Science and Technology
Grade 7: Earth and Space Systems: The Earth's Crust
Overall Expectations
•demonstrate an understanding of the composition of the earth’s crust, and describe how changes in the earth’s crust result from both internal and external processes;
•investigate the formation of the physical features of the earth’s crust;
•identify the factors that must be considered in making informed decisions about land use and explain their importance (e.g., environmental impact; properties of soil).        
Specific Expectations
Understanding Basic Concepts        
•describe the composition of the earth’s crust;        
•classify rocks and minerals, using their observations, according to their characteristics and method of formation;        
•distinguish between rocks and minerals and describe the differences in their composition (e.g., minerals, such as the mineral calcite, are components of rocks such as the sedimentary rock limestone, in which calcite is found);        
•identify the geological processes involved in rock and mineral formations (e.g., volcanic activity releases lava; the deep cooling of magma produces granite);        
•explain the rock cycle (e.g., formation, weathering, sedimentation, and reformation);        
•describe the process of soil formation by relating the various meteorological, geological, and biological processes involved;        
•describe, using simulations or models, the processes involved in mountain formation and in the folding and faulting of the earth’s surface (e.g., plate tectonics);        
•analyse, through observation, evidence of geological change (e.g., fossils, strata);        
•describe, using simulations or models, the origin and history of natural features of the local landscape (e.g., lakes, river flats);        
•explain the causes of some natural events that occur on or near the earth’s surface (e.g., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides) and their effects.         
Developing Skills of Inquiry, Design, and Communication        
•investigate the effect of weathering on rocks and minerals;        
•formulate questions about and identify needs and problems arising from events relating to the earth’s crust, and explore possible answers and solutions (e.g., search print and electronic resources to gather and record data on past and current earthquake epicentres and regions of volcanic activity);        
•plan investigations for some of these answers and solutions, identifying variables that need to be held constant to ensure a fair test and identifying criteria for assessing solutions;        
•use appropriate vocabulary, including correct science and technology terminology, to communicate ideas, procedures, and results (e.g., use terms such as magma, crystallization, igneous rock, weathering, transportation, sediments, and sedimentary rock when describing the rock cycle);        
•compile qualitative and quantitative data gathered through investigation in order to record and present results, using diagrams, flow charts, frequency tables, bar graphs, line graphs, and stem-and-leaf plots produced by hand or with a computer (e.g., collect data on the change in turbidity of a river after a rainfall);        
•communicate the procedures and results of investigations for specific purposes and to specific audiences, using media works, written notes and descriptions, charts, graphs, drawings, and oral presentations (e.g., prepare a model demonstrating volcanic activity; develop a chronological model or time scale of major events in the formation of the earth; design and build models to illustrate different mining techniques).        
Relating Science and Technology to the World Outside the School        
•identify the factors that must be considered in making informed decisions about land use (e.g., environmental impact, jobs, present and future values of natural resources);        
•investigate some of the ways in which humans have altered the landscape to meet their needs (e.g., farming, urban development, roads) and assess the environmental and economic consequences;        
•identify earth resources used by humans to manufacture products (e.g., iron ore is used to make steel products) and discuss what happens to the products when they are no longer useful;        
•explain how the characteristics of soil (e.g., water-holding capacity, size of particles, texture) determine its use (e.g., land that is rich in nutrients and that can hold water is used for crop growing);        
•recognize and explain the importance of knowledge of the different types and characteristics of soil in determining its suitability for specific uses (e.g., choosing landfill sites and hazardous-waste disposal sites; developing conservation projects; identifying soils suited to different crops);        
•assess the importance of soil conservation (e.g., economically important to the agri-food industry; important for controlling the flow of water; necessary for plant growth);        
•describe how humans are affected by natural events and how technology has helped humans adapt to these events (e.g., use of satellites in predicting weather changes; changes in the engineering of buildings in earthquake zones; monitoring of crop growth);        
•identify past and present-day applications of technologies that have contributed to the study of geology (e.g., surface observation, core sampling, seismography, magnetometry, satellite technologies);        
•recognize that the earth provides us with geothermal energy.         
Student Name:        
 Expectations: Copyright The Queen's Printer for Ontario, 1998.  Format: Copyright B.Phillips, 1998.