AP COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT ASSIGNMENT 2008 - 2009    

 

Purpose - The AP course in Comparative Government and Politics introduces students to fundamental concepts used by political scientists to study the processes and outcomes of politics in a variety of country settings. The course aims to illustrate the rich diversity of political life, to show available institutional alternatives, to explain differences in processes and policy outcomes, and to communicate to students the importance of global political and economic changes. Comparison assists both in identifying problems and in analyzing policymaking.

Careful comparison of political systems produces useful knowledge about the policies countries have effectively initiated to address problems, or, indeed, what they have done to make things worse. We can compare the effectiveness of policy approaches to poverty or overpopulation by examining how different countries solve similar problems. Furthermore, by comparing the political institutions and practices of wealthy and poor countries, we can begin to understand the political consequences of economic wellbeing.  Finally, comparison assists explanation. Why are some countries stable democracies and not others? Why do many democracies have prime ministers instead of presidents?  Six countries form the core of the AP Comparative Government and Politics course.  China, Great Britain, Mexico, Nigeria, and Russia are all regularly covered in college-level introductory comparative politics courses.   The inclusion of Iran adds a political system from a very important region of the world and one that is subject to distinctive political and cultural dynamics.

 

Goals

Students successfully completing this part of the course will:

• know important facts pertaining to the governments and politics of China, Great Britain, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, and Russia

• understand major comparative political concepts, themes, and generalizations

• understand typical patterns of political processes and behavior and their consequences

• be able to compare and contrast political institutions and processes across countries and to derive generalizations

• be able to analyze and interpret basic data relevant to comparative government and politics

 

Topics

I. Introduction to Comparative Politics

The beginning of a college comparative politics course and the beginning of most textbooks in comparative politics introduce students to the study of politics by explaining how political scientists study politics and why it is important for students to be informed about politics abroad. It is useful to distinguish between normative, or value-related, questions and empirical or factual questions at this early stage, and to emphasize that political scientists are interested in both sorts of questions. In explaining how political scientists divide up their field of study, it is important to make clear what comparative inquiry has to offer. We live in an interdependent world: What happens in Mexico, for example, impacts the United States. This point provides a good opportunity to introduce the theme of globalization and the general political and economic permeability of national borders. It is here that we will want to contrast the concepts of state, nation, regime, and government—a lesson inevitably leading to discussions about legitimacy, authority, and bases of political power, as well as the differences between these concepts. Thus, students will learn that the “state” is generally used to refer to the political power exercised over a defined geographic territory through a set of public institutions, in contrast to the “nation,” which is often understood as a human community with a shared culture and history. This course treats governments as collections of individuals who occupy political office or exercise state power, whereas regimes are treated as the sets of rules and institutions that control access to, and exercise of, political power and that typically endure from government to government. Regime change occurs when these rules and institutions are replaced.  Students will need to grasp the conceptual differences between and similarities among types of political systems. Despite vast differences between economies and regime types, most countries face similar and fundamental challenges, including those presented by the natural environment, social and ethnic diversity, economic performance, and the delivery of health care to citizens.

 

II. Sovereignty, Authority, and Power

The study of politics requires an understanding of power. Comparative politics recognizes that power is territorially organized into states, or countries, that more or less control what happens within their borders, which is to say that they exercise sovereignty. At the same time, it is important that students recognize that there has not always been a system of states. This system, in fact, is relatively recent and first emerged in Europe. There are now increasing pressures to move beyond this system to more supranational systems of governance, such as the emerging European Union (EU). It is also important to emphasize that sovereignty can be affected by internal divisions over power and its distribution.  Across national borders, the sources of power that are the foundation for politics vary, and these different sources have an effect on the construction of the rules of politics. These rules—which generally take the form of constitutions—need to be understood in this context. Constitutions define both the role and constituent parts of a government and the limits and obligations of government with respect to the rights of citizens. Studying different types of political regimes, from forms of democracy to the various nondemocratic forms, enables students to gain a clearer picture of how states strike a balance between citizen rights and government power. The exercise of power

requires justification, and political scientists use the concept of legitimacy to refer to the popularly accepted use of power by a government. Students will conceptualize the different ways in which political legitimacy is expressed in states, as well as recognizing when legitimacy has been lost.  State power is exercised within the context of specific economic systems.  The course will introduce students to the scope and role of government in the economy. Students will be familiar with belief systems that might form the foundation for claims to legitimacy. Ultimately both the belief systems that strengthen the legitimacy of the political system and the structures of the economy will have an impact on governmental effectiveness, capacity, and control over state resources. Students will understand the basics of the relationship between sources of authority, political power, and governance.  Political scientists are interested in political culture, core values, and beliefs, and how these values are fostered and disseminated through the process of political socialization. Such values are often organized in specific ideologies that influence the direction of the exercise of power.  Students will explore the differences in political values and beliefs. For instance, in some countries religious belief systems play this important political role. In other countries more overt political agendas and ideologies perform this role.

 

III. Political Institutions

The study of political institutions includes the formal structure and workings of states and governments. In this introductory course, this means that students will master knowledge about different authority systems and government structures. A deep level of detail is not expected; rather, students will become familiar with the more general descriptions of major political institutions. Thus, for example, every state has multiple levels of authority, though the powers that correspond to each vary widely. Some countries keep most policymaking at the national level, while others distribute powers more widely to regions and localities. Depending on the country, some authority is now passing to supranational organizations such as the European Union (EU) as well.  It is important that students know the branches of government in the countries they study and understand how these branches relate to one another. Students will understand different arrangements of executive power, different legislative structures, and the different models of executive–legislative relations. Beyond basic concepts such as parliamentary and presidential systems, or separation and fusion of power, students will be able to characterize the advantages and drawbacks of different institutional arrangements and understand how executive and legislative policymakers interact with other branches of the state apparatus.  Some countries, such as Britain, have independent court systems, while China and others do not. Often, these judicial features depend on the roots of the legal system—whether the system uses code or civil law, ideology, custom and traditional authority, or religious codes. Students will understand the implications of whether a country has judicial review and

whether it operates through an independent national court system, theocratic oversight, or supranational courts.  The course curriculum will take students beyond constitutional arrangements. Since politics is both formal and informal, students will understand formal constitutional patterns as well as procedures that are more informal. In this context, comparing institutions in different political and country settings will be very helpful. For instance, students will understand how political elites are recruited and how political preferences are aggregated. The core countries offer examples of the major electoral systems, as well as cases of single-party systems (China; Mexico under the PRI), two-party systems (Great Britain), and multiparty systems (Russia, contemporary Mexico, Nigeria). Each system embodies particular perspectives on the purposes elections and parties serve. The number of parties in a particular country is usually connected to the country’s ideological spectrum as well as the electoral system.  Students will explore how interest groups exercise political influence in pluralist, corporatist, and single-party systems.  The six countries covered in the AP course provide good examples of how the exercise of real political power often does not correspond to the model implied by formal political structures. For China, Nigeria, and Mexico before the PRI’s decline, revealing contrasts can be drawn between written constitutions and informal political realities. The composition and recruitment of political elites and how they are linked to other elites in society reveals much about informal political power.  The bureaucracy is a crucial part of the political system. Technical experts advise and administer policy that, in principle, is fashioned by political leaders. The ideological sympathies and traditions (e.g., professionalism) of the bureaucracy and its channels of recruitment influence its political role. The military also affects politics in many countries through informal pressure, as in China and Russia, or through periodic seizures of power, as in Nigeria. The professional or political role of the armed forces and the nature of civilian control over them varies across countries and time. The intelligence community or secret police can be an additional locus of coercion. Similarly, the judiciary plays a variety of roles in the six countries; in some places it exhibits important levels of autonomy, and in other countries it is used to establish religious or ideological domination.  Students will become familiar with the ways in which the judiciary does or does not exercise independent power and how it shapes public policies and political practices of citizens as well as of the state.

