Build your own CoCo Eprom Pak

The Color Computer has a large selection on software on rom, available in what RadioShack called a Program Pak. You can't beat software in rom, switch on till your application is ready to work is typically about 2 seconds. If you have a favorite cassette or disk based program, often it can be transferred to a Pak. Or you can write your own assembly language or Basic programs and have them programmed onto the Pak. If you are using a CoCo as a dedicated controller, this also saves the hassle of having to load in your control program every time you power it up.

Assembly language programs can be placed on the pak fairly easily, as long as they are less than
15 3/4 K, and are written in position independant code. Non position independant code programs can often be transferred from the pak to their original load address, and executed from there.

Basic programs require a little more work, as there is some setup required on top of just loading the program in from the pak. The finished results are fairly impressive though, even fairly large programs are automatically running in just seconds, from switch on, with no key input required. If you have a dedicated application for your CoCo, and want to do away with the loading of the software from disk or tape, keep reading for the complete procedure. Remember all addresses/data are shown in base 10 decimal.

Romming a Basic program in a Pak 

   This procedure has been tested with all 3 CoCo models, cassette or disk based.

     1 : Determine the start and end locations of the Basic program you want to rom. Once you have
          loaded in or typed in your program, four locations in memory hold the start and end
          addresses of the Basic program in memory. The first 16 bit address is at decimal 25, the second
         (end) address is at at 27. Type in the following  and enter it a line at a time, DO NOT assign line
          numbers and run as a program, as this will change the values you are trying to read.

          A=PEEK(25):B=(PEEK(26):S=A*256+B:PRINT A;B;S

          C=PEEK(27):D=PEEK(28):E=C*256+D:PRINT C;D;E

          Record values A,B,S,C,D,E

          You will find the start address will vary depending on what PCLEAR was set at originally,
          and will be different depending on if system is cassette or disk based. Note that the start
          address that you read is actually one higher than the start of data. All Basic programs start with
          a 0 before the text, but the value you read in the above procedure is the start of text. This is
          important in the next step. Take the value you read in (S) and subtract 1 from it, for use in step 2.

     2 : Save the tokenized Basic program. This is where it is best that you dust off the old cassette
          deck and type in CSAVEM "name", load address (S-1), end address (E), 0
          You could alternatively do this to your drive with a SAVEM command, but since the
           program is destined to be run in a Program Pak, loading in from the cassette WITHOUT
          the drive controller in place, allows a more accurate simulation of how the program will run
          once it is auto-booted in from the Pak.

    3 : Test the program for operation and conflicting commands before you have it programmed
         onto eprom. Start with the computer off, power it up. If you have a CoCo3, you have to
         enter one additional command,   POKE 65502,0 . This will simulate the Program Pak
         installed. DON'T do this Poke if you have a CoCo1 or 2. CLOADM or LOADM what you
         had previously saved. Poke in the start and end addresses from above as follows:

         POKE 25, A
         POKE 26, B
         POKE 27, C
         POKE 28, D

         Complete initializing Basic by entering the following lines. Remember don't assign line
         numbers, just enter them one line at a time.

         POKE 113,85
         POKE 114,128
         POKE 115,192
         EXEC 47452
 

        You should now be able to LIST, RUN, EDIT and perform all other Basic functions on the
         program that was loaded in as machine code. If you have a CoCo3, and your program
         includes any Super Extended commands, start your Basic program with a POKE 65503,0.
         If everything looks good,  your code is ready to be programmed onto the cartridge eprom.
         The cartridge eprom will contain a small loader and auto-boot program,
         placed at the cartridge start address. You need to add the load address of the Basic program (S-1)
         from Step 2 above into Line 200. Source code for this loader and auto start program is as follows:

        050  BASDES     EQU        BASLOD - LOADER
        100  LOADER    LDA        #85                                SET WARM RESET
        110                      STA        113
        120                      LDD        #32960                         SET EXTENDED BASIC RESET VECTOR
        130                      STD        114
        140                      JSR         47452                            SET UP PARAMETERS FOR BASIC
        150                      LDA        #53                               RESTORE INTERRUPTS
        160                      STA         65283                          THAT ARE
        170                      LDA        #52                               DISABLED ON
        180                      STA         65315                          CARTRIDGE AUTO START
        190  BASIN        LDX        #BASDES + 49152
        200                      LDY        #address                       THIS IS LOAD ADDRESS OF BASIC (S-1)
        210                      STY         25                                 SAVE IT IN BASIC START
        220                      INC         26                                 CORRECT THE ACTUAL START VALUE
        230  TNSFER     CLRB                                          SET END COUNTER TO  ZERO
        240   TNSFR2    LDA        ,X+                               GET FIRST BYTE FROM ROMPAK
        250                     STA         ,Y+                               TRANSFER BYTE TO BASIC RAM
        260                     BNE         TNSFR2                      NON ZERO DATA, KEEP TRANSFERRING
        270  ENDCHK  INCB                                            ZERO DATA DETECTED, INCREMENT "0" COUNTER
        280                     CMPB     #4                                 IS THERE 4 CONSECUTIVE ZERO'S?
        290                     BEQ        LODDON                    IF YES, STOP TRANSFER
        300                     LDA         ,X+                              LOAD NEXT ROMPAK BYTE AFTER ZERO
        310                     STA         ,Y+                              TRANSFER BYTE TO BASIC RAM
        320                     BNE         TNSFER                     NON ZERO DATA, RETURN TO MAIN LOOP
        330                     BRA         ENDCHK                   ZERO DATA, INCREMENT COUNTER, STAY IN ZERO LOOP
        340  LODDON  LEAY       -1,Y      ;                      CORRECT BASIC END ADDRESS
        350                     STY          27                               SAVE END ADDRESS FOR BASIC
        360 AUTRUN    LDX          #733                           BASIC LINE INPUT BUFFER
        370                     LDD          #21077                       LOAD LETTERS "RU"
        380                     STD          ,X++
        390                      LDD          #19968                       LOAD "N" AND END
        400                      STD          ,X++
        410                      LDB          #4                               INDICATE 4 CHARACTERS
        420                      CLRA
        430                      STA          112                             SET CONSOLE IN BUFFER FLAG
        440                      LDX          #732                           POINT TO LINE INPUT BUFFER
        450                      JMP           44159                        START MAIN BASIC LOOP
        460  BASLOD    FCB           255                             BASIC PROGRAM  DATA STARTS HERE
        470                      END 

   
There is 1 absolute address in the above listing that can be changed depending on your
system and the program memory requirements.  Line 200, is the load point in ram, common points are 7680, 9728. This can be changed, especially if you will not be running a disk drive. I currently use 7680 as this is the Extended Basic default

Assemble the boot loader and burn on to the eprom at address 0 for 8 and 16K devices. If your rom board is standard and you are using a 32K device, usually 16384 is the correct address to locate the boot loader. (This is due to to the high address line A14 on the rom board tied to 5V) Some paks are tied low, you can write the loader to 0. Burn the Basic program data immediately following the loader . (Overwrite the 255 data byte at BASLOD) The first byte at BASLOD should be a zero, your end of Basic data should be 4 consecutive zeros.

What happens when your CoCo starts with the cartridge in place, is as follows:

The boot loader starts, and moves the Basic in from cartridge rom into ram.
Basic is initialized to recognize this non standard load.
RUN is entered automatically to start the Basic program.


More details on the above items, pulled directly from Extended Basic Unravelled Disassembly

Decimal conversions are in black

0019       25    TXTTAB   RMB      2       *PV  BEGINNING OF BASIC PROGRAM
001B       27    VARTAB   RMB      2       *PV  START OF VARIABLES
0071      113    RSTFLG    RMB      1       *PV  WARM START FLAG: $55 = WARM, OTHER = COLD
0072      114   RSTVEC    RMB      2       *PV  WARM START VECTOR - JUMP ADDRESS FOR WARM START
B95C 47452                   JSR   LA35F       SET UP TAB WIDTH, ZONE ETC.     This routine sets up some I/O parameters for Basic's use
 

Assembling your own Eprom Pak

Start with a standard Program Pak game that uses a 28 pin DIP chip. Most older cartridges use a 24 pin rom, and some newer paks have no DIP, just a blob on the board. If you can count 14 pins when you slide the protective door back on the Pak, you have a good candidate. On this donor cartridge, you will be destroying the rom chip when you remove it, so take a copy of it before you start if you ever want to play it again. My eprom programmer also has a CoCo cartridge slot that allows me to make a direct copy into a new eprom, before I remove the rom. This rom also makes a good test once you are done assembling your Pak, just plug the eprom into your Eprom Pak and see if the game plays normally.

Open the cartridge, there is a screw hidden under the label. Verify that it has a 28 pin DIP chip before proceeding. If all looks good, remove the chip, taking care not to damage the board. Best method if you do not have desoldering tooling is to cut all the pins, remove the chip, then desolder the pins individually. Boards I have seen will accept 8, 16, or 32K devices, although the maximum addressable in unmodified form is about 15 3/4 K.

Solder in a 28 pin socket, be sure you marked pin one of the original rom, so you can orient the new device correctly. Optionally, you can disconnect connector traces 7 and 8, and install a small switch to control this connection. This switch will allow auto booting, or manual starting of your program, dependant on switch position. Carefully check for solder bridges or other defects before plugging in your Pak. Install your programmed eprom and assemble the Pak.

This page is looking  for a new home, as I will be taking my CoCo site down soon.  It desperately needs a rewrite as it has lost some of its formatting. If interested, follow the Index link below to my email address to contact me.

This page last revised Dec 28, 2003

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