HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF WHITE THOROUGHBREDS

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF WHITE THOROUGHBREDS

Since the birth of the first white Thoroughbred in 1896, the racing world has witnessed with curiosity the appearance and preservation of this rare phenomenon.  This first white, which was foaled in Nashville, Tennessee, was registered in the American Stud Book by the name White Cross.  From this colt on, this rare color has continued repeating itself throughout the world, each time more frequently, although always in a very sporadic manner.  It was not until 1963, with the foaling of Mont Blanc II in France, and of White Beauty in Kentucky, that the white coat began being preserved, in a more conscious way by means of systematic crosses.  Thanks to the efforts of some French breeders, among them, Madame Elisabeth Couturié, and Herman K. Goodpaster in America, we can assert that some strains of white Thoroughbreds have survived throughout the world.

This article will try to analyze this new coat color, compile and examine the name and origin of every reported case throughout history and acknowledge this phenomenon, so that it may be preserved within the Thoroughbred breed.  After all, this is a new contribution which adds great splendor and interest to the "Sport of Kings".  Let us examine this matter in detail.

White Color, Distinct from Roans and Greys

It should be clarified right from the beginning that in all breeds the white is totally distinct from the authentic biological roan ("R" gene) and grey ("G") colors, although in theory it is said that these two are derivations from the white.  According to this hypothesis, the white, black, and chestnut, are the three basic coats from which all other compound and intermediate colors are supposed to proceed.  Nevertheless, the truth is that roans and greys are very different from whites.

Most greys and some roans, possess genes of slow expression, which means that when they are foaled both are apparently seen as being of a solid color.  In the case of the greys, an initial grey headed, subtle spotted bay, brown, or black color with silvery mane and tail is observed. In the case of the roans, a

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dark headed white sprinkled hairs with darker mane and tail of a more chestnut appearance is present.  Gradually, with the passing of time, both coats, but mostly greys, become progressively whiter until finally acquiring an almost

white, or even, as in some greys, an entirely white tone. This progressive

whitening cannot be classified as white color.  The genuine white coat is completely revealed at birth, so that no other solid color is observed; although any white may carry some very small black spots on the skin pigment, or in the ears.

Another difference, which happens to be of paramount importance, is the color of the skin.  The skin of roans, greys and other coats, is dark, while the skin of all whites is always pink. An additional difference is the color of the hooves.  The hooves of roans, greys, and other coats, tend to be of a greyish or darkish tone, while the hooves of the whites are always of a yellowish-tan color.  Along with the skin pattern, the eyes of roans, greys, and other colors are dark, while nearly all whites possess bluish pinkish eyes; although black and brown  eyes are also seen on certain whites. All these are simple, yet very practical signs for  

distinguishing in any breed the genuine whites from the progressive whitening of authentic roans and greys.

As for the Thoroughbred breed alone, there is another important difference, namely, the white color appeared unexpectedly since all the evidence tends to suggest that this coat was absent among the founders of the Breed.  The founders include: the bay Byerley Turk, the dark bay of white markings Darley Arabian, the dark bay Godolphin Arabian; and other lesser known 475 stallions.  The female founders include several cornerstones matriarchs known as the Royal Mares, plus other following selected mares.  Accordingly, in the case of all modern grey and the traditionally so-called roan Thoroughbreds (the latter not really biological "R" gene carriers, as we will explain henceforward), these are preserved, probably exclusively, by the unequivocal, direct, and uninterrupted lineages of the grey stallions Brownlow Turk, and Alcock Arabian (also known as Mr. Pelham's grey Arab), both of which converge into a single strain, by virtue of their common grey descendant, the broodmare, Bab (1787).  Both founding sires were part of the aforementioned 475 modest stallions that contributed to the

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foundation of the Thoroughbred.  Let us see their unified lineages of transmission, for the grey and the so-called roan color:

 •  Brownlow Turk (grey h.) 
01   Grey Grantham (grey h.)
02  Miss Belvoir (grey m.)    •    Alcock Arabian (grey h. 1704)               
03  Childers Mare (grey m.) 01   Crab  (grey h. 1722-1750)
04  Blossom (grey m. 1752) 02   Crab Mare (grey m. 1750)
05  Cygnet (grey h.) 03   Regulus Mare (grey m. 1757)
06  Cygnet Mare (grey m. 1761) 04   Virago (grey m. 1764)
07

 Bordeaux (grey h. 1774)  

05   Speranza (grey m. 1778)
08  Bab (grey m. 1787)
09  Sir Peter Mare (grey m. 1797)
10  Spinster (grey m. 1805)
11  Master Robert (grey h. 1817)
12  Drone (grey h. 1823)
13  Whim (grey m. 1832)
14  Chanticleer (grey h. 1849; sired by Irish Birdcatcher)
15  Souvenir (grey m. 1856)  
16  Strathconan (grey h. 1863)   
17  Gem of Gems (grey m. 1873)    
18  Le Sancy (grey h. 1884)   
19  Le Samaritain (grey h. 1895)    
20  Roi Herode (grey h. 1904)    
21  The Tetrarch (grey h. 1911)                                                                
 Notes:  Crab Mare (1750):  Was a sister to Othello.
            Bordeaux (1774) :   Sire of Bab (1787). Bordeaux was  
                                         by Herod, and was full brother to Florizel, bay sire of 
                                         the first Derby winner.

            Speranza (1778):   Dam of Bab (1787) Speranza was sired
                                        by Eclipse and was full sister to the bay
                                        winners, Saltram (Derby) and Annette (Oaks).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

As seen, the preservation of the grey and the so-called roan color has depended on the successive transmission of genes, from one generation to the next 

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 according to the Mendelian genetic theory. Meanwhile, the appearance of the white coat seems to defy that theory at first glance. The explanation of the

appearance of the first unexpected whites is still a subject of study and theoretical conjecture.  Nevertheless, today white offsprings can be obtained from any white parent in accordance to Mendel's postulates, moreover since the two independent genes that produce the white color tend to be dominant.  Therefore, at the present, we can assert that the white coat has established its presence among the Thoroughbred breed.

 Regarding the erroneously so-called roan Thoroughbreds there is a very important clarification to be made.  It happens that the authentic biological roan-producing "R" gene (as genetically defined in the first three paragraphs of this section), does not necessarily yet seem to have been spotted among this Breed.  What the racing world has customarily referred to as roan Thoroughbreds are non-other than unequivocal biological grey gene ("G") equines sporting a non-biological sprinkled roan-alike fashion.  This explains why in preceding paragraphs four and five, the fictitiously so-called roan Thoroughbreds righteously appear as descending from the all-grey ancestries of The Tetrarch.  As a matter of fact, it is well proven among Thoroughbred breeders that either coat variants are indistinctly obtained from each one.  Apropos, the Jockey Club has recently corrected this incongruity by consolidating both coat variants under the definite grey-based term, "grey/roan".  Therefore, our readers are advised to keep in mind said confluence whenever we refer to roan Thoroughbreds!

 Having made the appropriate distinction between the white versus the authentic roan and grey colors, now we will define more specifically what constitutes white color, in its two different versions.

 White Color, Two Versions

 When dealing with the term "white Thoroughbred", what we are really referring to is a generic name that has been used indistinctly within the Thoroughbred breed to include two independent genes, each of which produce white coat color.  In appearance, both versions seem to be very much alike, since each one produces equines that appear entirely white at birth, while having bluish pinkish eyes, pink skin, and yellowish-tan hooves. (Said description is imprecisely

 

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 referred to as "albinism", a more recognizable term, yet to be avoided when dealing with horses, whereas white equines are not afflicted with the visual deficiencies associated with this condition.) In spite of the similarity of both genes, the biological truth is that each version possesses its own particular characteristics which distinguish each one from the other.  Certainly both groups share some unique visual traits that set them apart from other colors, reason for which they are commonly referred to by the catch-all term of "whites".  Nevertheless, it is important to point out that since each version possesses genes of a different nature and expression, each one reproduces according to its genotype.  These two versions are: the white dominant heterozygous (W/w),

also referred to as "true whites"; and the sabino-based white incomplete dominant homozygous (S/S). Lets examine these two versions in detail.

 

First Version: White Dominant Heterozygous  (W/w)

 This is a dominant heterozygous solitary gene, which is not autosomal (sex-linked).  Since for all practical purposes, the white dominant never figured among the originating color-genes of the Thoroughbred breed, its appearance can only be explained as a new mutation arising from solid color parents.  Accordingly, each time that this unexpected phenomenon is revealed, we say that a new mutation has appeared.

Visually, these white dominants possess at birth a tone which is as white as a new sheet of typewriting paper --without traces of any other color-- and stay that way for the rest of their lives.  When they are clean, the white dominants show on their manes and tails the same color as the rest of their bodies.  Likewise, their knees and legs follow this pattern.  The skin of the white dominants is pink, though sometimes they have little black spots in the pigment of their skin, mostly between their legs, nostrils, muzzle, head and ears. (As for the little black spots in the ears, it is important to clarify that these are spots on the skin, and not traces of solid color in the hair --as we will see in the second version.) The white dominants, invariably, tend to show pink areas around the nostrils, lips, and around the eyes.  The color of the hooves is always yellowish tan.  They may also have some dark stripes on their hooves, although these patterns are usually very minimal.

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As a general rule, the white dominants possess very dark-black or dark-brown eyes.  Less frequently, they may also possess a very deep blue, which appears black.  Other rare blue versions, can well be, pale blue, translucent, dark blue, or they may be dark with a small blue area on them.  They may even carry one blue eye, while the other is brown.  White dominants do not have amber or light yellowish eyes.

White dominants (W/w) which have served as sires and mares (in other breeds), have resulted in great scientific interest for they have hinted the tendency of being dominant.  The only contrariety with this dominance is that sometimes the percentages of white offsprings are not so strong after all because the gene "W" is affected by some subvital developments.  Anyway, theoretically, whenever white dominants parents are crossed, their offsprings should present a favorable margin of two white dominants, for each one born of another color.  On the other hand, whenever white dominant equines are bred to solid color mates, their offsprings should be white dominant in about half the cases.  It should be remembered, that when referring to the white dominants, we are always dealing with heterozygous (W/w) alleles, due to the fact that the homozygous (W/W) counterpart --coming from two (W/w) parents-- is lethal, and therefore does not exist.  It so happens that to this day, a white dominant equine of a double strength "W" has never been found.  If such a case existed all its offsprings would invariably be white, regardless of the color of the other parent.  Such a double-strength version does exist in other colors, such as the (AE/AE) bays and (G/G) greys. (By the way, a similar impediment also blocks the existence of the authentic biological roan dominant homozygous (R/R) version, thus meaning that every living genuine roan carries the heterozygous (R/r) alleles.) Several investigators theorize that some whites that die at an early age may actually be double strength "W" whites.  This inability to develop, occurs because of some deficiencies in the production of certain nervous cells belonging to the intestinal tract.  In conclusion, it certainly becomes a proven fact that all living white dominants are heterozygous (W/w).

Finally, regarding to the recessive homozygous (w/w) cases, these are non-white, common solid color equines and are therefore incapable of producing first-version white offsprings since their alleles lack the strengthened "W".  Their only hope is to have them crossed with a (W/w) white mate.  As a matter of fact, every existing non-white equine carries (w/w) alleles.

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Second Version: Sabino-Based White Incomplete Dominant Homozygous (S/S)

Theoretically, the second version of the white color can emerge from any of three different white-spotted based coats: the paint frame overo, appaloosa, and sabino-based solid color equines.  In the Thoroughbred breed though, it has only occurred through pairs of sabino-based parents, which is to say, through certain white splattered marked solid color mates.  These parents possess incomplete dominant heterozygous (S/s) alleles, and owe their markings, not to an ordinary marking gene, but to a rare "S" gene.  Although this gene has not yet been fully proven, most of the evidence tends to support its existence, relative dominance, and rareness.  These (S/s) solid color Thoroughbred parents possess atypical white markings on their legs and head.  Their markings are atypical because of their sharp extent or rare character. In short, the second-version whites are double-strength "S" or (S/S) Thoroughbreds, coming from a pair of single-strength solid color "S", or (S/s) parents.  Since these (S/s) parents are not so easy to distinguish, let us first describe them in detail before analyzing the homozygous (S/S) whites.

The (S/S) Thoroughbreds are a real puzzle!  First, not only does the Breed rarely produce heavily white-marked solid color equines, but also, the true (S/s) that are produced come in such a conservative fashion that most of the time they are almost hidden and overlooked.  It is not until the appearance of an obvious radically spotted case that the thorough observer is then acquainted with the presence of the (S/s) alleles.  To intricate matters even more anyone can be misled by wrongly assuming that any above average white marked equine --like say, Secretariat (1970)-- ought to be labeled as a (S/s) carrier. In reality, we

we shall discard the majority of all commonly marked equines, although this author suspects of several bloodlines descending from Northern Dancer (1961), along with some of his ascendants.  This stallion possesses a very intriguing "nick" between the aforenamed The Tetrarch and the white-footed Hyperion (1930), a duo which also appears --through other strains, though-- in the peedigrees of several other modern whites.

There are two kinds of (S/S) parents: the minimally and intermediately marked equines.  A good resembling example of the first group are the TV-famous Clydesdale horses.  This breed is known for producing wide blaze/high leg

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markings and for throwing occasional second-version whites.  In spite of such a fine example, do not expect to find an exact Clydesdale look-alike Thoroughbred. 

The Thoroughbred is a discreet coat breed, not known for producing noted atypical marked equines --not even in the case of a genuine (S/s)!  This digression from the Clydesdale norm makes it very hard for the Thoroughbred observer to find and mate a pair of genuine (S/s) Thoroughbreds, not to mention producing the infrequent (S/S) whites!  Thus, our only alternative is to make use of some clues that may fairly help, but which are not necessarily giveaways.  Three main clues for identifying the minimally marked (S/s) Thoroughbreds are: First, they tend to fashion white sock(s), with high ragged extensions of leg white, occasionally with some subtle roanings.  This is somehow different to the nicer straight across sock design seen on the rest of the equine population.  Second, the presence of any wide white blaze, sometimes with blue eyes. Third, the presence of any solitary white spot somewhere around the knees, hocks, or hind limbs.  Remember that all these clues are very dissembled in Thoroughbreds, for which reason we end up with a kind of guessing exercise.