 

IV. Citizens, Society, and the State

Ultimately, politics hinges on the interactions between state and society.  Through country cases, students will learn how certain kinds of cleavages such as ethnicity, religion, or class become politically relevant. Some regimes like China and Iran have formal arrangements for representing social groups such as ethnic or religious minorities. A country’s political patterns depend largely on the characteristics and demands of its population. Institutions can blunt or exacerbate cleavages in society. The countries studied in this course provide ample evidence for pursuing questions about how states manage and respond to deeply held divisions among their citizens.  Gaining an understanding of civil society both conceptually and within countries will provide useful tools that will enable students to explore the

ways in which state power is mediated and the power of citizens may be enhanced. Much of politics is affected by the extent and nature of citizen organization independent of the state. Advocacy groups, social networks, and the media all shape citizens’ political views and mobilize political forces. The interaction between type of regime and patterns in civil society is often crucial. Students will explore the range of ways that a citizenry can act politically, through both traditional means such as voting and more forceful political action such as strikes and insurgencies. Events in some of the covered countries, such as Iran’s 1979 revolution, China’s 1989 Tiananmen crisis, and Mexico’s 1994 Chiapas revolt, provide examples of extraordinary political pressures. The emergence of global civil society, such as transnational networks of human rights and environmental groups, is also having a significant effect on government–citizen relations.  The media has also played an important role, not only within countries but as a purveyor of global culture. Students will consider the relation between the media (in its various forms) and the state, as well as the ways the media influences and shapes public perceptions, beliefs, and practices. Citizens participate in politics in a variety of ways. A significant exercise of political power in most societies is political participation. Students will learn how to define the concept and be able to describe the ways in which political participation can both support and undermine a political system. Since participation can take a variety of forms and be either voluntary or coerced, students will know the different ways that citizens in China, for instance, participate and contrast those methods with methods used by citizens in other countries. In this process, students will be exposed to the continuum of participation, ranging from behavior supportive of a regime to behavior that seeks to change or overthrow it.  Participation takes both individual and group forms. In political science, group participation is often framed as social movements. Contemporary social movements—ranging from antiglobalization to environmental issues, civil rights, and enfranchisement claims—have specific forms and particular methods. Students will gain some insight into major social movements. In this process, students will understand the connection between social movements and representation—especially since this is often the most basic claim put forward by social groups demanding the attention of their states.

 

V. Political and Economic Change

Much of the cross-case coverage will inevitably deal with processes of change, since this has been the primary theme of politics in the recent past. One way to introduce the notion of change is to explore the interaction between political and economic trends. The countries studied will provide illustrative examples of this interaction, which can take the form of political and economic reform, coups d’état, and revolutions.  Students will be able to distinguish among these types of political and economic change.  Since the end of the Cold War, a wave of democratization has occurred throughout much of the developing world and in the former Communist bloc. Comparing Russia, Mexico, and Nigeria in light of their democratic transitions offers an interesting study in contrasts. The study of democratization will include examination of the preconditions, processes, and outcomes of these transitions. The success of democratization can be compared across countries, just as contrasts can be drawn with countries like China in which democratization has barely begun or has foundered.  Democratic consolidation often requires new elite pacts, constitutional arrangements to minimize conflict, and acceptance of democracy by key social groups. The economic preconditions and effects of stable democracy will provide a useful counterpoint to studies of countries facing the upheavals of political change. In addition to democratization, students will know the conditions that lead to breakdowns of authoritarianism.  Cleavages within a regime, breakdowns in state capacity, international pressure, and a substantial degree of mobilization by opponents are all frequently associated with regime change.  All six countries studied in the AP course have undergone significant economic policy shifts over the past two decades. Students will investigate the consequences of economic reform packages. Not only will students understand the basic economic policies, but they will also understand the interaction between domestic economic reforms and their political effects. For instance, countries such as China and Mexico have revised fundamental national “bargains,” changing the relationship between capital and labor that dates back half a century or more. Students will trace outcomes such as income gaps, rising standards of living, or differential access to social services and education to economic policies and their impact. Within the context of economic change, the course will address issues such as corruption and economic inequality.  Globalization has become an increasingly important theme over the last two decades, especially as national policymaking has been affected by interdependence. Certain previously domestic economic policy responsibilities have been pooled by participating states in supranational organizations like the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the EU. How do global and domestic forces interact in such a context? The cultural aspects of globalization also must be examined. Emergence of a worldwide consumer culture and ideological convergence among elites of different countries, on the one hand, is balanced by new ethnic fragmentation and widening classbased cultural cleavages within countries, on the other. Additionally, some attention should be given to the backlashes against globalization. Students will evaluate how these backlashes bear on themes such as sovereignty and the ideal of the nation-state. Some responses to globalization reaffirm the sovereignty of the modern state, while others also transcend it by taking religious or ethnic identities as a reference point.

 

VI. Public Policy

Public policy will require analysis within each country as well as comparatively.  Policy issues need to be approached both as domestic and as global policy matters, since there are broad and enduring policy areas common to most countries: How to ensure successful economic performance where poverty is widespread? How to provide for social welfare needs for citizens?  How to extend and protect individual liberties and freedoms? In every state, the approach to these problems will be different, but in all states, these recurring puzzles demand the attention of the state’s policymakers.  Policymaking is influenced by a broad range of factors. First, consideration must be given to formal and informal institutional influences on policymaking. Interest groups, political parties, and executive, judicial, and legislative branches all participate in the creation of policy. For many of the systems studied, changes in the economic substructure have been the result of policy changes as well as causal factors in policy development.  For example, privatization in Mexico has resulted in changing policy needs. Often, conservative economic trends that move away from the traditional social welfare state and its benefits also have an impact on liberal/left party politics, as has happened in the Labour Party of Great Britain. Interest groups make different demands on government, with different

consequences for public policy.  Second, development itself results in numerous shifts and alterations in policy requirements. Thus, as the Chinese economy has transformed to a market socialist system, policymakers in noneconomic areas have had considerable pressures placed on them. Likewise, the Russian economic structural changes since 1990 have caused a wide range of policy challenges in the areas of civil rights, environmental concerns, and so on.  Third, global pressures are exerted on policymakers in both developed and developing systems. International agreements and organizations such as the WTO, the World Bank, the EU, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) push for policy changes in all six of the systems studied. Many of the countries

have witnessed considerable policy debates over such issues as sovereignty and the conflicting interests of world and domestic policy needs.  Globalization creates considerable tension in areas such as environmental policy, income distribution, taxation policy, and the like. Very often, global considerations have produced a divergence among different interest groups within the system itself.  Policy concerns are broad and may differ from country to country.  Issues may include social welfare policy (including education, pension policy, poverty issues); civil liberties, rights, and freedoms; the environment; control and management of natural resources; economic performance

(including employment, inflation, monetary policy in general, income distribution); and population and migration policies. Gender and ethnicity are also critical concerns to policymakers in all systems. Students will know and analyze policy differences in a comparative context, exploring how different systems create different solutions to domestic and global problems.  Throughout the course, students will develop the ability to move back and forth between conceptualizing political problems and the practice of politics in the different countries.

 

Curriculum Outline

Below is an outline of the major content areas covered by this course and the AP Exam in Comparative Government and Politics. The multiple-choice portion of the course tests and AP exam is devoted to each content area.  The free-response portion of the course tests and AP exam will test students in some combination of the six major categories outlined below.

