Science and Technology
Grade 8: Life Systems: Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Systems
Overall Expectations
•demonstrate an understanding of the basic structure and function of plant and animal cells, and describe the hierarchical organization of cells in plants and animals;
•investigate basic cellular processes and certain specialized cells in plants;
•describe ways in which study of the structure, function, and interdependence of human organ systems can result in improvements in human health.         
Specific Expectations
Understanding Basic Concepts        
•identify unicellular organisms (e.g., amoebae) and multicellular organisms (e.g., worms, humans);        
•investigate ways in which unicellular organisms meet their basic needs (e.g., for food, movement);        
•identify organelles in cells through observation (e.g., vacuole, nucleus, chloroplast) and explain their functions;        
•describe, using their observations, differences in structure between plant and animal cells;        
•describe the organization of cells into tissues, organs, and systems;        
•explain the function of selectively permeable membranes in cells;        
•describe and explain the structure and function of specialized cells and tissues in different parts of plants (e.g., in roots, stems, leaves);        
•recognize that cells in multicellular organisms need to reproduce to make more cells to form and repair tissues;        
•explain how the structure of the roots, stem, and leaves of a plant permit the movement of food, water, and gases;        
•compare the structure of different plants (e.g., cactus, coniferous tree, moss) and show how their structure enables them to live in specific conditions;        
•describe, using their observations, the movement of gases and water into and out of cells during diffusion and osmosis.         
Developing Skills of Inquiry, Design, and Communication        
•use a microscope accurately to find, observe, and draw microscopic objects;        
•formulate questions about and identify needs related to the functioning of cells, and explore possible answers to these questions and ways of meeting these needs (e.g., design and conduct an experiment to test a hypothesis about the effect of chemicals on a unicellular organism; design and conduct an experiment to test the effectiveness of different substances in preventing cut flowers from wilting);        
•plan investigations for some of these answers and solutions, identifying variables that need to be held constant to ensure a fair test and identifying criteria for assessing solutions;        
•use appropriate vocabulary, including correct science and technology terminology, to communicate ideas, procedures, and results (e.g., use scientific terms such as organelle, diffusion, osmosis, selectively permeable);        
•compile qualitative and quantitative data gathered through investigation in order to record and present results, using diagrams, flow charts, frequency tables, graphs, and stem-and-leaf plots produced by hand or with a computer (e.g., use a diagram to present an estimate of the number of cells in a petri dish);        
•communicate the procedures and results of investigations for specific purposes and to specific audiences, using media works, oral presentations, written notes and descriptions, charts, graphs, and drawings (e.g., create a simulation illustrating movement of water and nutrients between cells and through various organs and systems).         
Relating Science and Technology to the World Outside the School        
•describe the needs and functions of various cells and organs in relationship to the needs of the human body as a whole;        
•describe the basic factors that contribute to the efficient functioning of the human respiratory, circulatory, digestive, excretory, and nervous systems;        
•describe some ways in which the various systems in the human body are interdependent;        
•describe similarities and differences in the functions of comparable structures in different groups of living things (e.g., compare the food intake and digestion of a unicellular organism, an invertebrate and a vertebrate);        
•describe ways in which research about cells has brought about improvements in human health and nutrition (e.g., development of medicines, immunization procedures, and diets based on the needs of organs such as the heart);        
•describe ways in which substances work by altering the way cells function (e.g., insulin);        
•describe ways in which various types of cells contribute to the healthy functioning of the human body (e.g., red blood cells transport oxygen throughout the body);        
•illustrate how blood is pushed by pressure throughout the body to carry oxygen and nutrients to cells, tissues, and organs.         
Student Name:        
 Expectations: Copyright The Queen's Printer for Ontario, 1998.  Format: Copyright B.Phillips, 1998.