The intermediates are similar to the minimals, but with a heavier white influence.  They tend to fashion patches of white and/or roaning plus a heavier white influence on the head and legs.  They are more prone to have blue eyes, though remember this is not a must.  These equines are many times inaccurately labeled as "paints" and "roans". The unexpected roan sire, Puchilingui (1984, Native Royalty-Carolinaway, by Needles) is a good example descending from The Tetrarch, Hyperion, and Black Toney!) In the Breed, these intermediates are, mostly, the semi solid/semi white offsprings coming from a (S/S) white parent-such as Not Quite White's (1989) first two foals!

Now let us focus on the second version whites.  These possess white incomplete dominant homozygous (S/S) alleles.  Theoretically, they emerge, a quarter of the time whenever a pair of (S/s) Thoroughbreds are crossed.  Remember that this rate may vary due to the fact that this gene is very unpredictable --not to say, a great fooler!  Nevertheless, once a (S/S) white has been achieved, it is easier to obtain other second version whites from it.

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Visually, the (S/S) whites possess at birth a tone, which is as white as an uncleaned (or "rusty" stained) white canvas. In other words, not as immaculate as white dominants (W/w).  The (S/S) whites tend to retain minimum traces of

solid color inside the ears with some reddish-yellow hairs on top of the mane and tail. They usually show some subtle speckles, flecks and patches in the poll, neck, topline, chest, flanks, knees and hocks; all this, without loosing their general white appearance.  The skin is pink, though sometimes they have little black spots in the pigment of their skin, similar to the white dominants.  The (S/S) whites invariably tend to show pink areas around the nostrils, lips and around their eyes, although, in this last detail, in a less noticeable fashion than the white dominants (W/w).  The color of the hooves are always yellowish tan.  Their eyes are brown, or blue, somehow similar to the white dominants.

Sometimes, the (S/S) whites are seen as clean as the (W/w) whites.  When this occurs, it seems difficult to differentiate both versions.  Distinguishing both versions is especially important, since each one possesses different genes.  Fortunately, there is a sure way to differentiate both.  The rule is that white dominants always produce from solid color mates, either, white dominant or solid color offsprings, nothing else.  In identical circumstances, a (S/S) white parent will tend to produce on a regular basis some very heavily spotted solid color offsprings --again, the (S/s) equines, but this time in a real noticeable fashion!  A second hint is that a thorough inspection of their parents and brothers/sisters should reveal traces of a spotted background.

About the origins of the (S/S) white Thoroughbreds, these did not arise from some mutation, as is the case with the white dominants (W/w) . On the contrary, the elements that produce the "S" gene reportedly have always been present among the Breed --although always in a less apparent way.  It so happens that through the years, some solid color Thoroughbreds --mostly chestnuts-- with lots of white marrkings on their head and legs have been produced.  These white-marked equines simply pass unnoticed under their solid color designations while carrying their heterozygous (S/s) alleles.  Such Thoroughbreds continue transmitting their genotype until coinciding with an homologous mate.  When this happens, there is around a 25% chance of obtaining a second version white offspring, 25% of getting a common solid color offspring --mainly chestnuts--and 50% of getting "heavily" spotted equines --mainly chestnuts.  An early example of a genuine (S/s) horse was the chestnut stallion, Ky Colonel (1946).  A modern example is the chestnut Irish sire, Northjet (1977) --a grandson of

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Northern Dancer, which now stands in Germany.  If we analyze their stud records, it is evident that the chances of obtaining unexpected (S/S) whites are slim.  If in addition we add the fact that the white dominant (W/w) version owes its existence to a mutation, then we can understand how rare and improbable the appearance of white Thoroughbreds is in general.  We also wish to include the name of freshman sire Marquetry (1987), as another probable (S/s) alleles carrier.  This double-millionaire chestnut son of Conquistador Cielo, out of Regent's Walk, by Vice Regent --by Northern Dancer-- sports a white blaze, four non-dark hooves, three white marked legs plus a very peculiar solitary white spot on his left knee.  Yet two other tidy telltale (S/s) Thoroughbreds are the English-bred champion, Tromos (chestnut 1976, by Busted, out of Stilvi --inbred to Hyperion--, by Derring Do --from The Tetrarch); and the recent Florida-bred,

Go Go Nakayama (1992, Well Decorated --inbred to Hyperion--, out of Sexy Suzy's Secret, by Secreto --by Northern Dancer), juvenile winner of Japan's Keisei Stakes (gr. II).

As already mentioned, in other breeds, second-version whites can also emerge through two other white-spotted based coats: the dominant appaloosas (Ap/Ap)\(Ap/ap), and the dominant homozygous paint frame overos (0/0).  Although these two colors have never had anything to do with the Thoroughbred breed, this situation seems to have changed, thanks to the recent appearance of Tri Chrome (1991), a young Thoroughbred who has also gained access to the Paint Registry.  This paint-bay son of Blue Gazi, out of Miss Joslin, by Reward Lloyd (male-line grandson of Hyperion), fashions all the signs of being a mutation to the paint frame overo gene.  The signs are: an almost white face; a non-over-the-topline large jagged horizontal-patterned white splash and one or more dark-colored feet/legs.  This description is quite different from that of its Paint Registry partner, the more common dominant paint-tobiano (T/T)\(T/t) gene, a color which is unrelated to the appearance of second version whites.  The tobiano gene fashions: common discreet-marked face; over-the-topline clean vertically arranged spots and, almost always, all-white feet/legs.  Nor can we classify Tri Chrome as a calico-based heterozygous (Ca/ca), since his three dark-colored feet do not correspond to usual clear footed "Ca" gene carriers.  We shall be able to safely confirm the genotype of this Arizona-bred colt, when he is finally retired for breeding by his owners, Gerald and Palmer Keith of Phoenix.

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Thirty-one years before Tri Chrome's foaling, the Breed had also witnessed the appearance of another heavily spotted Thoroughbred.  The case was Valençay (1960), a French-bred paint chestnut son of Free Man (1948, by Norseman), out of La Lorie (1950, by Coastal Traffic), who was auctioned at the Deauville Yearling Sales of 1961.  Quite different from the case of Tri Chrome, Valençay's visual appearance showed most of the characteristics of a mutation to the paint-tobiano gene.  His white blaze was more commonly marked than that of Tri Chrome's.  Most of his white body markings tend to be spread into a toward-the-neck vertical arrangement, with some areas crossing its topline.  Three of his four white feet/legs extended their white well above both knees and one of the hocks. In addition, his mane and tail were flaxen.  Unfortunately, nothing was ever heard again about this case, for which reason we may deduct that Valençay vanished from the Breed without a trace.

Finally, regarding the recessive homozygous (ca/ca) cases, these are non-white common solid color equines and therefore are incapable of producing second version white offsprings since their alleles lack the strengthened "Ca".  Same as it happens with the recessive homozygous (w/w) cases, these (ca/ca) have no choice than being crossed with a (Ca/Ca) white mate.  As a matter of fact, every existing non-white equine also carries (ca/ca) alleles.

Bidilutes (c [cr] / c [cr]); a Third Version?

Although we have referred to just two versions of the white color, we do not want to close this analysis without mentioning that there is also another shade which, arguably, can be passably considered as a third version of the white coat. We are referring to the extreme dilution recessive homozygous (c [cr] / c [cr]) alleles.  Although this version had not  been reported among the Thoroughbred breed when the original work of this thesis was completed on December 31, 1994, today (July 2002) we can inform that two cases had been reported. These are full brothers: Billionair (1998) and Zillionair (1999). Both are by the "chestnut" (actually, a palomino), Issue of Gold (1994), out of the "chestnut"

(palomino), Queen Debonair (1990), by the "light chestnut" (palomino), Milkie (1966). Since these very pale cream siblings cannot be genuinely regarded and

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registered as "whites", the Jockey Club authorities opted  to registered both as "chestnuts".  The lateness for their appearance among the Breed is that, as seen by these examples, this version can only emerge in minor instances from crosses where both parents' coat colors are: palomino, buckskin, or both combined.  The palomino is a creamy golden chestnut coat, with flaxen mane, tail, and lower leg markings.  Its bay equivalent, the buckskin, is a light bay coat with black mane, tail, and lower leg markings.  It is clear that these two colors are very rarely seen  among Thoroughbreds.

The palomino and buckskin colors carry a single-diluted gene, or (C/c[cr] ) alleles, which have the effect of partially diluting their real base or subjacent color.  Their actual subjacent bases are, in the case of the palominos, the chestnut base; and, in the case of the buckskins --most usually-- the bay base.  When a pair of these single-diluted (C/c[cr]) are mated, they tend to produce a quarter portion of extremely or double diluted foals.  This small segment are the herein so called "third version" white-bidilutes (c [cr]/c [cr]) offsprings!  In general, these are offsprings with a very pale cream coat, pink skin, yellowish tan hooves with amber, light amber, yellowish brown or light blue eyes.  More detailed though, the bidilutes are subdivided into two main shades, videlicet, the cremellos, and the perlinos.  Let us further scrutinize both.

Cremellos.  The cremello is a chestnut-through-palomino bidilution sporting a vanilla ice cream-like tone on the body, mane and tail.  Since cremellos are lacking black areas (eumelanin), here the light reddish or yellowish base is discolored in a more extreme way.  This gives way to a subtle yellowish ivory white tone and points.  This yellowish dressing (phaeomelanin) befriends a better exposure of the skin color, which is pink.  In this type, the mane and tail are always of a lighter, or even the same tone as the rest of the body, but never darker. Their knees and hocks are also of the same body tone.  In general, the  tone of these cremellos is truly similar to a vanilla ice cream, or a peeled banana.  This tone differs from the one observed on a new typewriting sheet of paper (white dominants) and an uncleaned white canvas (splattered-based whites).  The cremellos tend to show pinkish areas around their nostrils, lips and around their eyes, same as the white dominants.

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Perlinos.  Actually, the perlinos escalates into three shades, the heaviest of which verges toward a khaki shade, mostly, with darker mane and tail.  These three shades are the standard perlinos, the medium perlinos, and the dark perlinos.  The more abundant standard perlino is a bay-through-buckskin bidilution.  

These are very similar to the cremellos though less yellowish, with slightly reddish points.  This is caused by the subjacent eumelanin base.  Because of this factor, the perlinos always carry a partially reddish mane and/or tail, quite different from the cremellos.  Due also to this factor, their knees and hocks show a subtle darker tone.  Their general tone is similar to say, the pages of an old newspaper. The skin is pink, but may also appear of a pinkish orange or pumpkin color.  The standard perlinos tend to show pinkish areas around their nostrils, lips and around their eyes, although, in this last detail, in a less noticeable fashion than the cremellos and white dominants.

The medium perlino is a brown-through-buckskin bidilution.  These possess a greater influence of eumelanin than the perlinos.  The medium perlinos carry on their manes and tails the same medium tone as their bodies, whereas the standard perlinos possess darker mane/tails. In spite of that difference, both sports on their knees and hocks a darker cream tone than the rest of their bodies. The general tone of the medium-perlinos is similar to say, the pages of an antique newspaper.  Same as the standard perlinos, the medium perlinos possess a lesser pink tone around their eyes.

 The dark-perlino is a black-through-buckskin bidilution.  Their general tone is very similar to the medium-perlinos, but they show on their knees and hocks a more sooty cream tone than the clean contrast shown by other perlinos.  They also carry some almost imperceptible specks and sooty spots along the back and rumps.

 As it is evident from the descriptions above, these white-like cases are, more correctly, cream colored equines, rather than undisputed mainstream whites.  Actually, the cremellos and perlinos are normal genetically solid color equines whose external tone ends up disclosing the result of an extreme or double dilution of its tint.  Thus the specific tone of each bidilute is co-determined by the presence and magnitude of the two otherwise in sight ingredients that determine

 

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solid colors: the eumelanin and the phaeomelanin.  The eumelanin is represented by any kind of black areas of equine color, such as bays, browns, and blacks.  The phaeomelanin represents lighter red to yellow areas of equine

color, such as sorrels, chestnuts, and liver chestnuts.  The eumelanin-based

idilutes are the perlinos, while its lighter counterpart, the phaeomelanin-based bidilutes are the cremellos.  Finally, it should be noted that whenever any given pair of bidilutes are crossed, their offsprings should always be bidilutes, either, cremellos or perlinos.

 

Although a third version white Thoroughbred had never been produced before the foaling of Billionair in 1998, there is abundant evidence suggesting  that some palomino and buckskin Thoroughbreds may have been produced indeed.  We base our supposition on the fact that through the years a few peculiar Thoroughbreds have been registered by the Jockey Club as "light bay" and "light chestnut", designations which obviously intend to retain a submissive dependency to the traditional Thoroughbred colors.  For example, Jamie K (1950), a very close runner-up to Native Dancer in the 1953 Preakness and Belmont Stakes, was registered as a "light bay", same as Questionnaire was so registered in 1927.  The list of "light chestnuts" include such studs as Artisian (1952), Equa Charge (1958), Irwin (1959), and several other unheralded Thoroughbreds names.

 

Perhaps the most interesting case was that of the big sturdy chestnut mare, Peroxide Blonde (1960).  Embellished with a big blaze, flaxen mane and tail, and four white legs, she foaled in 1965, a similar flaxen chestnut colt with a white blaze and one white colored leg.  The big colt was to become the winner of the 1968 Belmont Stakes, the long lived champion, and top stamina sire, Stage Door Johnny (51 Stakes Winners).  Yet a second inclusion seems to be the aptly named curious bay, Buckskin (1973, Yelapa [Mossborough]-Bete A Bon Dieu, by Herbager).  This one won the 1979 edition of England's Henry II Stakes.  In short, the possibility of a future cremello/perlino-white is not so remote!