 

I. Introduction to Comparative Politics

A. Purpose and methods of comparison and classification

1. Why/ways to organize government

2. Normative and empirical questions

B. Concepts (state, nation, regime, government)

C. Process and policy (what is politics; purpose of government; what is political science/comparative; common  policy challenges)

 

II. Sovereignty, Authority, and Power

A. Political culture, communication, and socialization

B. Nations and states

C. Supranational governance (e.g., European Union)

D. Sources of power

E. Constitutions (forms, purposes, application)

F. Regime types

G. Types of economic systems

H. State building, legitimacy, and stability

I. Belief systems as sources of legitimacy

1. Religion

2. Ideology (liberalism, communism, socialism, conservatism, fascism)

J. Governance and accountability

 

III. Political Institutions

A. Levels of government

1. Supranational/national/regional/local

2. Unitary/federal

3. Centralization/decentralization

B. Executives (head of state, head of government, cabinets)

1. Single or dual

2. President

3. Prime minister

C. Legislatures

1. Unicameral/bicameral (symmetric/asymmetric)

2. Organization

3. Membership (representation)

D. Parliamentary and presidential systems

1. Institutional relations

E. Elections

1. Presidential

2. Parliamentary

3. Referendums

4. Noncompetitive

F. Electoral systems

1. Proportional representation

2. Single member district (plurality, majority runoff)

G. Political parties (organization, membership, institutionalization, ideological position)

H. Party systems

I. Leadership and elite recruitment

J. Interest groups and interest group systems

K. Bureaucracies

L. Military and other coercive institutions

M. Judiciaries

1. Degrees of autonomy

2. Judicial review (including European Union in relation to states, citizens

3. Types of law

 

IV. Citizens, Society, and the State

A. Cleavages and politics (ethnic, racial, class, gender, religious, regional)

B. Civil society

C. Media roles

D. Political participation (forms/modes/trends) including political violence

E. Social movements

F. Citizenship and social representation

 

V. Political and Economic Change

A. Revolution, coups, and war

B. Trends and types of political change (including democratization)

1. Components

2. Promoting or inhibiting factors

3. Consequences

C. Trends and types of economic change (including privatization)

1. Components

2. Promoting or inhibiting factors

3. Consequences

D. Relationship between political and economic change

E. Globalization and fragmentation: interlinked economies, global culture, reactions against globalization, regionalism

 

VI. Public Policy

A. Common policy issues

1. Economic performance

2. Social welfare (e.g., education, health, poverty)

3. Civil liberties, rights, and freedoms

4. Environment

5. Population and migration

6. Economic development

B. Factors influencing public policymaking and implementation

1. Domestic

2. International

 

 

Your quarterly comparative government assignment will help develop an awareness of other government systems and provide an outline to use as a guide to prepare for the comparative government part of the AP government test in May.

 

Assignment -

 

AP COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT ASSIGNMENT (CGA) TEST - 100 pts of the assignment - 55 multiple choice questions – 1– 8 Free-Response Data, Chart, and Essay Questions (rubric assessed) on the countries assigned for each quarter (see quarter assignment list and test dates below).  Use the class presentations, the websites listed below and the textbook sites to help prepare you for the test. 

 

 

Comparative Politics – Domestic Responses to Global Challenges – 5th Edition – 2006 -  Charles Hauss

http://www.wadsworth.com/cgi-wadsworth/course_products_wp.pl?fid=M20b&product_isbn_issn=0534590535&discipline_number=20

Comparative Politics Today:  A World View – 8th Edition – 2007 – Almond, Dalton, Powell Jr., & Strom

http://wps.ablongman.com/long_longman_comppol_1

School Library On-line Resources

http://www.countrywatch.com/ip/default.asp 

CIA World Fact book

http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html

U.S. Department of State Background Notes

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/

Library of Congress Country Studies

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.html

The WWW Virtual Library – International Affairs Resources

http://www.etown.edu/vl/

Constitution Finder – University of Richmond

http://confinder.richmond.edu/country.php

Freedom House Rankings

http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=1

Economist.com

http://www.economist.com/countries/

Country Studies – Federal Research Division – Library of Congress

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.html

BBC News (Countries and the European Union)

http://news.bbc.co.uk/

Frontline World

http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/watch/

 

 

 

 

For help with the above categories, use the United States system as a guide to understand each countries' positions, powers, duties and parts for each category.  For example, the United States Constitution has a Preamble, Seven Articles and 27 Amendments.  For each country, find examples from that countries' constitution that illustrate these provisions.  For the Executive section, use the United States system of an elected President and Vice-President, cabinet and bureaucracy as a guide to understand the positions, powers, duties and parts for each countries executive section.  For the Legislative section, use the U.S. Congress as a guide to understand the positions, powers, duties and parts for each countries legislative section.  For the Judiciary, use the U.S. Court System as a guide to understand the levels, positions, powers, duties and parts for each countries judiciary.  For Sub national Government, use the United States federal system of 50 state and local governments as a guide to understand the levels, positions, powers, duties and parts for each countries sub national government.

 

 

ASSIGNMENT LIST BY QUARTER

 

1st Quarter – AP COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT ASSIGNMENT (CGA) TEST - 100 pts of the assignment - 55 multiple choice questions – 1– 8  Free-Response Data, Chart, and Essay Questions (rubric assessed)  on:  10/29/08 (A) & 10/30/08 (B)

  

COUNTRIES:  China and Russia

 

Sample free response questions:

1.  The increasing international integration of economies has led to political debate in China.  Define the concept of economic globalization and explain two ways it has affected policy in China  over the last 10 years.  Describe one argument for and one argument against the privatization of industry in China.  Describe the Chinese government’s response to global pressures to privatize industry.

 

2.  Identify two features of the Russian political system that make it a mixed presidential/parliamentary system of government.  Also explain how this mix affects the Russian President and Prime Minister’s powers and relationship.

 

 

 

 

2nd Quarter – AP COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT ASSIGNMENT (CGA) TEST - 100 pts of the assignment - 55 multiple choice questions – 1– 8  Free-Response Data, Chart, and Essay Questions (rubric assessed) on:  1/21/09 (A) & 1/22/09 (B)

 

COUNTRIES:  Iran and Nigeria

 

Sample free response questions:

1.  Define “revolution.” Using Iran and Nigeria as examples, explain how revolutions are distinct from other forms of political change.

Also describe one political institution and one public policy for each and explain how each would help reduce the chances of revolution.

 

2.  The process of democratization elicits both support and resistance.  In the context of the past two decades, describe two measures taken by Iranian political leaders to democratize Iran’s political process and two ways in which Iranian political leaders have resisted democratization.  Also describe two measures taken by Nigerian political leaders to democratize Nigeria’s political process and two ways in which Nigerian political leaders have resisted democratization.

 

 

 

 

3rd Quarter – AP COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT ASSIGNMENT (CGA) TEST - 100 pts of the assignment - 55 multiple choice questions – 1– 8  Free-Response Data, Chart, and Essay Questions (rubric assessed) on:  3/30/09(B) & 3/31/09(A)

 

COUNTRIES:  Great Britain and Mexico    

 

Sample free response questions: 

1.  The increasing international integration of economies has led to political debate in Great Britain.  Describe one argument for and one  argument against joining the European Union (EU) single currency.  Describe the current British government’s response to the issue of the EU single currency.

 

2.  The politics and public policies of Mexico continue to be affected by its recent democratization trends.  Describe the democratization process in Mexico, and identify the form of political change that it has taken.  Identify two political institutions of Mexico, and explain how EACH has been influenced by democratization.          

 

             

 

 

4th Quarter – AP Comparative Government Practice Test  - 100 pts of the assignment - 55 multiple choice questions – 1 – 8  Free-Response Data, Chart, and Essay Questions (rubric assessed) on: 4/29/09(B) & 4/30/09(A)    

           

 

General Grading -

-         The comparative government assignment counts 20% of each quarter's grade.

-         Grading is based on a 100 pt scale.

