Science and Technology
Grade 8: Energy and Control: Optics
Overall Expectations
•demonstrate an understanding of the properties of visible light and the properties of other types of electromagnetic radiation, including infrared and ultraviolet rays, X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves;
•investigate the properties of visible light, including the effects of reflection and refraction, and recognize how these properties are used in optical devices;
•describe ways in which different sources of visible light and the properties of light, both natural and artificial, are used by humans for different purposes.         
Specific Expectations
Understanding Basic Concepts        
•identify the properties of visible light through experimentation;        
•compare the properties of visible light with the properties of other types of electromagnetic radiation, including infrared and ultraviolet rays, X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves;        
•describe how incandescent, fluorescent, and phosphorescent sources produce light;        
•identify colours as different wavelengths of light and explain why objects appear to have colour;        
•describe qualitatively how visible light is refracted;        
•investigate how objects or media refract, transmit, or absorb light (e.g., non-luminous objects are seen when reflected light enters the eye; stars are seen when transmitted light enters the eye);        
•identify ways in which the characteristics of mirrors and convex and concave lenses determine their use in optical instruments (e.g., in a camera, a telescope, binoculars, a microscope);        
•investigate and describe the laws of reflection of visible light (e.g., using a plane mirror);        
•explain colour vision using the additive theory;        
•describe the effect of colour filters on white light using the subtractive theory.         
Developing Skills of Inquiry, Design, and Communication        
•formulate questions about and identify needs and problems related to the properties and behaviour of light (e.g., interactions between light and different materials), and explore possible answers and solutions (e.g., predict and demonstrate how various liquids will refract a light beam and describe the angle of refraction);        
•plan investigations for some of these answers and solutions, identifying variables that need to be held constant to ensure a fair test and identifying criteria for assessing solutions;        
•use appropriate vocabulary, including correct science and technology terminology, to communicate ideas, procedures, and results (e.g., use terms such as incidence, reflection, refraction, wavelength, frequency when describing the properties of light);        
•compile qualitative and quantitative data gathered through investigation in order to record and present results, using diagrams, flow charts, frequency tables, graphs, and stem-and-leaf plots by hand or with a computer (e.g., use light sensors to identify and record different light intensities and present the findings in a chart);        
•communicate the procedures and results of investigations for specific purposes and to specific audiences, using media works, written notes and descriptions, charts, graphs, drawings, and oral presentations (e.g., prepare a brochure informing the public of the risks of a specific type of electromagnetic radiation).         
Relating Science and Technology to the World Outside the School        
•describe how energy comes to earth as radiation in a range of wavelengths, some of which are visible;        
•identify ways in which the properties of reflection are used in everyday situations (e.g., cosmetology, rear-view mirrors in cars, security mirrors, night reflectors on jackets or bicycles);        
•explain the function and purpose of combinations of multiple lenses or lenses and mirrors in optical systems (e.g., the source and one or more reflectors or lenses in cameras, periscopes, telescopes);        
•compare the automatic functions of the human eye to functions in an automatic camera (e.g., focusing power, adaptation to brightness);        
•identify the input, output, feedback, and stability of systems (e.g., stage lights);        
•evaluate the effectiveness of energy transfer systems (e.g., compare the amount of heat given off by fluorescent and incandescent bulbs);        
•recognize that energy can be a significant cost in the manufacture and use of products or systems and explain how that determines its production (e.g., analyse the costs and benefits of producing and using solar panels).         
Student Name:        
 Expectations: Copyright The Queen's Printer for Ontario, 1998.  Format: Copyright B.Phillips, 1998.