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 A Major Coincidence: The Presence of The Tetrarch

 From the appearance of the first white of 1896, and up to July 2002, this phenomenon has occurred unexpectedly in both genetic versions a total of 35 times. This cipher does not include offsprings from white parents, in which case the number rises to 72 cases!  In 31 of these cases, complete pedigree records are available. Astonishingly, from this number around 80 % percent descend from solid color strains coming from the Intermediate Chef-de-Race, the grey The Tetrarch, or from his tail male grey ancestors, Roi Herode and the latter's grandsire, Le Sancy.  In synthesis, a huge number of white Thoroughbreds descend from the same marginal lineage. By general say, we may safely affirm that The Tetrarch is his lineage's main driving force. This high percentage looks more dramatic when remembered that a considerable number of cases does not descend from the most proliferous descendants of Roi Herode and The Tetrarch --Native Dancer and Nasrullah--  but from some of their most inconspicuous strains.

 This repetition looks very interesting since practically all modern roan and grey Thoroughbreds owe their color to this same grey lineage.  Such coincidence does not necessarily mean that we are trying to prove that every white Thoroughbred directly obtains its color by the sole remote action of The Tetrarch and Roi Herode. This is not possible genetically since the roan and grey colors cannot be acquired if both skip or interrupt intermediate generations, as it precisely occurs here with these unexpected whites!  What we categorically cannot discard at all is the possibility that this lineage may be playing some kind of role, in transmitting certain predisposition to produce the white dominant mutation, as well as promoting the second version sabino whites.  As a matter of fact, the noted French breeder Madame Elisabeth Couturié, who dedicated much spare time from the last 12 years of her life to the study of the white Thoroughbred attributed certain responsibility to the lineage of The Tetrarch.  This reasoning sounds very logical when we remember that theoretically all compound colors, such as roans and greys, owe their shade to one or more of the three basic colors aforecited (white, black and chestnut).  After all, it is quite obvious that some kind of visual likeness exists between roans, greys, and whites.  In addition there is another interesting fact.  If we examine the aforenamed list of grey

                                                    -16-

 ancestors of The Tetrarch, we will discover that Chanticleer (referenced as

generation No. 14. ), was also the son of a strange chestnut sire named Irish Birdcatcher (1833).  This stallion is responsible for the white specks, or

sprinkling throughout the coat, known as "Birdcatcher ticks", which are sometimes seen in the coat of many chestnut, bay, brown, and black Thoroughbreds.  This peculiar white presence may remain latent for generations, and then reappear unexpectedly.  Anyway, in spite of these facts we acknowledge that it is very complicated to try to explain how any of these unexpected white Thoroughbreds emerged after so many successive generations without the presence of any roan, grey, or white ancestor.  Yet another obstacle to be saved is providing the three unavailable pedigrees from the cases foaled in 1914, 1952, and 1959.

 

About the presence of a common grey lineage among white Thoroughbreds we must admit that we are also aware that in a breed like the Thoroughbred, certain other genealogies tend to repeat if one investigates a pedigree far enough.  Anyhow, the simultaneous presence of other genealogies does not diminish the fact that, practically, all whites carry the unified lineage of the grey cornerstones, Brownlow Turk and Alcock Arabian (via Roi Herode/The Tetrarch), as their only source of white hairs of this type.  Still another argument in favor of the influence of this strain is the fact that it was poorly sponsored along the two centuries that preceded the year 1884.  On the contrary, at the present, that formerly obscure strain has evolved into one of racing's most qualified families, being regarded by many breeders of the world as one of the truly prepotent lineages of the Breed.  That change of fate commenced with the appearance of the good sire, Le Sancy, in 1884, and was boosted to greater heights, when his tail male great-grandson, The Tetrarch, was produced in 1911.

 Two  Additional Coincidences: The Presence of Hyperion, and/or Black Families

 In addition to carrying repeated doses from The Tetrarch, many pedigrees of unexpected white Thoroughbreds also carry the influences of Brilliant-Classic Chef-de-Race, Hyperion (1930); and/or the presence of either, black ancestors or black-producing families. This black influence tends to find its main purveyor in L'Abbesse de Jouarre (1886), dam of Desmond and Festa. Both coincidences or

                                                     -17-

 influences though not as over abundant as those of The Tetrarch's, seem equally weighty variables upon the appearance of unexpected white Thoroughbreds.

A very-close look at Hyperion's phenotype (appearance), as well as an analysis on his oddly marked type-producing offsprings, strongly hints that the genes of this chestnut, all white footed stallion may well be an important ingredient within the amalgam that produces the white coat in Thoroughbreds.  A good example of this tendency was Sir Winston Churchill's stakes winner, High Hat (1957), a flamboyant chestnut son of Hyperion's antepenult crop which sported high white "stockings" on all of his legs as if it were a Clydesdale horse.  Another example, perhaps the most renowned bearer of Hyperion's visual traits, was his great-grandson, Brilliant Classic Chef-de-Race, Northern Dancer (1961).  This discreetly marked bay son of Neartic, along with some of his gets, are the most recognizable influence behind almost every heavily white-marked equine that the Breed had produced since the mid-sixties.  Five good representatives of this influence are: The Minstrel, Vice Regent, Northern Taste, One For All, and Northjet --the last two have already sired a pair-- of white Thoroughbreds!  Another suspicious descendant of Hyperion was his brown son, Rockefella (1941), a moderate stallion which appears with certain prominence among the third remove of a pair of modern whites.

 

An additional angle also emerges from Hyperion's dam, the excellent bay producer, Selene (1919).  It happens that this matriarch was the foundation dam of several outstanding lineages from which some branches had consistently shown the ability of producing unusually white-influenced equines, or even, inexplicably, some subtle paled solid color cases.  One of the best examples to unfurl this behavior was the chestnut English stallion, Mossborough (1947), a son of Nearco (1935), out of the Bobsleigh-Selene mare, All Moonshine (1941).  Not only does Mossborough appear among the first four removes of a 1975-French white Thoroughbred, but has also been identified as the main force behind son Ballymoss' tendencies of throwing occasional oddly colored Thoroughbreds.  Ballymoss' behavior are best illustrated through Topsy (1976), and Peroxide Blonde (1960).  Topsy, winner of the 1979 editions of England's Fred Darling, and Sun Chariot Stakes, was considered an unexpected grey or chestnut grey daughter of the great bay, Habitat, out of the bay Ballymoss mare, Furioso (1971).  Peroxide Blonde's palomino-alike phenotype and achievements have already been discussed.  Curiously enough to be mentioned, two other products of Selene appear among the pedigrees of some white Thoroughbreds,

 

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namely, the brown studs Sickle (1924), and Pharamond II (1925).  In addition to the aforecited names, another white Thoroughbred carries the name of Selene's

sibling half brother, the dark bay or brown sire, Bosworth (1926). Summing up, the names of Hyperion and that of his immediate female line kindred appears on around 60% percent of the pedigrees of whites.  It should be noted, nevertheless, that whenever this lineage is present it is almost always accompanied  by the names of The Tetrarch and/or Roi Herode.  Although we are not proclaiming here to have fully established a white-producing "nick" between these two lineages we are certainly intrigued by the fairly continued presence of these two white-infusing strains, especially, since both are --along with our next factor-- the only eye-appealing sources one can find within this discreet-coat Breed.  Let us now examine the third and last influence.

The third coincidence found among the genealogies of unexpected white Thoroughbreds is a significant reiterated presence of black, or nearly black-brown strains that consistently seem to flutter around the pedigrees of all whites. (This phenomenon also occurs with many roans and greys.) This over dubbed black presence captures the attention of any watchful observer since this color ordinarily does not tend to abound on pedigrees, much less through divers odd representatives as precisely occurs here.  Another argument that leads into suspecting of the presence of black families among whites equines is that both colors seem to represent the two extremes of a comparable genetic phenomenon. This is, while the black color displays an extreme fashion of the pigmentation process, the white coat illustrates the suppression of such action.  Let us now account this black presence.

From the list of unexpected whites the Breed has known, around 35 percent  of the cases carry well known black producing ancestors within their first three removes.  Other additional cases carry close brown/grey fore parents which, in spite of their colors,  resembled visual influences from black strains.  In short, around 80 percent of the cases have strong ties with black genealogies.  A second fact is that some of these whites have exerted the tendency of having a black foal, sibling or parent. Yet a third indicator is that the black is the only

atypical presence found among the pedigrees of two of the three early whites which did not descend from The Tetrarch/Roi Herode, nor Hyperion/Selene.

The list of black ancestors originates, basically, from six main branches, with one of this overlapping with an already mentioned influence.  The first one comes

 

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through a pair of siblings foaled by the English dark-brown mare, L'Abbesse de Jouarre (1886): the black sire, Desmond (1896), and his elder full-sister, the dark-brown mare, Festa (1893). Both equines account for around 70 percent of the black-influenced white cases.  The second branch comes through the Peter Pan (1904) gaudy lineages of  Black Toney (1911) and Pennant (1911). But quite more obvious through the dark brown sire, Black Toney, who is represented by a daughter, a son, and a grand-son, namely, Black Maria, and the black stallions Balladier (1932), and Relic (1945). This second brahch (Peter Pan) accounts for several additional cases, while sharing a few cases with  L'Abbesse de Jouarre.  The third stream comes through the black sire, Ariel (1925), which shares a case with  Black Toney and L'Abbesse de Jouarre simultaneously.  The fourth source comes through the blacks Nannie Anderson (1881), and her grand-daughter, Black Girl (1889), who shares White Cross' pedigree with the branch of the black

stallion,  Albion (1837).  The sixth, yet an intermixed source comes through the black-producing brown strain of Owen Tudor.  This stream accounts for one case

(actually an inbred) which is shared with one count from L'Abbesse de Jouarre.  The fascinating complicacy with Owen Tudor is that he is a son of influence number two, Hyperion.  This convergence actually implies much more than a mild tangency between Hyperion and the black color.

Summing up, it seems evident that the appearance of unexpected white Thoroughbreds probably owes more to the three genetic presences aforediscussed than to any other factor.  More specifically, we have observed that as the breeding influences of The Tetrarch, Hyperion, and Black Toney has disseminated, so has increased the appearance of unexpected white Thoroughbreds --as well as other heavily spotted equines! Of all the sprouts coming from this trio we are particularly wary about the breeding influences of Northern Dancer, which in addition to carrying said studs, also bears black genes from Unbreakable --whose brown sire was non other than Selene's son, Sickle!  This confluence of factors, far from embroiling this matter, actually suggest that both or possibly all of these white producing influences are somehow interchained.  Northern Dancer's occasionally gaudy white-infusing gonads have been turning, very gradually, this traditionally discreet colored Breed into a more fashionable looking engender.  A simple browsing of any recent world class illustrated sire book will easily confirm this assertion.  Therefore, it should come as no surprise that the last unexpected whites produced by the Breed carry quite traceable white influences from Northern Dancer.  We are under the impression that soon the "sport of kings" will be witnessing, not only the appearance of several other unexpected whites (as well as "roans", and "greys"), but also, a

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substantial share of telltale heavily spotted solid color equines.  Let us now be acquainted with the list of white Thoroughbreds!

Chronologic Table of the White Thoroughbreds

The following table compiles the name and sex of all white Thoroughbreds in its two versions.  This list covers from the first known case of 1896, up to the last case reported in 2001.  The collection extends to the 2001 year crop from Europe, North America, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Argentina and Puerto Rico. (The historical equine population consists of more than two-million registered Thoroughbreds.) The names of the original unexpected whites are identified with a preceding "o".  Each parent's name and color is provided, as well as the breeder and country.  All descendants from the three main influences of reference, are identified as follows: The Tetrarch (lTT); his sire Roi Herode (lRH); his great-grandsire Le Sancy (lLS); Hyperion (2Hy); his foredams Selene/Serenissima (2Se); L'Abbesse de Jouarre (3L'A); Black Toney (3BT); his brother/sire Pennant/Peter Pan (3PN); Ariel (3Ar); Nannie Anderson (3NA); Owen Tudor (30T); and, Albion (3Al).  In case of an inbred, the symbols will be underlined.  If two lineages are derivates, a (-) symbol will be used.  Those with no relation to the aforementioned (not related); those coming from an already classified white parent (coat from parent); and those with unavailable pedigrees (not available), are also so identified.  Remember that this information, though broadly searched, may partially vary in the future due to the fact that some pedigrees are not a 100-percent complete. (Actually, there also exist the possibility that newly-acquainted yesterday whites may arouse, as for example, the alleged, but still unconfirmed '74-Russian white colt, Razgon.  This son of *Aniline (1961), out of Ruzajevka, was the winner of the August 1977-edition of Eastern Europe's International Meeting's One-Mile Belgrade Prize, ran at Moscow Central Hippodrome [Michael Horacek, "East European Racing," Thoroughbred Record, 18 January 1978, pp. 216-218. 1).  With this safeguards in mind, let us examine the table:  

                                                     List of White Thoroughbreds   

 

Notes About the Original Unexpected White Thoroughbreds

WHITE CROSS  (1896).  This Tennessee-bred, first white Thoroughbred was owned by his co-breeder, Van Leer Kirkman.  White Cross' coat was true white with some little black spots on its skin and black eyes, which opens the possibility  that he may have been  a white dominant.  This colt was registered in The American Stud Book, Volume VII, page 114.  He debuted as a juvenile at a Nashville hippodrome, where he immediately became a novelty, judging from the following quotation of the Nashville American: "... such an unusual sight as a white race horse attracted great interest." An evaluation of his pedigree reveals that he lacked any roan or grey ancestors throughout 60 years.  More interestingly though, is the fact that on both sides of his first four removes there is a total of three blacks ancestors, namely, his dam, Black Girl (1889); that mare's maternal grand-dam, Nannie Anderson (1881); plus White Cross' paternal second-broodmare-sire, Albion (1837).  Such a significant presence of black ancestors, as well as brother/sisters, and descendants  --as we will examine henceforward in other cases--  reveals that some kind of congruency exists between the appearance of both uncommon colors.  White Cross was shown as a yearling at the Tennessee Centennial celebration of 1897.

