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Science and Technology
 Grade 6: Structures and Mechanisms: Motion Achievement Level Overall Expectations 1 2 3 4 •demonstrate an understanding of different kinds of motion (linear, rotational, reciprocating, oscillating); •design and make mechanical devices, and investigate how mechanisms change one type of motion into another and transfer energy from one form to another; •identify modifications to improve the design and method of production of systems that have mechanisms that move in different ways. Specific Expectations Understanding Basic Concepts •describe, using their observations, ways in which mechanical devices and systems produce a linear output from a rotary input (e.g., screw, crank and slider, rack and pinion, cam and cam follower); •describe, using their observations, the purposes or uses of three classes of simple levers (e.g., wheelbarrow, tongs, seesaw); •demonstrate an understanding of how linkages (systems of levers) transmit motion and force (e.g., by means of a fixed pivot, a moving pivot, and/or a fulcrum); •demonstrate awareness that a moving mass has kinetic energy that can be transferred to a stationary object (e.g., a car hitting a wheelbarrow will cause the wheelbarrow to move); •demonstrate awareness that friction (e.g., rubbing hands together) transforms kinetic energy into heat energy; •investigate ways of reducing friction (e.g., use of ball bearings, lubricants) so that an object can be moved more easily. Developing Skills in Inquiry, Design, and Communication •design and make mechanical devices that change the direction and speed of an input to produce a desired output and that perform a useful function (e.g., a clothesline); •formulate questions about and identify needs and problems related to structures and mechanisms in the environment, and explore possible answers and solutions (e.g., describe how a system, such as a plumbing system, could be modified to meet different needs); •plan investigations for some of these answers and solutions, identifying variables that need to be held constant to ensure a fair test and identifying criteria for assessing solutions; •use appropriate vocabulary, including correct science and technology terminology, in describing their investigations and observations (e.g., use terms such as fulcrum, pivot, rack and pinion, belt); •compile data gathered through investigation in order to record and present results, using tally charts, tables, labelled graphs, and scatter plots produced by hand or with a computer (e.g., measure and record the motion of moving objects; manipulate computerized data collected from a moving object); •communicate the procedures and results of investigations for specific purposes and to specific audiences, using media works, written notes and descriptions, charts, drawings, and oral presentations (e.g., describe how a product was created from the first idea to the final model; produce a set of instructions to control the sequence of movements of a mechanical device). Relating Science and Technology to the World Outside the School •make use of the physical and aesthetic properties of natural and manufactured materials when designing a product; •show awareness of the effect on a design of the unavailability of specific materials (e.g., the design of a pair of scissors may need to change if only plastic is available instead of metal); •write a plan outlining the different materials and processes involved in producing a product (e.g., resources, equipment, marketing); •identify various criteria for selecting a product (e.g., safety, reliability, durability); •describe modifications that could improve the action of a variety of devices in the home (e.g., can opener, nutcracker, clothesline that uses pulleys); •show an understanding of the impact of moving mechanisms (e.g., trucks, snowmobiles) on the environment and on living things (e.g., loss of natural habitat); •compare qualitatively the effort required to move a load a given distance using different devices and systems; •describe how different devices and systems have been used by different cultures to meet similar needs (e.g., irrigation systems for farms, temporary shelters, bicycles). Student Name:
Expectations: Copyright The Queen's Printer for Ontario, 1998.  Format: Copyright B.Phillips, 1998.