Grade 8: Confederation

Planning: Term #

Tracking: Ach. Level

Overall Expectations





* describe the internal and external political factors, key personalities, significant events, and geographical realities that led to the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867, and to the growth of Canada as other provinces and territories joined Confederation;





* use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and communicate information about the needs and challenges that led to the formation and expansion of the Canadian federation;





* compare Canada as it was in 1867 to the Canada of today, including political, social, and other issues facing the country in both periods.





Specific Expectations





Knowledge and Understanding





* identify key social, political, economic, and physical characteristics of the British North American colonies between 1850 and 1860 (e.g., British, French, First Nation, and Black communities);





* identify external and internal factors and events leading to Confederation (e.g., political deadlock, intercolonial trade, reciprocity, Britain's repeal of the Corn Laws, the Fenian raids, the U.S. doctrine of Manifest Destiny, transportation and defence issues);





* identify the roles of key individuals (e.g., Sir George-Étienne Cartier, Sir John A. Macdonald), the main events leading to the signing of the British North America Act (e.g., the Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Conferences; coalition government in the Canadas), and the reasons for the exclusion of certain groups from the political process (e.g., First Nation peoples, women, the Chinese and Japanese).





Inquiry/Research and Communication Skills





* formulate questions to guide research on issues and problems (e.g., Why did Nova Scotia join Confederation in 1867 while Prince Edward Island did not? What qualities made Louis Riel a good leader?);





* use a variety of primary and secondary sources to locate relevant information about the regional interests of each colony/ province before and after joining the Dominion of Canada (e.g., primary sources: artefacts, journals, letters, statistics, field trips, period documents and maps; secondary sources: maps, illustrations, print materials, videos, CD-ROMs, Internet sites);





* describe and analyse conflicting points of view about a historical issue or personality (e.g., British versus Canadian points of view about trade and defence; Queen Victoria, Sir John A. Macdonald, Joseph Howe, Louis Riel);





* construct and use a wide variety of graphs, charts, diagrams, maps, and models to organize and interpret information (e.g., a decision-making chart showing the advantages and disadvantages of joining Confederation for each colony);





* analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information (e.g., determine the changes in Canada's boundaries in 1867, 1870, 1871, 1873, 1898, 1905, 1949, and 1999, using a series of maps);





* communicate the results of inquiries for specific purposes and audiences, using media works, political cartoons, oral presentations, written notes and descriptions, drawings, tables, charts, and graphs (e.g., create captions for political cartoons of the time);





* use appropriate vocabulary (e.g., Confederation, conference, political deadlock, reciprocity, intercolonial trade, Corn Laws, Fenians, Manifest Destiny) to describe their inquiries and observations.










* illustrate the growth of Canada, using outline maps or other tools, identifying the physical regions of Canada, the colonies that joined Confederation, and their boundaries and dates of entry (e.g., 1867 – Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia; 1870 – Manitoba, as a province, and Northwest Territories, as a territory; 1871 – British Columbia; 1873 – Prince Edward Island; 1898 – Yukon, as a territory; 1905 – Alberta, Saskatchewan; 1949 – Newfoundland; 1999 – Nunavut, as a territory);





* use sections 91 and 92 of the British North America Act to outline how and why responsibilities are divided between the federal and provincial governments and relate these divisions to some present-day disagreements between the two levels of government (e.g., federal responsibilities for First Nation peoples, health care, the environment, trade, telecommunications).





Student Name:





 Expectations: Copyright The Queen's Printer for Ontario, 2004.  Format: Copyright B.Phillips, 1998.