White filly  (1914).  Aside from the proven fact that her parents were both bays, hardly any other evidence exists about this case.  The main reason for this lack of information was that she was not registered at the General Stud Book of Great Britain, by her breeder, Lord Middleton.  Since the sabino-based whites are relatively more probable than the white dominants, it is most reasonable to think that she had belonged to that first group, rather than being a mutation.

CUBILETE  (19??).  This Puerto Rican-bred mare allegedly was a daughter of the American sire, John A. Monroe (1906), or "España", as he was inscribed locally.  This dark-chestnut son of First Mate, out of Celluloid, by St Florian, was bred to a local obscure mare named Cubileta, of whose color we lack detailed information, except for an assumption from Puerto-Rican Thoroughbred historian, Miguel Andino Clemente Cruz, who believes that she was also white.  We are unable to confirm this and therefore prefer to classify Cubilete as an unexpected white.  Since the sabino-based whites are relatively more probable than the white dominants, it is most reasonable to think that she had belonged to that first group, rather than being a mutation.

 WOHER?  (1925).  The translation of her name means "whence?".  Although registered in the Direktorium fur Vollblutzucht as being a "grey" (Stud Book 18, page 260), her case generated much discussion during the 20's, since the opinion of the German public referred to her as being of white color.  From a photograph which appeared adjacent to page 257, of the book, Bloodstock Breeding, by Sir Charles Leicester, it is evident that she was a sabino-based white.

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 This mare possessed traces of solid color on her mane, tail and ears.  Her eyes were of a dark color. Although she was a sabino-based white, her pedigree reveals just one chestnut ancestor along her first three generations, precisely, on the third remove. Neither does she carry any roan or grey ancestors along her first five generations.  A more important angle emerges from the fact that she was inbred 3X4 to the brown, near-black lineage of Festa (from dam, L'Abbesse de Jouarre); where one of its branches is directly responsible for Woher?'s sire, the brown Pergolese. Woher? was raced until her seven-year-old campaign.  Afterwards, she was never used as a broodmare. Her owners later emigrated to Uruguay.

White filly (1952).  Was foaled in Holland, from a brown sire and a grey mare.   Barely no other detail exists about her case, except for a photograph, where she appears with her daughter, another white foaled in 1955. By observing the tone of her tail on the photo it is quite evident that, most probably, she was a sabino-based white.  Another important clue that reinforces this judgement is the fact that her breeder, J.K. Wiersema, an avid observer, has been identified with the original proponents of the existence of the "S" gene.

RACHEL VI (1959).  This elusive case was foaled in Ireland, yet very little information is known about her.  Neither does the General Stud Book of England and Ireland possess sufficient information about this mare.  She is registered, solely by name and year of birth at the Jockey Club Information System of the United States.  A more recent research has revealed that most probably Rachel VI was the daughter of a Hunter/Thoroughbred sire named Tiverton's Pride (1948).  The latter was a son of the English sire, Tiverton, out of Miss Chow, by Marcus Friar.  Tiverton (1938), a brown stallion, was by Apron, out of Spiora, by Spion Kop. Because of lack of full information regarding her immediate pedigree, it is difficult for us to assure whether she was a sabino-based white, or a white dominant. Anyway, since the sabino-based whites are relatively more probable than the white dominants, it is most reasonable to think that she had belonged to that first group, rather than being a mutation.

WAR COLORS (1963) and WHITE BEAUTY (1963).  These two are half brother and sister and were sired by the barrel-spotted chestnut, Ky Colonel, who was resident sire at Patchen Wilkes Farm of Lexington; where both whites were foaled within a month of difference. The pair were owned and produced from gift mares (Why Wander (1955)/Filly O'Mine (1952)) received by farm manager, Herman K. Goodpaster, which naturally bred them both to Patchen Wilkes' house stallion. Mister Goodpaster had been crucial in the foundation of that breeding operation in 1937, for farm owners Mr. and Mrs. Joe A. Goodwin.

Solid evidence exists to prove that both products were in reality two second-version white offsprings.  First, note that in the case of War Colors (the eldest), both parents were chestnuts. This obliges us to infer that this colt was a chestnut-gene

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carrier irrespectively of his white color, since it is well known that chestnut mates should always produce chestnut offsprings! Such circumstance does not necessarily seem to restrain the "S" gene, since many (S/s) mates are chestnuts.  This fact, plus the occurrence of a same season second white foal definitively tends to suggest that both offsprings came from a pair of (S/s) mates rather than from two mutations.  Normally, it is very improbable that a sire can produce during the same breeding season two independent white dominant mutations.  Also, War Colors displayed all the classic characteristics of a second-versioner, such as an entire white coat with a reddish brown area of hairs among his ears, mane and tail.  In addition, War Colors sported various chestnut spots as well as some small time-increasing bluish patches on the neck --all of which accounted for the colt's name! In spite of these specks, War Colors was certainly a white, not a roan.

Second, in the case of the speckless White Beauty (fourth foal and sole white out of five full-brother/sisters), many of her offsprings had all the visual traits of the second-version whites.  Following Mr. Goodpaster's valid convincement that in the absence of another white mate, the best choice for reproducing the white color were grey or roan partners, during her broodmare life, White Beauty was mostly bred to stallions of these two colors. Of her eight lifetime products, three were bona-fide type whites. (These were, a 1969 slipped Tudor Grey filly; a 1975 Spotted Line filly named Beauty 'N Motion; and a 1977 Well-Mannered deceased filly.) Of these three, the only one to survive, Beauty 'N Motion, has only engendered one foal, the roan colt, War Painting (1981).  Yet a fourth case (1972, World O'Beauty), despite being registered as "roan" for her very maculated coat, subsequently betrayed her real genotype by producing two unquestionable second-version white fillies (Precious Beauty[1981]; and Late 'N White[1985]).  Two other foals (colts) from White Beauty were a peculiarly spotted roan (1970, Busy Fellow), and a grey (1976, stakes-placed Vennie Redberry) . The two remaining offsprings were a normal dark-bay filly (1971), and a chestnut colt (1973).  All the aforementioned evidence clearly indicates that White Beauty and War Colors belonged to the sabino-based white version.

 

In terms of their pedigrees, War Colors and White Beauty were inbred through both parents to relatively close grey ancestors coming from The Tetrarch.  Interestingly, on three of these four occasions, they do so through the grey, Royal Minstrel (1925)  --which also appears among the ancestors of another unexpected white foaled in 1977. Since both whites were sired by Ky Colonel, it is primarily through him that we should research for a clue that may permit us denounce a white-producing strain.  Such reasoning obliges us to stand-out, first, the presence of Ky Colonel's sire, the black-coated, Black Toney stud, Balladier.  Second, we should point out to the suspicious presence of Ky Colonel's second broodmare sire, the renown white-splashing infusioner, the chestnut stallion, Pennant (1911).  Pennant was sired by the bay Peter Pan (1904), out of Royal Rose (1894), by

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Royal Hampton.  Revealingly, Peter Pan was also the sire of Black Toney, a coincidence which certainly invites to render further back into Peter Pan's genealogy as an additional subject of research.  The argument is reinforced by the fact that War Colors and White Beauty's dams also descended from Peter Pan.  Wherefore, both whites were inbred to him via three doses.  In White Beauty's case, she also carries the influence of Hyperion's elder uterine half brother, the brown sire, Sickle.

 As it was logical to assume, when these two white offsprings were foaled in 1963, much doubt and skepticism flourished within the members of the Jockey Club.  During some time this institution was reluctant to register these products insisting that no such thing as white Thoroughbreds existed.  After all, a breeding authority had stated unequivocally in 1958, that no possibility existed of some day producing a white Thoroughbred.  Following thorough blood tests and several inspections, the existence of this phenomenon was confirmed and both were accepted by the Jockey Club.  White Beauty was admitted as a "white" while her also-white half brother, the less-immaculate, War Colors, had to settle for the genetically inappropriate "roan" nomenclature.  Afterwards, said corroborations has been regularly applied to confirm every other case of white Thoroughbreds.  In retrospect, it must have been very humorous to imagine, during those days, any breeder pretending candidly to register, not one, but a pair of alleged white Thoroughbreds.

 At the track, White Beauty debuted as a juvenile and competed for three years, during which she first triumphed in a sophomore allowance by 1 3/4 length.  Later, she won another race among allowance company, for a career total of $5,561.  With regard to War Colors, he died during his 2-year-old spring training season at Keeneland, prior to becoming an official competitor, reason for which he was lost as a potential sire.

 MONT BLANC II (1963).  His coat was very white, with some little black spots around his head and anus.  His skin was of a pinkish white tone.  The eyes were dark, with a little blue area on each one.  He was foaled at the small breeding operation of M. Adolphe Besnard, in the vicinity of Madame Couturié's Le Mesnil Castle. A year later, this colt was auctioned at the Deauville Yearling Sales of 1964.  There he was acquired for 27,000 francs by the peculiar Sir Charles Clore, and sent to trainer, Walter Nightingall, who shipped him to England.  There he won the Rushey Wood Maiden Stakes, at Lingfield, on March 26, 1966.  As his track career as a modest winner with honorable achievements came to an end, Mont Blanc II was used for a short period as a stallion in England.  Afterwards, he was half-share acquired for 60,000 francs by a French transient admirer: the Viscount de la Grandiére.  The Viscount then repatriated him to France for the same purposes to the Haras de la Chaise at Bruére-sur-Loire. Back in his native land, Mont Blanc II did not manage to attract much attention among-breeders.  He did nevertheless hustle to sire a minimum of 43 products as far as 1979, with at least a total of nine registered whites.  This small share has been responsible for precariously preserving his lineage and color up to the present.  Finally, in spite of such an inspiring story, Mont Blanc II's epilogue has a sad note, for he was to succumb alone in a  parcel among his own dung, at age 18.

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When this writer first researched on Mont Blanc II's phenotype, his visual traits and relative clever immaculate white-producing ability seemed to portray him as a first version white dominant.  After all, some of the crossings performed with Mont Blanc II by Madame Couturié tended to point out so.  More recently though, ample new global detailed offspring records from France had notably betrayed him as a sire of barrel-spotted, heavily Clydesdale-alike solid color foals.  A very good example fashioning this flamboyant description was his son Gugusse, who was an absolute head turner at Chantilly.  This gaudy progeny, along with many undisputed brown eared scrawled white products clearly defines him as a second version white equine.

During his epoch as a stallion, we have to acknowledge the efforts of a few breeders of both countries, most notably, Madame Couturié.  Through her experiments, Mont Blanc II, not only had the opportunity to produce white Thoroughbreds but also served to show the potential of dominance of the "S" gene.  Since 1970, Madame Couturié began crossing Mont Blanc II with a grey Pony of her own, from arab lines and blue eyes.  Never having been bred previously, Fanny, then a 15-year-old mare became pregnant and produced in 1971, a second version white filly named Blanche Neige. That same year she was bred again to Mont Blanc II and produced in 1972, another white offspring, this time a colt named Glacier.  Afterwards, Blanche Neige was bred as a three-year-old, to her own sire, Mont Blanc II, and produced in 1975, the white colt, White Glory.  That same year, Blanche Neige was bred again, this time to her full brother, Glacier, and produced in 1976, the white filly, Boule de Neige.  After these four successful white-producing crosses, Madame Couturié decided to reinforce the Thoroughbred side of Boule de Neige, for which the mare was bred to Madame Couturié's Thoroughbred stallion, Versailles.  This bay sire, was a

son of the dark bay, Right Royal and the chestnut mare, Decor II, by Court Martial. The mating with Boule de Neige produced a 1980 filly, Fleur de Lys, and a 1981-colt.  Both were second version whites.  After the foaling of these two offsprings, Madame Couturié had the intention of registering and running the white colt in Ireland.  These efforts were suspended by the death of this famous French breeder in 1982.  Nevertheless, through these experiments, Madame Couturié proved that the second version of the white color is heritable and capable of reiterating a good degree of dominance.  These six very fortunate whites were all representatives of the white incomplete dominant homozygous (S/S) version.  Aside from these experiments, the most important contribution made by Mont Blanc II was to succeed in transmitting to other true Thoroughbreds his color and blood.  Thanks to these efforts, the name of Mont Blanc II appears today in the second and third generation of several recent white runners.

In terms of its pedigree, Mont Blanc II's sire, the bay, Murghab, was inbred 4X4 to The Tetrarch, who was his closest and sole grey ancestor.  This white's dam, the bay Tharsine, was a male-line descendant of Selene's maternal sibling, the brown stud, Bosworth.  Although Mont Blanc II does not carry any sharp black lineage among its ancestors, it is quite incriminating that in 1965, that very same cross produced the black colt, Delabarre, who triumphed in several European stakes races.  The foaling of Delabarre eagerly suggests an affinity between both colors.

 

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GLACIAL (1966).  This white filly, foaled in Victoria, Australia, was the daughter of a curious bay mare named Milady Fair (1960).  What makes Milady Fair (Aus) such an interesting mare to examine is the fact that in addition to Glacial she also produced a second unexpected white offspring in 1972, a colt which was produced from a different stallion, as we will examine henceforward.