 

 

 

The Exam

The AP Comparative Government and Politics Exam is 2 hours and 25 minutes long.  It is taken on the afternoon of the same day as the morning United States Government and Politics Test.  It includes a 45-minute multiple-choice section consisting of 55 questions and a 100-minute free-response section consisting of 8 questions. The two sections are designed to complement each other and to measure a wide range of skills and knowledge.

 

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions

The following sample questions reflect both the topics and the levels of difficulty in questions found in the actual exam. All six core countries may be covered in this section. Students often ask whether they should guess on the multiple-choice section. Haphazard or random guessing is unlikely to improve scores, because one-fourth of a point is subtracted from the score for each incorrect answer. But students who have some knowledge of the question and can eliminate one or more choices will usually find it advantageous to select the best answer from the remaining choices. An answer key to the sample multiple-choice questions is at the end of the questions.

 

1. In the developed and developing worlds, respectively, the greatest demographic pressures on policy come from which of the following?

Developed                    Developing

(A) Gender imbalances              Aging

(B) Aging                                  Overpopulation

(C) Emigration                           Immigration

(D) Overpopulation                   High death rates

(E) High birth rates                    Emigration

 

2. An illiberal democracy would typically be characterized by

(A) high voter turnout in single-party elections

(B) military rule coupled with political freedoms

(C) colonial rule and a procedure-based legal system

(D) market-based economic arrangements and limited suffrage

(E) elections coupled with restrictions on individual civil liberties

 

3. In which of the following groups of countries has Islam served as a key symbol for regional political movements?

(A) Britain, China, Nigeria

(B) Mexico, Russia, Iran

(C) Nigeria, Britain, Iran

(D) Nigeria, Russia, China

(E) Russia, Mexico, China

 

4. Compared to parties in a proportional-representation system, parties in a single-member-district system are typically

(A) less centrist

(B) less ideological and less class-based

(C) more region-specific

(D) more likely to have their own social networks

(E) more tightly linked to specific cultural identities

 

5. The political systems of Mexico, Nigeria, and Russia all have

(A) common-law legal systems

(B) two-ballot systems for presidential selection

(C) effective independent judiciaries with judicial review

(D) unitary systems with strong states and a weak central government

(E) bicameral legislatures based partly on regions and partly on population

 

6. Which of the following is typically a function of the head of state in a parliamentary system?

(A) Making foreign policy

(B) Greeting new foreign ambassadors

(C) Giving final rulings in judicial appeals

(D) Approving a comprehensive annual budget

(E) Assembling a majority coalition in the legislature

 

7. The major motivation for neoliberal economic reforms in Mexico and Nigeria has come from which of the following?

(A) Political uprising by the urban poor

(B) Collapse of longstanding labor unions

(C) Widespread opposition to globalization

(D) Debt burdens and pressures from international lenders

(E) The need to expand the economic base for military modernization

 

8. Which of the following is a feature of the Iranian political system?

(A) Male suffrage only

(B) The President must also be a cleric

(C) The religious character of the state

(D) Diplomatic recognition only of Muslim states

(E) Having a Supreme Religious Leader, a Prime Minister, and a President

 

9. In British politics, which of the following has created the most conflict over the European Union?

(A) Tax policy

(B) Health policy

(C) Defense policy

(D) Regional policy

(E) Monetary policy

 

10. Which of the following political blocs would be most likely to favor nationalization of large industrial enterprises?

(A) Liberals

(B) Islamists

(C) Socialists

(D) Libertarians

(E) Conservatives

 

11. The low number of parliamentary seats in the House of Commons held by Britain’s Liberal Democratic Party is due mainly to

(A) the effects of devolution

(B) ideological radicalism that alienates centrist voters

(C) its opposition to membership in the European Union

(D) the effects of the single-member-district electoral system

(E) frequent defection of its members of Parliament to other parties

 

12. Which of the following groups of countries all have code-law legal systems?

(A) Britain, Nigeria, Iran

(B) Britain, Russia, Nigeria

(C) China, Mexico, Iran

(D) China, Russia, Mexico

(E) Russia, Mexico, Britain

 

13. Which of the following is an achievement of the Maoist period that has been overturned by economic reforms in China?

(A) Guaranteed employment

(B) Extensive female employment

(C) Effective environmental policies

(D) Competitive educational opportunities

(E) State subsidies for defense industries

 

14. Which of the following is the best example of charismatic authority?

(A) Tony Blair

(B) Vicente Fox

(C) Margaret Thatcher

(D) Mohammad Khatami

(E) Ayatollah Khomeini

 

15. In the twentieth century, the greatest social cleavage manifested in British politics was

(A) class

(B) gender

(C) religion

(D) urban versus rural

(E) native versus immigrant

 

16. Which of the following is NOT a common form of corruption in China?

(A) Tax evasion

(B) Bribing police

(C) Illegal profiteering

(D) Ballot-counting fraud in national elections

(E) Fee extortion by Communist Party officials

 

17. Nigeria’s multistate structure was primarily designed to

(A) promote economic development

(B) reduce loyalty to the previous military regime

(C) splinter the power of its main ethnic groups

(D) mobilize higher voter turnout in local elections

(E) allocate resources from the federal government more directly

 

18. A pluralist interest group system is best characterized by

(A) high levels of control by business elites in policymaking

(B) competition among multiple associational groups

(C) negotiations among groups with government support

(D) a system wherein only the interests of the government are considered

(E) the inclusion of only a few corporations during the public policymaking process

 

19. A theocracy is best described as a political system based on

(A) military authority

(B) maternal authority

(C) clerical authority

(D) popular sovereignty

(E) major party dominance

 

20. One of the chief criticisms of corporatism is that it

(A) encourages labor unrest

(B) creates too many groups

(C) often limits representative processes

(D) involves too little government participation

(E) involves too little interest group participation

 

21. Cleavages that split a society into different groups with regard to different issues are referred to as

(A) stabilizing

(B) coinciding

(C) corporatist

(D) subordinate

(E) crosscutting

 

22. Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure used to compare countries with respect to

(A) their average cost of living

(B) the general health of their citizens

(C) the efficiency of their bureaucracies

(D) the output of their economies

(E) the degree of professionalism of their militaries

 

23. Which of following concepts most accurately characterizes Mexico’s Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)?

(A) Pluralist

(B) Socialist

(C) Capitalist

(D) Corporatist

(E) Internationalist

 

24. The most persistent political challenge facing Nigeria since independence has been

(A) border disagreements

(B) the weakness of its military

(C) ideologically driven insurgencies

(D) regional and ethno-religious cleavages

(E) its lack of resources and foreign exchange

 

25. Which of the following is a core principle of the present-day Islamist regime in Iran?

(A) Promotion of social justice through class struggle

(B) Violent conflict with the West to promote religious conversions

(C) Closer connection of Islam with its pre-Islamic Persian identity

(D) Accommodation of Islam to a constitutional framework

(E) Nonmembership in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) because of non-Muslim OPEC members

 

Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions

1–B  6–B  11 –D  16 – D  21 E

2–E  7–D  12 –D  17 – C  22 – D

3–D  8–C  13 –A  18 – B  23 – D

4–B  9 E  14 E  19 – C  24 – D

5–E  10 – C  15 –A  20 – C  25 – D

 

 

Sample Free-Response Questions

(50% of exam grade)

Type: Definition and Description

Time: 30 minutes

Weight: 25% of free-response grade

Students will provide brief definitions or descriptions of five concepts or terms, noting their significance. Students may be asked to provide an example of the concept in one or more of the countries studied or to contrast concepts.

