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The Lumbung
Located on the 'south' side of the compound alongside the kitchen, is the lumbung, or rice granary (E), where the family's supply of unhusked rice is kept bound top in sheaves just as it was brought in from the rice fields. The construction of the lumbung varies considerably, but it normally consists of a walled platform with a steep thatched roof. The platform is supported by four wooden posts each provided with a wide circular disc of wood as a capping, to prevent the ingress of rats. A chicken coop (F) and a covered area in which the pig may be tethered (G) complete the 'southern' side of the compound.
On the 'northern' side of the compound the umah tneten (H) has pride of place. This is the most important building in the compound after the shrine area, and is the sleeping quarters for the head of the family and his wife (Plate 23). This is generally the only fully-enclosed building in the compound. It is windowless and has doors that can be locked to ensure complete privacy. The doors often open onto a small verandah-like platform which is approached by steps. The meten must of course be at a higher level than any of the other buildings in the compound to preserve its relative status. The building is not only the sleeping quarters of the heads of the family into which they lock themselves at night. but it also serves as the repository for the family heirlooms, jewellery and gold, and very often money may be kept buried in the earthen floor under the bed.
The remaining buildings in the compound are all open type pavilions with wall panels on one or two sides as a rule. The bale bang sanga (1) is the equivalent of the family parlour and is also the guest house. It is generally equipped with bamboo-covered benches, which serve as seats where the guests can sit cross-legged while eating, and which can be used as beds for guests with temporary screening in place. Two other bales, or pavilions (I and K) are shown in Fig. g. These are the pavilions used by relatives and children for sleeping, and will vary in size and number according to fancily requirements.
The typical bale is a simple and elegant structure. The floor is raised above ground level in the form of a platform which is usually approached on all open sides by a series of three or four continuous steps. We have already seen that these steps serve a useful function in providing different levels for people of different caste to sit. The platform may be of bare earth in a simple family compound, but in the compound of the well-to-do it will be paved with brick, stone or tiling-all long-wearing and cool materials. The roof is a thick thatch of alang alang grass tied to the ribs of coconut leaves with sago-palm fibre. These are in turn lashed to the bamboo rafters using the same material. The thatch is perhaps twelve to eighteen inches thick. It is long-lasting, even in the face of many rainy seasons, and provides coolness in the pavilion underneath it. It is supported on a timber structure set on posts rising from the platform. The structure is carefully built using halved and slotted joints pegged together with the heartwood of the coconut palm. Tile posts, which may vary in number from four to twelve according to the status and importance of the bale, are cut to a standard length of seven feet, and it is an inviolable rule that the wood of the post must be oriented from base to cap in the same direction as that in which it grew in the tree it was cut from. The posts and roof timbers in the homes of the wealthy are often elaborately carved. In wealthy homes also, the walls, where used, may be constructed of brick with panels of intricate stone carving.
Finally in the centre of the compound will be a small shrine (L) dedicated to the spirit of the land, where offerings will be made before the day's work begins, and another (NI) 'west' of the noeten. These shrines are known as tugd.
The house compound of wealthy Balinese is laid out according to the same basic principles. The family shrine is located on the 'northeast' corner, the tneten on the 'north' side, the kitchen, granary and animals on the 'south' side. The relative elevations of the pavilions and buildings are carefully preserved in order of importance. The difference lies mainly in the type of construction, its quality and adornment, and in the general beautification of the compound. The walls surrounding the compound will be of brick ornamented with carved stone. The gate will be an elegant 'split' type as used on the temples. The kitchen, granary and animals will be further removed from the family pavilion by virtue mainly of the larger size of the compound. The pavilions will be constructed of brick and stone and will have carved posts and roofs. The guest pavilion will be separate from the family one and will often be constructed in the form of a meten, being partly open, and partly enclosed by four walls with a door opening onto the open section. There may even be a special pavilion reserved for important family occasions, such as weddings, childbirth and funerals. The compound is often well-developed with paving, carved figures and other embellishment, and will incorporate more trees and flowers of a decorative nature.
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