As for Milady Fair's genealogy, she was a daughter of the bay or brown stud, Jambo (1944), who was a son of Felicitation (1930), out of Dodoma II (1939), by Dastur (1929).  Dodoma II's dam, the great French producer, Mumtaz Begum (1932), was a maternal granddaughter of The Tetrarch.  Glacial's sire, the grey, Grey Marwin (1961), was also a remote descendant of The Tetrarch.  It happens that his sire, the grey, Brilliant Chef-de-Race, Grey Sovereign (1948), was a son of Nasrullah, whose dam was non other than --once again--  Mumtaz Begum.  Grey Sovereign's maternal side also traces back to The Tetrarch through the mare Kong (1933), broodmare sire, Baytown (1925), and next two ancestresses, Princess Herodias, and Herodias  --all four of which were greys!  Although Glacial's pedigree still lacks a few remote ancestors, it is chronologically impossible for her to have been a descendant of Hyperion  --yet she could descend from Selene/Serenissima!  As for the presence of any black ancestor, Glacial carries three doses of the genes of Festa's full-brother, the definite black stud, Desmond.  Moreover, Glacial herself evidenced this influence by producing a black foal as we will examine in the following paragraph.

Glacial, who was the first-born foal following Milady Fair's barren maiden season of 1964, was bred and campaigned by her first owner, Mrs W.G. Griffiths of Victoria.  As a runner, Glacial had five racetrack starts at two and three years, but neither won, nor was placed.  After her days as a competitor ended, Glacial was bred as a four-year-old, and went on to produce in 1971 an Istanbul bay colt named Astacial.  That same year, Glacial was bred to Khalif, a son of Istanbul, and achieved to duplicate her color by producing the white colt, Khaleben. (We will concentrate on him in a separate analysis.) That same mating would also produce the grey filly, Glenmaggie, in 1977.  As we have previously stated and could reasonably expect, Glacial also foaled a telltale black (dead) colt in 1982, from the cross to the sire, Fife and Drum  --in what was to be her last product!  Aside from these four offsprings, Glacial also produced: a 1974 bay colt; a 1975 bay or brown filly; a 1978 bay filly; and a 1981 bay colt --mostly from diverse sires.  Blessed with a beautiful temperament, Glacial passed on to her products, not only her gentle disposition, but also genuine racing abilities for nearly all of her progeny triumphed at the races, and have successfully reproduced other winners.

An analysis of Milady Fair's tendency to produce unexpected white foals suggests that neither Glacial, nor her sibling half-brother had inherited the white color because of the occurrences of mutations of the gene "W".  We base our supposition on the fact that since this mutation very seldom appears in any given Thoroughbred in first place, it is practically impossible to

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suppose that this phenomenon may have occurred on two distinct breeding seasons by mating the same producer to two different sires.  Therefore, we must conclude that Glacial and her half-brother were two good examples of the relatively, more-common, second-version (S/S) whites; thus meaning that Milady Fair was an incomplete dominant-heterozygous (S/s) alleles carrier.

 Visually, Glacial sported clear indications of being a secondversion (S/S) white.  First, the inner part of her ears possessed chestnut colored hairs.  A second telltale sign was the presence of a large maculated area between her front legs and chest.  A third clue were some subtle yellowish hairs on the mane and tail. Other indicators of her white color were: her pink skin, one pink eye (her left eye), yellowish tan hooves, and pink muzzle.  Glacial's sabino-based white gonads, were also evidenced through her only white offspring, Khaleben  --a colt which sported a considerable amount of maculating "blood" markings, as we will examine henceforward.

 In 1975, Glacial was acquired by her second and last owner, Mrs Elaine Neal (actually Mr & Mrs R.J. Neal), of Victoria, for whom she engendered her last four live offsprings.  In April of 1983, 17 year-old Glacial was involved in a paddock accident in which she was kicked by another horse, breaking one of her legs.  As a result, she was euthanized.

 

FLAUBERT (1968).  Aside from having bay parents, we lack other descriptions or visual evidence.  Since the sabino-based whites are relatively more probable than the white dominants, it is most reasonable to think that this horse had belonged to that first group, rather than being a mutation.  Since he was a gelding, we are bound of further analyzing his phenotype. This Belgium Thoroughbred ascends through his maternal side to the French grey, Motley (1922), who was a maternal grandson of Roi Herode.  As for other influences, Flaubert is inbred 3X4, on both sides, to Hyperion; plus he carries one dose from the black, Desmond.

 MIASMIC (1971).  This Australian-bred colt was Milady Fair's second white offspring and only product from her single season cross to the English stallion, Istanbul (1957).  Quite different from the case of his elder half-sister Glacial, Miasmic was sired, not by a grey, but by a dark bay or brown stallion.  Such a detail seems to suggest that Milady Fair's influence was the most crucial factor behind each of her two white foals. Far more significative than the fact that Grey Marwin was a grey!  In what should be interpreted as a sign of a maculated (S/S) white coat, Miasmic, was not only described as a  "white", but also as a "chestnut or white colt".

 Not only does Miasmic's previously-analyzed maternal pedigree carry the name of The Tetrarch, but also IstanbuI's third dam, the chestnut champion, Majideh --dam of 1957 Belmont Stakes record-time winner Gallant Man--  was a daughter of the grey Epsom Derby record-time winner, Mahmoud (1933).  This grey Intermediate-Classic Chef-de-Race was a great-grandson of The Tetrarch, via the splendid grey "flying filly", Mumtaz Mahal (1921), and her grey daughter,

 

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 Mah Mahal (1928).  Regarding other influences, and just as it occurred with his half-sister, Glacial, Miasmic's paternal pedigree also carries two doses from Desmond.  Overall, Miasmic carries three counts from Desmond.

 

White filly  (1974).  This unexpected white filly was foaled at The Stallion Station farm of Lexington, Kentucky, from the cross between the dark bay or brown sire, Handsome Boy (1963, Beau Gar-Marullah by Nasrullah), out of the bay mare, Delthena (1968 Delta Judge-Royal Athena by Olympia) . Interestingly, this hidden case was never registered.  As for the influence of white-producing ancestors, this Handsome Boy  filly carries two doses from Hyperion, various consistent brown families with one remote black dose from Pitti (1909) and a pair of counts from the black Desmond. In addition, she carries plus four counts from The Tetrarch. Since second-version whites are more prone to appear than white dominants, it is most reasonable to judge that she had belonged to that first group, rather than being a mutation.

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 ATALIQUE  (1975).  We lack detailed descriptions or visual evidence on this case.  The facts are very similar to that of Flaubert, for both of his parents were also bay.  Since the sabino-based whites are relatively more probable than the white dominants, it is most reasonable to think that this horse had belonged to that first group rather than being a mutation. This horse was a gelding too, so there is no way of further analyzing his phenotype.

Atalique's pedigree ascends to Tetratema (1917), son of The Tetrarch, as well as to an independent strain from the latter's grey grandparent, Le Sancy.  This white gelding also carries one dose from renown, odd-color progenitor, Mossborough (1947), a uterine grandson of Selene. In addition to these influences, Atalique also carries a close exposed dose from the black stallion,

Relic (uterine grandson of Black Toney); plus one count from Desmond.

PURCIL (1975).  This product was foaled on the Austral spring date of August 25.  His breeders were Messrs P.J. Hannan and F.C. Pratt of New Zealand.  Although this horse was registered as a "grey", (Volume XXIII, page 462, NZ Stud Book, 1979), actually, the New Zealand Racing Conference authorities regard him as an innate genuine unexpected white.  Interestingly, this gelding was the son of two grey parents, namely, Sovereign Prince (1967), out of Emanuella (1965).

As for Purcil's genotype, we lack detailed visual descriptions that may permit us to assure whether he was a white dominant or a sabino-based white.  Anyway, since the sabino-based whites are relatively more probable than the white dominants it is most reasonable to think that this horse had belonged to that first group, rather than being a mutation.

As for the influence of white-producing ancestors, Purcil's almost completed pedigree recounts four doses from The Tetrarch, one from Hyperion, plus four from the black, Desmond.  Let us examine each.  Sovereign Prince (GB) was by the grey, Sovereign Path (1956), out of the bay, Procina (1962), by the bay broodmare sire, prince Bio (1941).  Prince Bio's broodmare sire, Bacteriophage, was a son of the grey, Tetratema (1917), son of The Tetrarch.  As per Procina, she was from the uterus of Ocarienne (1956), herself sired by Ocarina (1947), out of Orienne (1943), by sire Sol Oriens (1938), a son of Hyperion  --all chestnuts.  Returning to Sovereign Path, he was by Grey Sovereign (1948), son of Kong (1933), daughter of Baytown (1925), son of ancestresses Princess Herodias, and Herodias, by The Tetrarch  --all greys.  In addition,  Grey Sovereign's sire Nasrullah was a uterine grandson of the grey Mumtaz Mahal, by The Tetrarch.  As for Purcil's dam, Emanuella, her sire was Bayland (1947), son of Khan Bahadur (full-brother to Mahmoud), by ancestresses Mah Mahal, and Mumtaz Mahal, by The Tetrarch  --all greys.  Finally, Byland's dam Congo, was by the sharp brown sire Bellacose (1932), whose sire's broodmare stud was the noted black stallion, Desmond (1896) --from dam, L'Abbesse de Jouarre.  Other reinforcing black doses from Desmond in Purcil's pedigree comes via two counts from the brown sire, Charles O'Malley (1907), plus one count from the black stud, Grand Parade (1916).

 

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As a competitor, Purcil unfolded as a very durable, yet modest track performer. He did not debut until his 4-year-old campaign in 1979, which he concluded maiden in five attempts.  His kismet changed in his thirteenth start on August 2, 1980. on that occasion, Purcil competed in an "Amateur" sanctioned race at the

HBHC hippodrome winning by 2-lengths with rider D. Mck. Duncan, covering

2000 meters in a low 2:24.60. Eighteen days later, yet in his 16th start, he repeated with a half-neck Amateur win under Duncan, completing TKHC's 2000 meters in 2:17.00. Seven starts later, on May 20, 1981, he triumphed at MART by 8-lengths with S.J. Jenkins, posting 2600 Hurdle meters in 3:09.40. On his immediate start of June 1, at WANG, he was victorious by three under Duncan, resisting 2800 Hurdle meters in 3:34.10.  Four starts later, on July 11, he triumphed at WELL by 10 with J.G. Mc Gifford, enduring 3400 Hurdle L meters in 4:06.00. Next, on September 19, he won at MART his 33rd start by five, under Duncan, cruising 2600 Hurdle meters in 3:01.10. Purcil then went to WANG as a 7-year-old for his 49th start on September 4, 1982, whereof he succeeded by seven with Duncan piloting the 4100 Steeplechase meters win in 5:03.20. Purcil following and last victory ocurred at OPUN on July 13, 1984.  In that 69th start he topped the field by eight, under Duncan, accomplishing 3900 Steeplechase meters in 5:17.40. Overall, Purcil ended his career with 73 starts, 8 wins, 7 seconds, 12 thirds, 6 fourths and 8 fifths with $34,660 in earnings.

CLARENCE STEWART  (1977).  This horse was a sensation in New York, in the late 70's and the early 80's.  His coat was astonishingly white, without any dark spots.  His skin was pinkish white as velvet, yet transformed into pink with the summer sun.  His eyes were large and blue.  He was bred by his owner, Dr. Leon D. Star, who during the rest of his life was very proud of him.

As for his pedigree, Clarence Stewart carries three doses from Roi Herode, two of which came through The Tetrarch's progeny, the greys, Herodias (1916), and Royal Minstrel (1925).  Just as it happens in Mont Blanc II's case, Clarence Stewart is a son of an inbred to The Tetrarch, Clarence's dam: Brimstar.  Aside from The Tetrarch, he lacks any other roan or grey ascendants.  In addition to this influence, Clarence Stewart's sire is inbred 4X4 to Selene, by virtue of Rockefella's sire, Hyperion, and, Pharamond II.  As for the presence of black ancestors (actually here, black-producing ancestors) , Clarence Stewart carries one dose from Pennant.  Same as occurs with Mont Blanc II, Clarence Stewart had a very-dark colored brother: Colloden Point.  Curiously, these two whites have possibly been the whitest of all.

In 1987, Clarence Stewart duplicated his color, on his son, White Flight.  Unfortunately, both, father and son, were gelded afterwards, since the pair developed harsh aggressive temperaments which made them very difficult to handle by the widow (Winifred) and daughter (Priscilla) of Dr. Star.  At present, both still keep Clarence Stewart at the Startop Ranch, near Montauk Point, Long Island.  We do not know if there is still any other entire white descendant from Clarence Stewart's eight lifetime crop, since we do not possess information except for five of the cases.

 

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The name "Clarence Stewart" honors a New York post-war barrierbreaking trainer, who also was his first conditioner. One of the greatest admirers of this horse is former jockey Tammy Rogers Jacobs, who with her husband, Steve Jacobs, respectively drove and trained the horse to Finger Lakes' winners' circle on June 7, 1981.  The popularity of Clarence Stewart extended to Europe, even capturing the attention of Madame Elisabeth Couturié, who was interested in obtaining descendants from him, just before her death in 1982. Clarence Stewart possessed chestnut influences through his dam, a detail which seems more afine to the birth of sabino-based white equines, reason for which we regard him as such.

HAKU TAIYU  (1979).  Was bred by Kitajima Bokujo of Japan, where he also developed his racing career.  His sire, the bay, Long Ace, is a son of the English bay stallion, Hard Ridden, out of the bay, Win West, by Tiepolo.  This white's dam, the chestnut, Homare Bull, is a daughter of the Australian, chestnut sire, Doublemark, out of the bay, Pecker, by Royal Wood.  About his coat color, Haku Taiyu shows clear indications of being a sabino-based white.  This is revealed because his coat presents traces of solid color on the neck shoulders and thighs.  These traces are more noticeable in the ears and upper-crest, where the contrast is even more evident.  Haku Taiyu shows pink areas around the lips and nostrils, but not so around the eyes, reaffirming that he is a second-version white.  As his days as a runner ended, Haku Taiyu was crossed with an Anglo-Arab chestnut mare named Wind Appaloosa, which produced in 1991, another second-version white colt.  Just as Haku Taiyu, his son retained traces of solid color in the ears and upper chest.  Haku Taiyu carries a pair of doses from The Tetrarch plus an independent count from Roi Herode.  These are the greys, Mr Jinks (1926), Stefan the Great (1916), and Boscombe (1920), respectively.  Although Haku Taiyu's pedigree is fully complete on its first three generations, Homare Bull's genealogy carries two doses from The Tetrarch with no other reknown telltelling ancestors. At least, until now!