 

1. Define illiberal democracy.

2. Identify two defining characteristics of corporatist systems that make them distinct from pluralist systems.

3. Define political legitimacy and list two sources of political legitimacy.

4. Define “political cleavage,” and identify the difference between crosscutting and coinciding (cumulative) cleavages.

5. There has been some debate as to whether economic growth causes democracy or merely correlates with democracy.  Define the terms “correlation” and “causation.”

 

Type: Conceptual Analysis

Time: 30 minutes

Weight: 25% of free-response grade

This question requires students to use major concepts from comparative politics, identify and explain important relationships, and, where appropriate, discuss the causes and implications of politics and policy.

 

6.  (a) Discuss two reasons why leaders of unitary systems might choose to decentralize power.

     (b) Describe one method used by leaders of unitary systems to decentralize power.

     (c) Describe how a decentralized unitary system differs from a federal system.

 

Type: Country Context

Time: 40 minutes (20 minutes each for two questions)

Weight: 50% of free-response grade (two questions at 25% per question)

Two questions will require students to use core concepts in an analysis of one or more of the countries studied. For example, students might be asked to discuss a concept and then apply this concept in a comparative context.

 

7.  The increasing international integration of economies has led to political debate in Great Britain and China.

            (a)  For Great Britain, describe one argument for and one argument against joining the European Union (EU) single currency.

            (b)  Describe the current British government’s response to the issue of the EU single currency.

            (c)  For China, describe one argument for and one argument against the privatization of industry.

            (d)  Describe the Chinese government’s response to global pressures to privatize industry.

 

8.  The process of democratization elicits both support and resistance.  Respond to the following in the context of the past two decades.

            (a)  Describe two measures taken by Iranian political leaders to democratize Iran’s political process.

            (b)  Describe two ways in which Iranian political leaders have resisted democratization.

            (c)  Describe two measures taken by Nigerian political leaders to democratize Nigeria’s political process.

            (d)  Describe two ways in which Nigerian political leaders have resisted democratization.

 

 

 

AP CGA 1ST QUARTER

 REVIEW QUESTIONS AND TERMS

RUSSIA AND CHINA

 

TOPIC OUTLINE TERMS

 

(SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY, AND POWER – POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE – CITIZENS, SOCIETY AND THE STATE – POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS – PUBLIC POLICY

Advanced democracies – authoritarian regime – bicameral, unicameral legislatures – bureaucracy – civil society – command economies – communism – competitive elections – confederal system – conservatism – constitutional courts – corporatism – coup d’ etat – direct democracy – electoral systems – elites – empirical data – fascism – federal system – first past the post (plurality, winner-take-all) – fragmentation – Freedom House ratings – globalization – government – head of government – head of state – illiberal democracies – indications of democratization – indirect democracy – informal politics – institutions, institutionalized – judicial review – legitimacy (traditional, charismatic, rational-legal) – liberal democracies – liberalism as a political ideology – liberalism as an approach to economic and political change – linkage institutions – market economies – marketization – mixed economies – mixed electoral system – multi-member districts, single-member districts – nation – nationalism – normative questions – parliamentary system – patron-client system – political culture – political elites – political frameworks – political ideologies – political socialization – politicization of religion – presidential system – privatization – proportional representation – radicalism – reactionary beliefs – recruitment of elites – reform – regime – revolution – rule of law – Samuel Huntington’s “clash of civilizations” – social boundaries – social cleavages – socialism – sovereignty – state – succession – “third wave” of democratization – third world – three-world approach – unitary systems

 

RUSSIA

Bourgeoisie – Communist Manifesto – cooptation – democratic centralism – Maoism – market-based socialism – Marxism – Marxism-Leninism – nomenklatura – proletariat – social mobility – vanguard of the revolution – Boris Berezovsky – Bolsheviks – boyars – Chechnya – civil society in Russia – collective farms, collectivization – Confederation of Independent States – Constitution of 1993 – constitutional court – CPRF – cultural heterogeneity in Russia – decrees – de-Stalinization – Duma – equality of result in Russia – Federation Council – Five Year Plans – general secretary – Gorbachev’s three-pronged reform plan – Gosplan – Kulaks – Alexander Lebed – Vladimir Lenin – Liberal Democrats – mafia – Marxism/Leninism – Mensheviks – near abroad – New Economic Policy – nomenklatura – oligarchy – politburo – proportional representation in Russia – “shock therapy” – slavophile vs. westernizer – Stalinism – statism in Russia – totalitarianism – tsars – United Russia Party – Yobloko – Boris Yeltsin – Zemstvas – Vladimir Zhirinovsky – Gennady Zyuganov - Putin

 

CHINA

Cadres – Central Committee – Chiang Kai-shek – collectivism – Confucianism – The Cultural Revolution – danwei – democratic centralism – Deng Xiaoping Theory – dynastic cycles – egalitarianism – ethic of struggle – factions, factionalism – fang-shou – “foreign devils” – Four Modernizations – free market socialism – “Gang of Four” – guanxi – The Great Leap Forward – hegemony – household responsibility system – Hu JintaoJiang Zemin – Le Peng – The Long March – mandate of heaven – Maoism – mass line – mass mobilization – “Middle Kingdom” (zhongguo) – Nationalist Party (goumindang) – National Party Congress – parallel hierarchies – patron client system in China – People’s Courts,procuratorate – People’s Liberation Army – plenums – politburo/standing committee – self-reliance – Special Economic Zones (SEZs) – township and village enterprises (TVEs) – “Two Chinas” – unstinting service – Youth League

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR RUSSIA AND CHINA

 

  1. Russia's political culture can be characterized by:
    1. an authoritarian tradition
    2. strong leadership
    3. fear of chaos
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above

 

  1. In Russian culture, the collective society means:
    1. that Russian society traditionally has been group oriented
    2. that Russian society places great value on individualism and self-determination
    3. that Russian society rejects the concept of the welfare state
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above

 

  1. In Russian culture, closed politics:
    1. mean a tradition of relatively open politics
    2. mean most political decisions are publicly discussed
    3. mean citizens can express their opinions
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above

 

  1. The 1993 Russian Constitution:
    1. created a unitary government where all power is concentrated in the central government
    2. created a federal republic in which power is shared between the president, ministers, federal assembly, court system and local government units
    3. created a confederation in which power is shared between the president, prime minister, the communist party and the politburo
    4.  All of the above
    5. None of the above

 

  1. The 1993 Russian Constitution:
    1. contains  a lengthy Bill of Rights
    2. establishes a method for amendments
    3. reverses the trend toward devolution of power to regional and local government
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above

 

  1. The Russian President:
    1. is elected for a maximum of two six-year terms
    2. is elected for a maximum of one six-year term
    3. is elected for a maximum of two four-year terms
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above

 

  1. Among the many powers of the Russian President is the power to appoint and dismiss:
    1. the Prime Minister and Federal Ministers
    2. military commanders
    3. ambassadors
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above

 

8.  Constitutionally, the Russian President can:

  1. issue edicts that have the force of law
  2. dissolve the State Duma and call new elections
  3. veto bills adopted by the Duma
  4. All of the above
  5. None of the above

 

9.  In Russia, if the President is incapacitated:

A.     the vice-president takes over

B.     the State Duma takes over

C.     the Prime Minister takes over

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

10.  In Russia, the Prime Minister, Deputies and Federal Ministers are responsible to:

A.     draft the federal budget

B.     oversee economic policy

C.     oversee the implementation of law and policy by the bureaucracy

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

11. The Russian Federal Assembly chamber that approves declarations of martial law, initiate impeachment

      hearings and schedules presidential elections is the:

A.     Federation Council

B.     State Duma

C.     Politburo

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

12.  The Russian Federal Assembly chamber that approves local government border changes, confirms Court

       nominations and is the less powerful chamber of the legislature is the:

A.     State Duma

B.     Federation Council

C.     Supreme Soviet

A.     All of the above

B.     None of the above

 

