450, 169.600, 170.025, 170.125, 170.175, 171.000, 171.3375, 171.3875, 171.475, 172.800, 172.875, 173.000, 173.025, 173.150, 173.175, 173.200, 173.400, 173.4125, 173.4375, 173.4625, 173.475, 173.4875, 173.5125, 173.5375, 173.5625, 173.600, 173.6375, 173.8375, 173.9125, 173.9875

225-400 Military Aircraft

406.225, 406.9375, 407.225, 407.250, 407.275, 407.300, 407.325, 407.350, 407.400, 407.475, 407.525, 407.550, 407.575, 408.125, 409.075, 409.125, 409.600, 409.650, 409.750, 409.850, 409.925, 410.200, 411.075, 411.200, 412.625, 412.825, 412.850, 412.875,
412.900 Aircraft Operations
412.925, 412.950, 412.975, 413.025, 413.050, 413.075, 413.100, 413.125, 413.150, 413.175, 413.225
413.425 Aircraft Operations
413.475, 413.500
413.525 Aircraft Operations
413.550, 413.575, 413.825


Space Shuttle launches & landings: 118.625, 121.75, 123.6, 125.9, 126.65, 128.55, 133.8, 138.30, 138.45, 141.30, 142.125,148.485, 156.60, 156.80, 157.075, 157.10, 157.15, 171.2625, 163.5125, 163.5375, 165.6125, 170.15, 170.175, 171.00, 171.15, 171.2625, 173.175, 173.4375, 173.4625, 173.5625, 173.6625, 173.6875, 173.7875, 284.0, 349.6, 393.0 MHz.

Atlas Rocket launches: 133.8, 141.30, 142.125, 148.035, 148.485, 150.025, 156.80, 157.10, 157.15, 157.075, 163.5125, 163.5875, 165.0875 MHz.

International Space Station (ISS) FM voice channels reported on 121.75, 130.167, 143.625 and 145.80 MHz.


Emergency and Search/Rescue Frequencies

Emergency Beacons: 121.5, 243.0, 156.75, 156.80, 406.025, 406.028 MHz.
General Use: 121.5, 123.1, 243.0, 282.8 MHz.
U.S. Coast Guard & Auxiliary: 156.30, 156.80, 164.30, 164.55, 381.7, 381.8 MHz.
Civil Air Patrol: 123.1, 148.15, 149.5375 MHz.
U.S. Navy & Reserve: 282.8 MHz.
U.S. Army & National Guard: 30.45, 34.90, 40.50 MHz.
U.S. Air Force & Air Guard: 252.8 MHz.
Mountain Rescues: 155.16 - 155.295 MHz.
Canada: 121.60, 156.80, 157.10 MHz.

CB emergency channel 9 AM 27.065 MHz. CB truckers network channel 19 AM 27.185 MHz
GMRS 462.675 MHz.

American Red Cross 47.420 47.520 47.460 47.540 47.500


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