KAMINO WHITE  (1981).  This remote descendant of The Tetrarch was produced by Marushichi Bokujo of Japan.  Just as her compatriot, Haku Taiyu, this mare was sired by a bay, out of a chestnut mare.  Her sire, Kaburaya 0 is a son of the French bay sire, Pharamond, out of the bay, Kaburaya, by Darannour.  This white's dam, Kunerai Oza, is a daughter of the English chestnut sire, Golden Plume, out of the chestnut Blissful Lass, by Clarification.  About her coat color, Kamino White shows clear indications of being a sabino-based white.  This is revealed since her coat presents traces of solid color on the head, eye area, neck and shoulders.  She also shows this tendency, though, in a more noticeable fashion, on the ears and upper crest. Other traces of solid color are evident in the mane, tail, knees, hocks and fetlocks.  She also shows pink areas around her lips, nostrils, but not so around the eyes, reaffirming that she is a second-version white.

 

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Regarding the influence of white-producing ancestors, Kamino White shows, at least, a pair of doses from The Tetrarch, plus a solitary count from Hyperion.  Although her pedigree is fully complete on its first three generations, her genealogy still lacks several remote ancestors.

GRAND ESPOIR BLANC  (1984).  French name which means "great white hope". This gelding possesses a very white color, except for certain little dark spots on the skin of its head.  He possesses pink skin and blue eyes.  Grand Espoir Blanc is an almost identical copy of Clarence Stewart. This author suspects that he is a second version sabino white.  His parents, both bays, descend from prestigious lines of worldly influences, which proves that the white color can emerge unexpectedly from any lineage.  His second generation registers the names of Northern Dancer, Quill (by Princequillo), What a Pleasure and Method Actress (by Round Table).

Regarding the presence of white-producing ancestors, Grand Espoir Blanc carries the influences of all three main sources.  As for the first source, he carries five doses from The Tetrarch, plus two independent counts from his sire, Roi Herode. Two of The Tetrarch's branches  --which happens to be the closest--appear by way of Mahmoud's daughters, Almahmoud (1947) and Grey Flight (1945).  The others are distributed through various names.  As for the second source, Grand Espoir Blanc is a male-line grandson of Northern Dancer, by far the truest spreader of Hyperion's tendencies; along with an additional independent dose from Selene's son, Sickle.  As for the third source, Grand Espoir Blanc carries one dose of genes from the black sire, Ariel (1925), plus three counts from Desmond.  It is also important to remember, that Northern Dancer, though remotely, descends from Black Toney, via Unbreakable (1935)!

As a runner, Grand Espoir Blanc received additional time from trainer Albert Toups in order for him to reach his maximum physical and mental development, as is generally done with the sons and daughters of One for All.  This method gave Grand Espoir Blanc the opportunity to triumph as a three-year-old, at Louisiana Downs' mile and sixteenth, on May 10, 1987.  Later, he triumphed again at the same track on May 12, 1988. This time, an Allowance race at 6-1/2 furlongs.

NOT QUITE WHITE  (1989).  The name of this filly, selected in a contest by Jockey Club Official "Buddy" Bishop, accurately describes her tone and genotype.  She is a sabino-based white.  Her chestnut Irish sire, the Northern Dancer tail male, grandson, Northjet (1977), is known for his tendencies to produce progeny with many white markings, a detail which denounces his (S/s) genotype!  Not Quite White's dam, the dark bay producer, Sad Song, possesses a little white mark on its head, but produced, consecutively, three chestnut offsprings.  All this evidence seem more compatible with the (S/s) genotype.  Not Quite White possesses traces of solid color around her ears and upper crest, along with certain roany traces around her rumps, plus a partially darker mane.

 

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It is interesting to point out that Not Quite White was bred as a two-year-old, to Naevus (1980), a chestnut stallion which carries a white mark on its body.  That cross produced in 1992, a rare beautiful chestnut-roan filly, which carries a wide/large white mark on the face, flaxen mane, chestnut tail, white legs above the knees, with some roany areas on the shoulders and barrel.  She was named Spotted Lady. This product heavily supports that Not Quite White is a second-version white.  In 1993, Not Quite White produced a second, similar heavily spotted offspring from the same sire, this time, a chestnut or roan-chestnut colt, with normal chestnut mane and tail (The Blood Horse, April 10, 1993, P. 1723). He was named Airdrie Apache.

Regarding the presence of white-producing ancestors, Not Quite White carries the influences of all three main sources.  In this aspect, she coincides with her immediate precursor, Grand Espoir Blanc.  As for the first source, Not Quite White carries six doses from The Tetrarch, plus an additional count from his sire, Roi Herode.  Four of The Tetrarch's branches appears by way of his prominent daughter, Mumtaz Mahal, while two additional cases come through Tetratema (1917), and Baytown (1932).  The seventh case, Native Dancer, comes through Roi Herode.  As for the second source, Not Quite White is a male line, great-granddaughter of Northern Dancer, by far the truest spreader of Hyperion's tendencies; along with an additional independent dose from Selene's son, Sickle.  As for the third source, Not Quite White is inbred to Black Toney, via the black sire, Relic (1945), and the good producer, Black Maria.  In addition, Not Quite White carries one black dose from Desmond.

THE BRIDE  (1991).  This product was foaled on the Austral spring date of November 1. She was bred by the Bracken Stud Syndicate of Australia.  This equine represents the 21st. historical known unexpected white (cipher subject of periodical revision) for a total number of 43 registered white cases (same rule applies here).  This Australian filly is a daughter of the chestnut sire, Star Shower (1976), out of the brown or black mare, Salomeneo (1975), by the bay English stallion, Idomeneo (1960).

As for the influence of white-producing ancestors, the pedigree of The Bride recounts five significant doses from Hyperion, while conjointly displays the fulcrum telltale presence of her near black dam, a descendant from Owen Tudor.  Let us examine each.  First, Star Shower's all chestnut tail-male line registers the names of Star of Heaven (1961), son of Star Kingdom (1946), son of Stardust (1937), son of Hyperion.  Second, Star Shower's broodmare sire, Novalis (1959), was a son of Owen Tudor (1938), son of Hyperion.  Third, Idomeneo's sire, Alycidon (1945), was the son of Aurora (1936), daughter of Hyperion.  Fourth, Idomeneo's broodmare sire, Tudor Minstrel (1944), was a son of Owen Tudor (Hyperion) . Finally, Salomeneo's broodmare sire, Sans Tache (1944), was a son of Stardust (Hyperion).  Regarding the near-black color of Salomeneo (dam of The Bride), be acquainted that her nearest brown influence comes through Idomeneo's dam, Arietta (1953).  Arietta inherited her color via the brown sire, Tudor Minstrel, a son of the brown stud, Owen Tudor.  Revealingly, a son of Hyperion,!  Keep in mind that Owen Tudor also appears in Star Shower's pedigree by being the sire of the brown, Novalis, sire of the bay or brown, Show, dam of Star Shower.  This implies a convergence between two supposedly

 

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autonomous influences!  In addition, The Bride's pedigree also carries one dose from the black sire, Desmond, through his son, Charles O'Malley.

As a competitor, The Bride has yet to prove herself a winner to owners P. M. Nati, Ms K. Biffin, F. Olivieri, A. Hall, G. Elias and J. N. Shore.  Conditioned by Gai Waterhouse, The Bride is currently (1995) racing in Sydney.  Her overall record shows a pair of second places, with one third for $3,830. in earnings.

Mainly racing against maiden fillies and mares.  As for race distances, her performances ranges from 5, 6, 6-1/2, 7-1/2 and 8 furlongs efforts.

In conclusion, we know that the previous list will continue increasing through time.  This not only because of the birth of new white Thoroughbreds, but also, because of the possibility that other previously unknown cases will appear.  More likely than not, other early isolated cases may well be known soon.

Comments About the Descendants of White Thoroughbreds

It is evident that at the beginning it was very difficult to obtain white Thoroughbreds in either of both versions.  In the case of white dominants, it is necessary to wait for the occurrence of a genetic mutation, while in the calico-based white version, it depended on the simultaneous occurrence of the two infrequent conditions already mentioned.  Today, thanks to those first unexpected whites it has been possible to preserve, at least, the second version of the white color for future generations.  Let us review some details and comments about the descendants of the originating whites:

NEVADO  (1929).  His sire, the chestnut Galgo (originally registered as "Check") was a 1921 son of Fair Play (1905), out of Chit Chat (1913) by Rock Sand. This means his pedigree is three quarters similar to that of the great Man o' War. Galgo fas foaled in the continental United States but was sent to Puerto Rico for stud duties, where he was mated to the alledged, yet unconfirmed white mare, Cubilete, from which Nevado was foaled.  Nevado was a fast horse, with an impressive height and extraordinary durability.  He is the most raced and winningest of all whites. He competed at various racetracks in Puerto Rico, from his two-year, up to his nine-year-old campaign (1931-1938), achieving 29 victories in 254 starts.  We do not know, if his dam Cubilete acquired her alledged white coat through the relatively, more probable, "S" gene, or by means of a mutation. Some witnesses recall that his color was white, with greenish eyes.  Nevado labored for his hay, competing until 1938, after which, he was not used as a sire.

White filly  (1955).  Foaled in Holland.  This is the daughter of the sabino-based white produced by J.K. Wiersema, in 1952, for which reason, she must also have been a second version white.

 

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White filly  (1969).  This was White Beauty's primigenial offspring, and first white product to precede a trio of white fillies (from eight begettals), engendered from her. The two other half sisters (1975/1977), will be covered in separate analysis.  This white case, was a daughter of the grey English sire, Tudor Grey, a 1960 son of Tudor Minstrel, out of Earnest Alice, by Grey Sovereign.  Unfortunately, this first-born filly succumbed to the rigors of her own birth.  Genetically, she was a second-version, sabino-based white, by heredity from White Beauty.

 MONTASPA  (1970).  Unraced.  Second version sabino-based white by

inheritance from her sire, Mont Blanc II.

 WORLD O' BEAUTY  (1972).  Let us put the case of this daughter of White Beauty into perspective.  Understandably, the records consider this mare as a "roan"-due to her heavily spotted coat rather than as a proven, very-maculated second-version white.  World O'Beauty's produce record clearly denounced her definite genotype when she engendered a pair of bona-fide sabino-based white daughters in 1981 and 1985. Judging from this white-producing pattern, plus the fact that the "S" gene is an "incomplete" dominant factor, we have to conclude that World O'Beauty, at least genetically, is a real second-version white, irrespectively of her deceiving near paint alike maculated white coat.  World O'Beauty's dam was a sabino-based white mare (White Beauty), while her sire was the ordinary bay, Reverse, a 1962 son of Turn-to, out of Miss Grundy, by Bull Lea.  In conclusion, World O'Beauty should be considered as a white Thoroughbred.

 KHALEBEN  (1972).  This Australian-bred white, was one of two whit foals from Glacial, out of seven live products.  Khaleben's sire, VRC Derby winner, the chestnut, Khalif (1963), was an Australian son of Istanbul (1957), out of the English, bay mare, Fordare (1955), by Dasford (1941).  Note that Istanbul was also the sire of previously analyzed white, Miasmic, a coincidence which appears to have placed Istanbul in the role of an opportunistic telltelling collaborator, rather than as a prominent co-protagonist, whereas, in first instance, Milady Fair did not need Istanbul to produce Glacial.  So then, Khaleben inherited his second-version (S/S) white color, through the gonads of Glacial.

 It is through his coat that Khaleben best confirmed that he was a sabino-based white.  Although initially, Khaleben was foaled very white, he later developed the telltale characteristics of his genotype.  Accordingly, as time elapsed, Khaleben began to reveal uncommon red markings on his shoulder and flank, a peculiarity which is also known as a "patch of blood", following an ancient Arab anecdote.  The story recounts, that an Arab chief warrior was mortally wounded in a battle and that his mount, a pure-white pregnant mare, transported the moribund into his tent.  The next day, a symbolism was revealed, for the mare foaled a pure-white colt sporting a "bloody" mark on his right shoulder, plus another one on his left flank, as if the foal had inherited his dam's bloody stains as a posthumous blessing from the chief warrior.  Curiously enough to be mentioned, Khaleben's markings were very similar to the ones described on this anecdote, as well as a notable patch of markings on his hip.  Still another coincidence is

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that Khaleben's name is a combination of the words: "khalif" (chief), and "leben" (an ancient Islamic word meaning "white").  According to the Arab legend, a white stallion with these markings, has been blessed!  Khaleben's body was predominantly speckled, but it is worth to clarify that these dark-spots/rust-colored-patches were marks on his skin, since his coat was quite white. Other visual traces shown by Khaleben were: a pink muzzle, big canine style patches around his eyes, snowy-white legs plus big livid scars on his hocks --caused by a terrible yearling accident! Khaleben's most predominant chestnut areas were evident on his mane and tail. Other "rusty" areas, included: his rumps, shoulders, neck, and the inside of his ears.  There is a reference in the Australian Stud Book, Volume XXXI, which refers to Khaleben as a "white-b", a term which was used to denote that he was actually "white with 'blood' markings".  In spite of such a heavy maculated description, Khaleben was indeed a "white"; a genuine second version white!

Khaleben's racing pre-entry, was early threatened by a nearly disabling accident that badly scarred both of his hind legs for life.  Following this interval of misfortune, Khaleben was leased by Norm and Joan Stevens who became their factual owners and true trainers.  After a period of thoughtful care and conditioning gallops, Khaleben was finally entered into competition.  The first time Khaleben appeared at the Cranbourne racetrack his performance had to be forgiven in favor of his more interesting color.  Following his initial efforts, Khaleben then romped with a good win at the Ballarat racetrack, a triumph which earned him the opportunity to be tested furthermore.  Several weeks later, at the Flemington racetrack, the relatively small, hearty white colt silenced his critics by winning the First Glencoe Handicap.  Run in the third-turn of the day, at the classic distance of 10 furlongs, Khaleben won by a half-length margin over the much favored Mammoth, and Prince Midas.  The First Glencoe Handicap demonstrated that aside from his unusual color Khaleben was indeed a talented competitor.