13.  The Russian Federal Assembly chamber that confirms the Prime Minister choice, introduces motions of no

       confidence and is the major lawmaking body is the:

A.     Supreme Soviet

B.     Federation Council

C.     State Duma

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

14.  The Russian Federal Assembly chamber whose members are elected by both proportional and winner-take-

       all systems is the:

A.     State Duma

B.     Federation Council

C.     Politburo

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

15.  In Russia, the Court that protects and interprets the Constitution and resolves disputes over political

       jurisdiction is the:

A.     Supreme Court

B.     Constitutional Court

C.     Supreme Arbitration Court

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

16.  In Russia, the highest Court of appeal for civil, criminal, and administrative cases is the:

A.     Supreme Court

B.     Constitutional Court

C.     Supreme Arbitration Court

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

17.  In Russia, the Court that deals with economic and business matters is the:

A.     Supreme Court

B.     Constitutional Court

C.     Supreme Arbitration Court

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

18.  In Russia, the Constitution provides for a single, centralized system of prosecution headed by:

A.     the chief justice of the Supreme Court

B.     a prosecutor-general

C.     the Federation Council

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

19.  In Russia, the Court that has the power of oversight over the activities of lower courts is the:

A.     Constitutional Court

B.     Supreme Arbitration Court

C.     Prosecutor-general Court

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

20.  In Russia, under the 1993 Constitution, all subnational governments have:

A.     legislative bodies for local law-making

B.     executive branches headed by presidents or governors

C.     their own systems of law

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

21.  In Russia, under the 1993 Constitution, subnational governments are made up of:

A.     republics

B.     territories

C.     provinces

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

 

22.  In Russia, presidential elections are different than presidential elections in the United States in that:

A.     Russian presidential elections are shorter and cheaper than in the United States

B.     There are no primaries in Russian presidential elections

C.     Both A and B

D.     None of the above

 

23.  In Russia, anyone can run for president provided that they:

A.     register and collect one million signatures to qualify for inclusion on the ballot

B.     win 75% of the primary votes proceeding the actual election

C.     are a member of the Communist party

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

24.  In Russia, local elections:

A.     are held during the same year as presidential elections

B.     are popular vote elections for presidents, governors and local legislators.

C.     Are controlled by the Politburo

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

25.  In Russia, the type of political party that includes the Unity Party (supporting Putin) and the Union of

       Right Wing Forces (which includes Russia's Choice) is the:

A.     Left-Wing Reformist Parties

B.     Socialist-Communist Antireform Parties

C.     Right-Wing Reformist Parties

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

26.  In Russia, the type of political party that includes the Fatherland-All Russia Coalition and the Yabloko is

       the:

A.     Left-Wing Reformist Parties

B.     Socialist-Communist Antireform Parties

C.     Right-Wing Reformist Parties

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

27.  In Russia, emerging parts of the political system are interest groups like:

A.     "membership associations" or public organizations like labor unions

B.     nongovernmental networks like FIGS

C.     conglomerates of politicians, banks and industrial firms

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

 

28.  In Russia, the State still retains shares and control of:

A.     financial-industrial groups

B.     major media such as Public Russian TV (ORT) and news agencies (ITAR-TASS)

C.     the Communist Party

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

29.  In Russia, economic policy is focused on:

A.     supporting the "black market"

B.     reducing industrial output

C.     maintaining the income gap

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

30.  Today, Russian foreign policy is concerned with:

A.     security of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons

B.     nationalism in Russia (such as Chechnya)

C.     expansion of NATO

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

31.       The 1917 revolutions in Russia grew out of three interconnected factors:

  1. the interventionist policies of the United States, the assassination of Tsar Nicholas II, and the theories of Machiavelli
  2. the rivalry with China, the prospect of war with Japan, and the theories of Lenin
  3. the huge losses suffered by Russia in WWI, the theories of Karl Marx, and the leadership skills of Lenin and Trotsky
  4. the rivalry with England, the theories of Lenin, and the leadership of Karl Marx
  5. None of the above

 

 

 

32.       The _______ were led by Lenin and subscribed to his idea of a vanguard party that would be at the heart of the revolutionary movement.

  1. Chechnyans
  2. Mensheviks
  3. Bolsheviks
  4. Tsarists
  5. None of the above

 

33.       After Lenin died, _______ won the succession struggle and served as leader of the Soviet Union for the next twenty-five years.

  1. Trotsky
  2. Stalin
  3. Khrushchev
  4. Zinoviev
  5. None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

34.       Which of the following was a feature of the rule of Joseph Stalin?

  1. A total commitment to and adoption of the principles of Karl Marx
  2. An expansion of Lenin’s idea of promoting global revolution
  3. The systematic use of terror, the elimination of human rights, and a cult of personality
  4. All of the above
  5. None of the above

 

 

35.       Under Joseph Stalin,

  1. Gosplan, the economic planning agency, decided what should be produced and the price at which it should be sold
  2. Agricultural policy was emphasized and the commitment to farmers produced enough food to feed the people of the Soviet Union and to export to other countries at a profit
  3. The CPSU achieved Marx’s goal of a classless society
  4. All of the above
  5. None of the above

 

36.       Under Leonid Brezhnev,

  1. the Soviet Union established its technological prowess, launching a space program that sent the first satellite, and the first human, into space in 1961
  2. the United States and the Soviet Union clashed in the Cuban Missile Crisis
  3. the Soviet Union launched the invasion of Afghanistan, a costly and unpopular war
  4. all of the above
  5. None of the above

 

37.       Mikahail Gorbachev sought to change the status quo in the Soviet Union with his restructuring of the S   soviet economic and political system, under the plan known as

  1. glasnost
  2. perestroika
  3. Chechnya
  4. Demokratizatsiia
  5. None of the above

 

38.       Gorbachev’s goal of making the socialist system more efficient and democratic was undermined by the fact that

  1. he lacked legitimacy, preaching democratic accountability but never popularly elected
  2. he found himself caught between liberals who thought his reforms too timid and conservatives who thought that he had gone too far
  3. his reforms brought into the open tensions among the Soviet republics, problems that made it difficult to keep the USSR together
  4. all of the above
  5. None of the above

 

39.       In December of 1991,

  1. Gorbachev resigned as president of the USSR
  2. The Soviet Union ceased to exist
  3. What had been a superpower was now replaced by 15 independent countries
  4. All of the above
  5. None of the above

 

 

 

40.       Boris Yeltsin

  1. confronted a range of problems vastly different from those that plagued Gorbachev
  2. dissolved the Russian legislature, which prompted an attempt to remove Yeltsin from power
  3. put down an attempted coup with military force
  4. all of the above
  5. None of the above

 

41.       Russian political culture features

  1. a tradition of authoritarianism
  2. a suspicion and rejection of strong leadership
  3. an insistence on an open political system
  4. a recognition that some level of chaos is inevitable, and thus acceptable, in any political system
  5. None of the above

 

42.       Under the system used in the Soviet Union,

  1. all real power was focused in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
  2. the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was run by an elite that made all policy
  3. policy was implemented by a bureaucracy directed by the Communist Party
  4. all of the above
  5. None of the above

 

43.       Which of the following is true?

  1. As president of Russia, Vladimir Putin has gained acclaim for rejecting authoritarian methods and resisting the development of a cult of personality.
  2. The office of prime minister is much more powerful than the office of the presidency.
  3. The president of Russia possesses the power to appoint and dismiss the prime minister.
  4. All of the above
  5. None of the above

 

44.       The Russian president

  1. has the power to dissolve the State Duma and call new elections, to veto bills adopted by the Duma, and to introduce martial law during times of emergency
  2. must win support from the Duma for his appointments and policies and can be impeached by the Federation Council
  3. has a supporting network of offices and institutions to help him with his administration
  4. all of the above
  5. None of the above