As his days as a campaigner came to an end, Khaleben was tried out for stud duties. Time passed on and soon he was virtually forgotten at the property of a paint-horse enthusiast.  At this stage of his career Khaleben attracted the interest of a colorful couple who owned an exotic 40-hectare property known as "Geraldine Lodge", at Broadford, in Victoria.  Devoted to the breeding of ostriches, camels, ponies, unusual donkeys, lyrebirds, water buffalos, and various breeds of dogs, owners Len and Geraldine Knight acquired Khaleben.  Immediately, both decided to renew and preserve his lineage through other genuine Thoroughbreds, a mission which they commenced with the acquirement of several broodmares.  We do not know what finally happened with these efforts.

LE PANACHE BLANC  (1972).  Considered by many observers as Mont Blanc II's  best offspring, this promising runner, yet modest two time starter, was badly annoyed prior to his participation in the prestigious Grand Prix de Paris.  He was a very good visual portrayer and genes carrier of the second version sabino-based white color, which he inherited from his sire. In a specified manner, Le Panache Blanc fashioned unmistakable chestnut-haired ear flaps, along with idem colored hairs on top of his mane (crest) and

                                                         -39-

base of the tail. The color of his skin was pink, with conspicuous pink overshades surrounding the mouth, nostrils and eyes.  His general tone was very white, yet with sort of Roquefort Cheese style stained areas around the neck and amidst the front legs.  Said maculated white description clearly portrays the typical behavior of the sabino white incomplete dominant homozygous gene.

 WHITE WONDER  (1972).  Competed from his second, up to his seven-year-old campaign obtaining eight victories. Second version sabino-based white by inheritance from his sire, Mont Blanc II.

 PERIBLANC  (1974).  Competed from his second, up to his four-year old campaign obtaining one victory, coming in second twice, and once third, in 17 starts, while earning ƒ 4O,OOO Francs. Second version sabino-based white by inheritance from his sire, Mont Blanc II.

 CHECKMONT  (1974).  Non-winner in four starts. Second version calico-based white by inheritance from his sire, Mont Blanc II.

 

BEAUTY 'N MOTION  (1975).  This is White Beauty's second white offspring (out of three), and only one to survive up to the breeding shed.  Note that this cross' sire was a roan, namely, Spotted Line, a 1967 son of City Line, out of Caribbean Dancer, by Native Dancer.  Unquestionably, Beauty 'N Motion acquired her color and genotype through her sabino-based white dam.  Beauty 'N Motion never made it to the races since she consistently refused to admit any rider on her back, for which reason was directly sent for stud duties.  As a producer, she has not yet engendered a white offspring, but, understandably, has betrayed the unstable characteristics of her genotype by foaling, to the cross of Whitesburg (1969, chestnut), her only known registered product, a roan colt named War Painting (1981).

 MONT CLAIR  (1975).  Unraced.  Second version sabino-based white by

inheritance from his sire, Mont Blanc II.

 WHITE LASS  (1976).  Unraced.  Second version sabino-based white by heredity of her sire, Mont Blanc II.  She engendered three offsprings, all from the bay stallion, Prince-Melchior. Two of these, White Peony and Casaque Blanche were of white color, a detail which only manures confirms that White Lass was a sabino white.

 White filly  (1977).  This is White Beauty's third and last white offspring and uterine sister to Beauty 'N Motion (1975).  This white case was a daughter of the grey sire, Well Mannered, a 1967 son of Groton, out of Gracious Welcome, by Hail to Reason.

 Unfortunately, just as it occurred to White Beauty's first (1969) white foal, this sibling died at a very early age prior to being registered.  Genetically, she was a second version, sabino-based white, by heredity from White Beauty.

 MONTECLIN  (1978).  This gelding competed in 12 races.  Second

version sabino-based white by inheritance from his sire, Mont Blanc

II. This horse is a full-brother to Mont Clair, (1975).

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 NOIRO D' ANGENAIS  (1978).  Unraced.  Second version sabino-based

white by inheritance from his sire, Mont Blanc II.

PRECIOUS BEAUTY  (1981).  This beautiful daughter of Jatullah (1965, dark bay, Jaipur-Tulle by War Admiral), inherited her speckless second-version white coat through her dam, the roan (actually, an uncleaned sabino-based white), World O'Beauty (1972).  As previously explained, the maculated World O'Beauty was a daughter of the speckless second-versioner, White Beauty.  Because of a very stained back with colored mane/tail, World O'Beauty was registered as a roan.  However, as a broodmare, she demonstrated her real genotype, by producing this case, plus an additional second-version white filly in 1985 (from a different sire).  About this apparent incongruity, it should be remembered, that precisely the "S" gene is an "incomplete" dominant gene.

At the breeding shed, and up to December 31, 1994, Precious Beauty has produced two non-white foals, plus is presently carrying a third one to be born next season (1995).  In 1993, she foaled Manchet, a curious chestnut colt from the cross to the roan sire, Hatchet Man (1971, The Axe II-Bebopper by Tom Fool).  Earlier this year (1994), she engendered a dark bay filly from the match to the dark bay or brown sire, Gold Crest (1982, bay, Mr.Prospector-Northernette by Northern Dancer).  For the upcoming year (1995), Precious Beauty, a gift mare donated to Warren W. Rosenthal, is expecting again from the cover of Hatchet Man, in what will produce a full sibling to Manchet.

(For any eventual white offspring, please refer to the post-article Addendum.)

WHITE PEONY  (1983).  Second version sabino-based white by

inheritance from his dam, White Lass, daughter of Mont Blanc II.

White filly  (1985).  Another interesting case.  This daughter of Triomphe (1977, dark bay, Hoist the Flag-Dinner Partner by Tom Fool), inherited her second-version white coat, through her dam, the roan (actually, an uncleaned sabino-based white), World O'Beauty, daughter of White Beauty.  World O'Beauty's phenotype and proven genotype has already been discussed.  This is World O' Beauty's second white offspring since having produced from another sire the second-version white, Precious Beauty (1981). Unquestionably, the "S" gene has been strongly preserved through this sprout.

CASAQUE BLANCHE  (1985).  Second version sabino-based white by inheritance from her dam, White Lass, daughter of Mont Blanc II.  Casaque Blanche has produced two colts and one filly, from her mating to the chestnut sire, Nuoro.  One of her products, White Sam, is a second version calico-based white as we will examine hereinafter.

WHITE FLIGHT  (1987).  This gelding is a sabino white by inheritance from his sire, Clarence Stewart, who now is also a gelding!  Visually, White Flight is an almost exact copy of his sire, and he recently raced (1992-93), at Finger Lakes, New York, same as his sire did during the early 80's.  As a runner, White Flight proved his talent in Allowance ranks.

-41-

White Sam,  (1989). Second version sabino-based white by inheritance from his dam, Casaque Blanche, daughter of White Lass, daughter of Mont Blanc II.  The aforementioned ascendants have been previously analyzed.  This five-year-old French-bred runner (year 1994) is, most probable, the first third-generation, white Thoroughbred ever.

Future of the White Thoroughbreds

As we have seen through this article, there is no doubt that the white color has survived within the Thoroughbred breed.  Its unexpected appearance and strange attraction generated among its admirers enough loyalty and commitment to make possible its preservation to this day.  As to the future, who knows if the appearance of an extraordinary white runner will situate this color among the finest lines of the world. Another possibility might be to promote greater access of white Thoroughbreds to the most successful genealogies of the Breed. A similar challenge, due to prejudice, was faced a couple of centuries ago by the roan and grey colors.  Although both colors were known within the racing breed, very few had succeeded in producing outstanding runners of their color.  Two good examples from the last century were Gustavus (1821 Epsom Derby), and Belmar (1895 Preakness and Belmont Stakes) , who aside from their racing victories, failed to produce equally successful grey lineages.  It was necessary to wait until the appearance of the prominent, Intermediate Chef-de-Race, The Tetrarch to see a favorable change in the status of these two colors.  The Tetrarch's extraordinary and undefeated record as a runner in England was only surpassed by his greatness as a stallion. This influential sire, also known as "The Spotted Wonder", has been without any doubt, the most prolific and prestigious spreader of the grey lineages of Brownlow Turk and Alcock Arabian.  So formidable has been his influence that today it is practically impossible to find any roan or grey Thoroughbred, who does not owe its color to The Tetrarch or to his sire, Roi Herode.  From this lineage descended four grey Chefs-de-Race of world importance, namely, Abernant (1946), Grey Sovereign (1948), Mahmoud (1933) and Native Dancer (1950).  As if this were not enough, from this quartet other extraordinary grey stallions descend, most of them candidates to be Chef-cle-Race. These are, among others: Caro (78 SW), Grey Dawn II (73 SW), Icecapade (72 SW), Relaunch (64 SW), Drone (54 SW), Al Hattab (45 SW), Northern Jove (42 SW), The Axe II (41 SW), Spectacular Bid (39 SW), Native

Charger (38 SW), and Vigors (37 SW) . Thanks to such a powerful squad of stallions today it is normal to find at least one roan or grey competitor or winner at any race or stakes race of importance. History might be repeated in the case of the white Thoroughbreds.  Only time will tell!                         

Acknowledgements and Credits

This author wishes to acknowledge the following distinguished collaborators, and institutions for their inspiration, invaluable contributions, and guidance:

 

Peter Willett and Lorraine Moran----Weatherbys-General Stud Book, England.

Phillip Sponenberg--------------------DVM/ph.D., Professor and Author

                                                   Vet College-Virginia Tech..

Gersom Rodríguez-Pagán-------------Sub Administrator of the Commonwealth          

                                                    Puerto Rico's Industry and Horse Racing

                                                    Affairs

Marguerite Couturié de Tarragon                                                                      and Dominique de Wenden-----------Sociéte D' Encouragement Pour L'                              

                                                    Amelioration des Races de Chevaux en                  

                                                    France. 

Alfredo Lalor and Juan José No------Jockey Club-Stud Book Argentino.

D. Gormann and M. Blekmann--------Direktorium fur Vollblutzucht

                                                    und Rennen e.V..

La Segreteria----------------------------Associazione Nazionale Allevatori Cavalli

                                                    Purosangue di Italia.  A.N.A.C.

Greg Tobin----------------------------- Secretary, Australian Bloodhorse Breeders

                                                    Association LTD.

                                                    Australian Jockey Club.

Elaine Neal------------------------------ Australian Thoroughbred Owner Breeder,

                                                     Victoria, Australia.

Bernard J Neazor -----------------------Stud Book Registratiion Manager

                                                     New Zealand Racing Conference

John Alden Rodgers and

Margaret Lindsley Warden--------------Tennessee Thoroughbred owners

                                                  and Breeders Association

                                                      Nashville, Tennessee.

Steven and Tammy (Rogers) Jacobs--Finger Lakes racetrack, N.Y..

John C. Bubolz---------------------------Racing Secretary, Finger Lakes.

Randall K.Cole----------------------------Ph.D., Emeritus Prof. of Animal

                                                      Genetics. Cornell University

                                                      College of Veterinary Medicine.

Craig Smugar  --------------------------- Librarian, Daily Racing Form.

Mark Simon  ----------------------------- Thoroughbred Publications Inc..

Dave Anderson----------------------------The New York Times.

Sarah J. Pierce-----------------------------Administrator-Airdrie Stud Inc.

                                                        Midway, Kentucky.

Barbara Doughty --------------------------Administrator-Fraank Farms Inc.

                                                        Shreveport, Louisiana.

Winifred Star-------------------------------Startop Ranch, Montauk, N.York

Miguel Andino Clemente Cruz-----------Thoroughbred Author-Historian

                                                        Santurce, Puerto Rico.

Myra Lewyn--------------------------------Thoroughbred Record.

Louis Weintraub and

Eleanor Fitzsimmons----------------------Photo Communications.

Frederick Bruce             I

Hutt and W. L. Pulos----------------------Scientists and Investigators-

                                                        Journal of Heredity.

                                               -43-

Grijalbo ------------------------------------Encicloopedia de Caballos y Poneis.

José Fernández and

       Ruth Dámaris Herrera---------------Asociaci6n de Criadores de Purasangres              

                                                        de Puerto Rico. 

Herman K. Goodpaster--------------------Thoroughbred owner-breeder. 

J.K. Wiersema ----------------------------- Breeder, Posttrekening, Holland.

Ruth E. White

and Carley Daugherty----------------------International American Albino

                                                         Association Inc.

Hans J. Stahl, James H. Peden

and E. A. "Buddy" Bishop------------------The Jockey Club.

The Jockey Club

Information System------------------------ Lexington, Kentucky.

T. Nishizawa-------------------------------- Registration Department,

                                                       Japan Race Horse Registry.

Rhys Llewellyn------------------------------The British Race Horse.

Francisco Narganes-------------------------Press Office, El Comandante,

                                                         Puerto Rico.

Palmer Keith--------------------------------Thoroughbred owner-breeder,

                                                         Phoenix, Arizona.

Laura Hillenbrand-------------------------- Writer, Equus Magazine,

                                                         Boulder, Colorado.

Theresa Fitzgerald and

Patty Lankford-------------------------------Librarians, The Blood Horse.

Charles Leicester----------------------------Thoroughbred Author,

                                                          Bloodstock Breeding.

Jack Werk, Rommy Faversham

and Nancy Kerns----------------------------Owner-Breeder magazine

                                                         Fremont, California

Warren W. Rosenthal---------------------- Owner Patchen Wilkes Farm

                                                          Lexington, Kentucky

Maryjean Wall--------------------------------Writer, Lexington Herald-Leader

Frédéric Chéhu-------------------------------Chief Editor, Cheval Magazine

                                                           Montfort L'Amaury Cedex France

Don and Dalene Knight----------------------Owners and Breeders, Painted

                                                       Desert Farm, Redmond, Oregon

Dedication

I wish to dedicate this thesis to the memory of Madame Elisabeth Couturié for employing her time, influence and resources to the study and preservation of the white Thoroughbred; and also, for her legacy as an inspired breeder.  At the same time, I also want to acknowledge the initiative, commitment and persistence of Herman K. Goodpaster in pro of the authenticity of these equines. More recently, I want to acknowledge the efforts of Don and Dalene Knight and Warren  Rosenthal.

                                                    -44-

Final Comment

 Any reader interested in sharing comments, anecdotes, or additional information regarding this subject, is welcome to correspond to this author.

Jorge A. Martínez-González

P.O. Box 40783

Minillas Station

San Juan, Puerto Rico 00940-0783

o      This printout (with Addendum) was issued on August 1, 2000

o      The original work was completed on December 31, 1994

o      The Addendum (page 41 etc.) was commenced on August 3, 1995

o      This article is registered at the U.S. Copyright Office Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20559-6000 .under Registration No. TXu 662-091

                                                     -45-

 Addendum of Post-Paper White Thoroughbreds

 In order to keep an update on every new white Thoroughbred that may emerge in the future, while keeping the aforegoing original article unaltered, following is a list of every new post-article white Thoroughbred as they appear.  The list will comprise both, the unexpected whites, as well as white descendants.  For the purposes of this addendum, be acquainted that the original work covers from 1896 to 1991 (in international multi-database pedigrees), supplemented with statistical and produce records until 1994.  Therefore, this addendum will include any case produced after these periods.

 PATCHEN BEAUTY  (1995).  This first post-article addition and 44th registered case is a third-generation descendant from a white parent.  This second-version white has been brought via an update from the Jockey Club database alone.  This white filly represents an additional prolongation of the sabino-based white strain founded by White Beauty in the sixties.  As previously analyzed, White Beauty's daughter, the roan (actually, a very spotted sabino-based white), World O'Beauty produced the sabino-based white, Precious Beauty (1981), from which Patchen Beauty was foaled from the cross to the roan sire, Hatchet Man (1971).  Unquestionably, Patchen Beauty inherited her color through her maternal side.  She was foaled on April 27, at Warren W. Rosenthal's Patchen Wilkes Farm, same farm where White Beauty was born three decades earlier.  On November 22, 1997, Patchen Beauty made her first start in a 7 furlongs juvenile maiden event at Churchill Downs.  She ran last during most of the race in a muddy track and then rushed around the turn to discount several positions in a valiant fifth-place effort.  She was driven by Calvin H. Borel and was trained by Steven L. Morguelan, who also prepared the filly fcr her next three starts.

 In October 18, 1998, on her sixth start, Patchen Beauty improved by arriving in second place, four lengths off Broadcast, who covered Keenelands's nine furlongs in a time of 1:53 3/5.  Although she was bumped during the running, the Ralph Christenson trainee clearly established to the remaining eight rivals that she would soon become a winner.  Two attempts later, on December 17, 1998, the white filly finally broke her maiden against 11 competitors at Turfway Park's 8-1/2 furlongs.  Clicking 1:47.16 for the distance, the daughter of Precious Beauty bested Angel Lips and Headin Home while carrying 120 pounds on a fast surface.  She ran close to the pace, went a bit wide, took command in midstretch and resisted her runner up's late challenge for the delight of her jockey, Ms. Jamie L. Sanders.  Four starts hence, on May 9, 1999, the white miler returned to Churchill Downs for a 1-1/16 mile turf Allowance.  She arrived third, five lengths off King's Mate and Reda Rose in 1:43 3/5.  Three tries afterwards, on August 21, 1999, Warren W. Rosenthal's pride earned her second victory.  The effort was achieved in a $10,000 Allowance race at River Downs' one mile turf course under jockey V.L. Smith, with 116 pounds.  The hard-fought victory came by a neck after a long steady drive over Azarina,

                                                         -46-

 Traipse and six other fillies in a time of 1:38 3/5.  The event also awarded a prize sponsored by the Norwood Firehouse, Local #445.  Four attempts later, on December 23, 1999, the daughter of Hatchet Man arrived a close second in a $27,800 Allowance at Turfway Park's one mile track.  Competing against six other fillies, Patchen Beauty rushed steadily under P.J. Cooksey to arrive 3/4 of a length short off Ladue, who chronometered 1:41 2/5.  Six starts hence, on January 3, 2000, the durable white challenged five other fillies at Turfway Park in a $27,290 Allowance 1 1/16 mile event.  Ridden again by Cooksey, Patchen Beauty went 4 wide on the second turn of the sloppy surface, yet managed to arrive in third place, 11 lengths off Proper Ouimet and Cybertech in 1:45 4/5.  Following this performance, Patchen Beauty has competed twice more, finishing fourth in her latest of March 15, 2000.  Up to this report, the handsome filly has achieved two victories, twice second, a couple of thirds and three fourths in 22 lifetime starts, with earnings over $52,638 dollars.  Certainly, Patchen Beauty has earned her racing ranks and fully deserves the opportunity to be bred to a fine stallion and reproduce her second-version white color.  After all, she is also a paternal half-sister to the dam of Kentucky Derby winner, Strike the Gold (1988).

 SILVER MYSTIQUE (1999); Artic White, (1999) and Snow Baby Go, (1999).  Don and Dalene Knight, owners of Painted Desert Farm in Redmond, Oregon are the proud and enthusiastic breeders of this interesting trio of white Thoroughbreds.  All three foals were sired by the white-splattered chestnut, Airdrie Apache, out of three different broodmares.  Airdrie Apache is non other than the 1993 offspring from the white mare, Not Quite White (1989), which was previously analyzed under section, "Notes About the original Unexpected White Thoroughbreds".  Not only Airdrie Apache comes from a white mare but, overall, his pedigree carries 13 suspicious white-producing ancestors.  These are, eight doses from The Tetrarch, two more from The Tetrarch's sire, Roi Herode, two counts from Black Toney with the remaining one from Hyperion.  With these numbers, there is no doubt that Airdrie Apache is at least a telltelling incomplete dominant heterozygous (S/s) alleles carrier.  That means in theory that whenever he is crossed with another (S/s) mate, there is a 25% percent chance of obtaining an incomplete dominant homozygous (S/S) white foal.  That is the occurrence behind him siring now this trio of white foals.  Since Airdrie Apache's genotype/phenotype clearly derives from Not Quite White's influence, let us concentrate on identifying the other contributing half of the (S/S) white equation.  Videlicet, let us find in the dams' side of these three white foals their necessary contributing (S/s) ancestors. At least, in theory.

 Silver Mystique is the first of the three white cases.  This filly was foaled on March 20, 1999 and is the fourth offspring from her stakes-producing Hawkster dam, the bay, Ms. Dubious (1992).  Ms. Dubious' pedigree carries a good amalgam of signs and ancestors which clearly portrays her as a carrier of the necessary (S/s) alleles.  Note for example that Hawkster's second and third dams, Level Sands (1949) and Crawfish (1942), were both black mares.  This

-47-

black Presence is a common telltelling sign since many white Thoroughbreds of the past have had black or near-black full siblings. other well-known suspicious ancestors in Ms. Dubious' pedigree come through inbred doses from The Tetrarch and Hyperion, as well as a single count from Black Toney.  Let us examine these influences.

 In the case of The Tetrarch, his influence runs via his daughter Mumtaz Mahal, dam of Mumtaz Begum.  The latter is the second dam of Royal Charger, who is Hawkster's fifth male-line ancestor.  Mumtaz Begum is also present in the third remove of Bramalea, dam of Roberto, who is Hawkster's male-line grandsire.  Yet another count of Mumtaz Begum runs through her son Nasrullah, who is the male line grandsire of Hawkster's broodmare sire, Chieftain.  The Tetrarch's influence is also present in Ms. Dubious' pedigree through Mah Mahal 's son Mahmoud, who is Hawkster's second broodmare sire.  Mahmoud is the sire of the previously mentioned black mare, Level Sands.

 Let us now identify Hyperion's inbred doses.  The first comes through his daughter Sun Helmet, who is the second dam of Amerigo.  The latter is the broodmare sire of Silver Hawk, sire of Hawkster.  Hyperion's second count comes through his son Alibhai, who is the third broodmare sire of Matsadoon, sire of Ms. Dubious' dam, Dupree.  Hyperion's third dose comes through another daughter of Alibhai, on this occasion via Ms. Dubious' fifth dam, Secret Meeting.  As if this were not enough, Hyperion's dam, Selene is also independently present as the son-line grandam of The Squaw II.  The latter is the third dam of Chieftain.

 Finally, the third suspicious influence found on Ms. Dubious' genealogy is Black Toney.  Black Toney is the sire of Bimelech, who is the broodmare sire of Tatan.  The latter is the third broodmare sire of Ms. Dubious. (Remember that inbred doses of Black Toney are already running through Airdrie Apache's side.)

 At the end of 1999, Silver Mystique was auctioned at the November Fasig-Tipton Select Sale and was acquired by dedicated Virginian interests for $85,000 dollars.  According to the existing evidence, Silver Mystique has been the first white Thoroughbred to be auctioned in the USA and the second ever.  The first ever auctioned was Mont Blanc II, at the Deauville Yearling Sales of 1964.

 Artic White is the second of the three white cases. It was initially informed that the Jockey Club Information Systems pedigree service was considering running a contest to select his definite name during a Triple Crown series. The colt was foaled on April 5, 1999 and is the fifth product (and fourth male) from Tropicana Anna (1988), a daughter of Raise a Man out of Kiln.  Quite interesting, these three ancestors, along with the remaining names of the Colt's first two removes are all chestnuts; save for Not Quite White.  Aside from this eye-browing sign, Tropicana Anna also carries inbred doses from The Tetrarch and Hyperion.

 In the case of The Tetrarch, his influence is present through Mumtaz Begum, son-line grandam of Noor, who is the broodmare sire of Delta Judge.  The latter is the broodmare sire of Raise a Man.  The Tetrarch is also present via Mahmoud's son Mr.Trouble.  The latter is the broodmare sire of Delta Sal,

-48-

 Raise a Man's dam.  The Tetrarch also appears as the male-line grandsire of Royal Minstrel, broodmare sire of Cochise, who is the sire of champion mare, Open Fire.  Open Fire is Tropicana Anna's second dam.  Yet an additional descendant from The Tetrarch's sire, Roi Herode appears via Native Dancer's fourth dam, La Grisette.  Native Dancer is the male-line grandsire of Raise a Man.

 Let us now examine Hyperion's influence.  He appears on Delta Judge's pedigree too as his male-line great-grandsire.  Yet two other doses of Hyperion's second dam, Serenissima, are present through her son, Bosworth.  The latter appears in both halves of Kiln's pedigree, the dam of Tropicana Anna.  One dose appears as her fourth male-line ancestor and the other as the male-line grandsire of Cochise.

 This robust-looking white colt has been developing into a fine individual, which favors him as a track prospect and as a future sire.  His eventual racing record may prove pivotal in increasing his chances at the breeding shed and from there achieving a good number of white foals.  Such an opportunity had been absent from the Breed for more than two decades.  The only known period occurred during the 1970's in France when Mont Blanc II received a wishful, yet modest patronage.  Now there is more optimism with this colt given  that his pedigree is favored with more reknowned bloodlines.

 Snow Baby Go is the last of the three white cases.  She was foaled on May 25, 1999 and is the third offspring (and first filly) from her bay dam, Alexanders Dream (1987).  Previous to Snow Baby Go, Alexanders Dream's last three seasons had scored three "no reports".  This producer is a daughter of Naskra (by Nasram), out of Lake Helena, by Hell Gate Canyon.

 As per identifying possible telltelling signs of the presence of the (S/s) gene, note that Lake Helena carries the friendly sign that her first two removes show the presence of three near black brown ancestors.  One of these, Hail to Reason, is a male-line grandson of Royal Charger, whose second dam Mumtaz Begum pertains to the lineage of The Tetrarch.  Yet a second dose from that matriarch appears in Alexanders Dream's pedigree as the son-line grandam of Nasram.  These inbred doses of The Tetrarch, along with the strong presence of very dark ancestors seem to be the sole source of suspiciousness in Alexanders Dream's pedigree.  This relative shortage on her part makes one even wonder if Airdrie Apache's genotype may actually be much stronger than a mere "incomplete dominant" (S/s) version.

 From a phenotypical point of view, Snow Baby Go is a curious individual to study.  This is due to the fact that she seems to exemplify very well why the second version of the white color carries the description "incomplete dominant".  This filly fashions some traces of "rusty" or stained areas, which to a casual observer may compromise her description as a definite white.  Fortunately, she was Thoroughly and correctly designated by the Jockey Club as an official white. 

                                                                     -49-

 As described by her breeder Dalene Knight, her body fashions "a strip of black skin from her forelock to her withers and a resulting line of black hairs in the middle of her mane.  She also has a double hand print of dark hair on her left hip." One may describe her as fashioning some sort of "bloody shoulder".

 White filly   (2000).  This filly was sired by the chestnut, Boone's Mill out of the previously analyzed white mare, Precious Beauty (1981) by Jatullah.  This means that this new foal is a maternal sibling to the aforementioned white, Patchen Beauty (1992).  Very unfortunately, our subject new millennium filly was tragically kicked, along with her surviving mom, by another broodmare.  This type of tragic accident is not unusual from happening to a white offspring since, in the past, there has been other reports of scared horses panicking away from a white equine.  For this reason many of these whites tend to be extremely shy and require some extra protection at the farm.  Her untimely death occurred a few weeks following her foaling.  We now hope that Precious Beauty may have a future opportunity to foal another white offspring.  Since we are dealing with a white offspring coming from a white mare, it must be concluded that the ill-fated daughter acquired her color via her mom.  Therefore, the same basic analysis applied to sister Patchen Beauty rules here.