 

45.       Which of the following is true about the Russian Federation Assembly?

  1. It is divided into a Federation Council and a State Duma.
  2. All of the members of the Council and the Duma are elected on a winner take all basis.
  3. The Federation Assembly has become the dominant force in Russian politics, exploiting the weaknesses in the Russian presidency.
  4. All of the above
  5. None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

46.       Which of the following is true about Russian government?

  1. The Constitutional Court has no independent authority and is limited to enforcing the policies of the government
  2. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the creation of so many new nations, Russia no longer has a problem with ethnic groups
  3. Vladimir Putin has been frustrated with the independence of regional leaders and has sought to limit their powers
  4. None of the above

 

47.       Which of the following is true?

  1. A competitive multiparty system was a feature of the Soviet Union and it continues to be a feature of the Russian political system
  2. The Communist Party continues to be a major political party in Russia
  3. One of the few issues that unites all of the major parties in Russia is an opposition to free market principles seen in the West
  4. All of the above
  5. None of the above

 

48.       Which of the following is true about interest groups?

  1. Under the Soviet Union they functioned as a mechanism by which the CPSU could control society, gather information, and implement policies
  2. They have ironically decreased in number in Russia, despite Gorbachev’s policy of glasnost
  3. They are likely to become even less important with changes in Russian law relating to parties being able to compete in elections
  4. All of the above
  5. None of the above

 

49.       The policy making process in Russia

  1. is very different from the process in the Soviet Union, where policy was made by the Communist Party and implemented by the state bureaucracy under CPSU supervision
  2. is confused by the ongoing struggles over authority, by party divisions within the State Duma, and by the concentration of power in the hands of the presidency
  3. is complicated by the debate over the direction Russia should be taking on economic and foreign policy
  4. all of the above
  5. None of the above

 

50.       Which of the following is true?

  1. The Soviet command economy is still the guiding principle of the Russian economy.
  2. Mikhail Gorbachev’s failure in trying to bring reform to the Soviet economy was his unwillingness to actually make the changes he proposed
  3. Boris Yeltsin succeeded where Gorbachev failed because he made changes in the economy in a slow, steady fashion that produced no dramatic results
  4. None of the above

 

51.       The foreign policy philosophy of “New Thinking,” based on the argument that Soviet security depended on a political relationship with the West, rather than a military rivalry, was introduced by

  1. Putin
  2. Yeltsin
  3. Gorbachev
  4. Khrushchev
  5. None of the above

 

 

52. China has a recorded history of about 3,500 years, and it is the

    1.   oldest continuous major world civilization
    2.   youngest continuous major world civilization
    3.   largest combination of world civilizations
    4.   only major world civilization still ruled by a dynasty
    5.   None of the above

 

 

53.  The development of the Confucian ideology further strengthened the Chinese civilization, reaching its peak

     in various aspects during the:

A.      Han Dynasty

B.       Xia Dynasty

C.      Confucian Dynasty

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

54.  The last Chinese Dynasty was the Qing (Ch'ing) Dynasty established in 1644 when the nomadic Manchus

     invaded China and overthrew the Ming Dynasty. During the 19th century, the power of the Qing Dynasty:

A.      increased, accompanied with economic growth and social stability.

B.       spread to other nations surrounding China.

C.      declined, accompanied with economic stagnation and social unrest.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

55.       To reunite a fragmented nation, Sun Yat-sen established a revolutionary base in southern China in the

            1920s. He organized the:

A.   KKT, the Chinese Federalist People's Party, and aligned with the Chinese Libertarian Party (LCP)

       to begin the anti-warlords war.

B.     KYTT, the Chinese Labor Party and aligned with the Chinese Socialist Party (SSP) to begin the anti-warlords war.

C.  KMT, the Chinese Nationalist People's Party, and aligned with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)

       to begin the anti-warlords war.

C.     all of the above

D.     none of the above

 

 

56. In 1934, after failing in fighting a large scale KMT attack, the communists were forced to go on a "Long March" and finally arrived to Yan'an in northwest China with:

    1. Chiang Kai-shek becoming the leader of the Chinese communists and established Yan'an as his base to continue fighting the KMT.
    2. Mao Zedong becoming the leader of the Chinese communists and established Yan'an as his base to continue fighting the KMT.
    3. Sun Yat-sen becoming the leader of the Chinese communists and established Yan'an as his base to continue fighting the KMT.
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

57. In 1949,

A. Chiang Kai-shek and his KMT government were forced to flee to Taiwan in face of the

                        overwhelming CCP forces.

    1. the communists founded the People's Republic of China on the mainland.
    2. Chiang Kai-shek established Taipei as the "provisional" capital of the KMT government.
    3. All of the above
    4. None of the above

 

     58.    China had adopted a political and economic order modeled on the Soviet example in establishing the new republic. In the late 1950s Mao Zedong gave up the Soviet model as a result of different views from the Soviet, and initiated the:

A.       "The Five Year Plan" as the new economic development program.

B.       "Great Leap Forward" as the new economic development program.

C.       "The Cultural Revolution" as the new economic development program.

D.       All of the above

E.        None of the above

 

59.             In view of his reduced authority and prestige, in 1966, Mao Zedong started a massive movement known as the "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" targeting at Liu and Deng's "capitalist" policies. Charging Liu and Deng as well as their followers with dragging China back to capitalism, Mao made use of a radical youth organization known as the:

A.      "Boxers" to attack Liu and Deng and other party and state leaders at all levels.

B.     "Gang of Four" to attack Liu and Deng and other party and state leaders at all levels.

C.     "Red Guards" to attack Liu and Deng and other party and state leaders at all levels.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

 

 

60. On Sept. 9, 1976, Mao Zedong died, thus ending the Mao Era in Chinese history. Immediately after

Mao's death, there was a bitter struggle for succession between the "Gang of Four" and the veteran party officials.  In August 1977, at the 11th Party Congress,

A.     Deng Xiaoping was reinstated in all his previous leadership positions, thus ushering in the Deng Era.

B.     Hua Guofeng was reinstated in all his previous leadership positions, thus ushering in the Guofeng Era.

C.     Jiang Qing was reinstated in all his previous leadership positions, thus ushering in the Qing Era.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

 

 

61. With economic development as the central task, the Deng leadership adopted a series of economic

 reform policies after the Third Plenum of the 11th Party Congress met in December 1978. The

 reform policies were aimed at:

A.       increasing rural incomes and enhancing incentives.

B.       encouraging experiments in enterprise autonomy.

C.       reducing central planning.

D.       All of the above

E.        None of the above

 

 

62. On April 15, 1989, the former party General Secretary Hu Yaobang died. Hu was very popular

 among the students and intellectuals for his reform advocates. His death, coupled with the economic

 hardship caused by the high inflation, intensified popular dissatisfaction of the government for slow

 reforms and corruption. People came to the Tiananmen Square to:

A.      protest against official corruption.

B.       demand further reforms.

C.      call for more freedom and democracy.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

63. In 2003, following elections within the National People's Congress,

F.      Hu Jintao became the country's new president.

G.     Wen Jiabao was appointed China's new premier.

H.     outgoing Chinese leader Jiang Zemin stayed on as chairman of the Central Military Commission.

I.        All of the above

J.       None of the above

 

64. Since the early 1990s, as China regained its strength in economic reforms, legal reform has become

       a government priority with efforts in areas of:

A.   modernizing legal personnel, improving criminal law procedure, and anti-abuse of authority.

B.    due process of law, rights of the accused and the establishment of a Bill of Rights.

C.   secret courts and tribunals, public defenders offices and removal of Habeus Corpus.

D.  all of the above

E.  none of the above

 

 

 

65. During the 3rd Session of the Ninth National People's Congress (NPC) held in Beijing in March

       2000, the Legislation Law Act was passed to standardize lawmaking in China. The legislation law

       has been expected to provide:

A.      basic principles in law-making.

B.       detailed stipulations on the limits of authority of laws and regulations.

C.      the process of legislation and applicable rules.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

66. As early as 1993, China launched the anti-corruption campaign. Since then, progress has been made

 in finding sources to prevent corruption and setting up clear rules and regulations for government

 officials to curb corruption. As a result,

A.     corruption cases in various fields such as building construction, finance and government

           procurement have been increasing in the past few years.

B.     corruption cases in various fields such as building construction, finance and government

           procurement have been decreasing in the past few years.

C.     corruption cases in various fields such as building construction, finance and government

           procurement have been stagnant in the past few years.

D.     all of the above

E.      none of the above

 

 

 

67. Reform of the state-owned enterprises (SOEs) has been a priority for the Chinese government in the

past several years. The primary goal of the reform has been to turn most of the state-owned

enterprises (SOEs) operating at loss:

A.       into state-owned ones, or turn them into companies.

B.       into non-profit ones, or turn them into companies.

C.       into profit-making ones, or turn them into companies.

D.       All of the above

E.        None of the above

 

68. In the past few years, China has also taken steps to bring its human rights practices into conformity

with international norms by:

A.      signing the United Nations Covenant on Economic and Social Rights in 1997.

B.       signing the United Nations Covenant on Civil And Political Rights in 1998.

C.      ratifying the United Nations Covenant on Economic and Social Rights in 2001.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

69. Since 1999, a religious movement in China called Falun Gong aroused wide attention.  The Chinese

government disputed Falun Gong followers' claims that they are a peaceful law-abiding group

which follows a philosophy and set of exercises leading to spiritual enlightenment and improving

health. The government has charged the group as:

A.       illegally organizing demonstrations aimed at disturbing public order.

B.       dispensing fallacious beliefs in the ineffective medical treatment that has caused deaths of hundreds of people.

C.       Both A and B

D.       None of the above

 

70. China's relationship with Taiwan has been a central political issue for China in the past few years.

China views Taiwan as a breakaway province and has called on Taiwan to accept the "one China"

policy. China has stated its basic policy towards Taiwan as a peaceful reunification and one country,

two systems.  In late February 2000, the Chinese government issued a white paper titled "The One

China Principle and the Taiwan Issue," stating that a failure to negotiate Taiwanese unification

would result in:

A.       military action.

B.       UN sanctions

C.       Trial before the International Court of Justice

D.       All of the above

E.        None of the above

 

 

71. On Nov. 10, 2001, 142 member countries of the World Trade Organization (WTO) ratified China's

application to enter the organization during the world trade talks held in Doha, Qatar. One month

later, on December 10, China officially became the WTO member.  Membership in the WTO will

lead to:

A.       major changes in China.

B.       the restrictions on its capital markets eventually being lifted and market access for foreign goods and firms will be improved.

C.       foreign companies being free to set up joint ventures, even in sensitive areas like mobile phones, insurance and banking.

D.       All of the above

E.        None of the above

 

72. In 2003,

A. Chinese attention was focused on the disturbing SARs virus which raged across the country, especially in southern areas, including Hong Kong.

B. China and India reached an agreement on the status of Tibet and Sikkim respectively.

C. more than half a million people in Hong Kong took to the streets to protest a proposed subversion bill -- Article 23, and to press for democratic reforms as well as elections.

D.All of the above

E. None of the above

 

73. In 2005,

A.  direct commercial flights between China and Taiwan resumed for the first time in 55

years.

B.     China's legislature passed legislation providing for the use of force against Taiwan, should that

      island ever declare formal independence from the mainland.

C.     China and Japan were involved in a dispute over a new Japanese history textbook, which

 allegedly downplayed Japan's wartime offenses in China during the 1930s and early 1940s.

D.     all of the above

E.      none of the above

 

74. The Chinese government is organized along:

A.     confederation principles and it is under indirect leadership of  the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).

B.     unitary principles and it is under direct leadership of  the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).

C.     federal principles and it is under no leadership of  the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

75. In China, the primary organs of state power are:

A.     the National People's Congress (NPC), the president and the State Council.

B.     the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the vice-president and the State Duma.

C.      the National People's Party (NPP), the premier and the Local Council.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

76. The executive organ of the central government is the:

A.     Local Council led by the president, and the State Duma Committee of the State Council exercises major decision-making authority.

B.     Party Council led by the prime minister, and the Standing Committee of the Socialist Party exercises major decision-making authority.

C.     State Council led by the premier, and the Standing Committee of the State Council exercises major decision-making authority.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

77. Under the 1982 Chinese constitution,

A.     all local legislative power is vested in the State People's Congress (SPC) and its Standing Committee.

B.     all national legislative power is vested in the National People's Congress (NPC) and its Standing Committee.

C.     all national judicial power is vested in the National People's Congress (NPC) and its Standing Committee.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

78. The NPC is the highest organ of state power in China. It meets annually for about two weeks to:

A.  review and approve major new policy directions.

B. review and approve major new laws.

C. review and approve major new budget and major personnel changes.

D. All of the above

E.  None of the above

 

79. The National Party Congress is the highest decision-making body of the CCP. Since it convenes

only once in about five years, the party Central Committee is empowered to act when the Congress

is not in session. The primary organs of power in the party include:

A.   the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau (Politburo), the Politburo itself, and the

       Secretariat headed by the general secretary.

B.      the State Duma, the Politburo itself and the Premiership headed by the prime minister.

C.      the Central Committee, the People’s Liberation Army and the Duma

D.      all of the above

E.       none of the above

 

80. The Politburo is empowered to act when the central party committee is not in session, and the

Standing Committee of the Politburo guides the work of the Politburo. The Secretariat is in charge

of the daily work of the Central Committee and the Politburo. In theory,

A.     the PLA sets major policy directions and supervises the implementation of the policy, and the

 government is responsible for carrying out the party policy while making necessary decisions.

B.     the CCP sets major policy directions and supervises the implementation of the policy, and the

 government is responsible for carrying out the party policy while making necessary decisions.

C.     the KKT sets major policy directions and supervises the implementation of the policy, and the

 government is responsible for carrying out the party policy while making necessary decisions.

D.     all of the above

E.      none of the above

 

81. During the Cultural Revolution, the legal system in China was destroyed. Since 1979, the Chinese government has made great efforts in re-establishing the legal system. In 1982, the National People's Congress:

A. adopted a new state constitution emphasizing the rule of law.

B.  reestablished the justice departments of the government as well as the court system.

C. enacted legislation aimed at modernizing and professionalizing lawyers and judges,  amendments in criminal law to abolish the crime of "counter-revolutionary" activity, and criminal procedural reforms have encouraged establishment of a more transparent trial process.

D. All of the above

E. None of the above

 

 

 

 

82. The National Peoples Congress:

A.  has 2979 members; five-year terms and elections take place over a three-month period.

B.  has its members elected by People's Congresses of the PROC's three municipalities, five

      autonomous regions, 23 provinces, the Hong Kong special administrative region, and the

      armed forces.

C.     has members per constituency proportional to the number of electors in each constituency.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

83. In China, the judicial branch is represented by:

A.   the Supreme People's Court with judges appointed by the National People's Congress.

B.   the Legal Council with judges appointed by the People’s Liberation Army.

C.   the Judicial Council with judges appointed by the Politburo.

D.  All of the above

E.  None of the above

 

84. In China, political parties include:

A.  the "Zhongguo Gongchandang".

B.  the Chinese Communist Party or CCP.

C.  the China People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).

D.  all of the above

E.  none of the above

 

85. In China, universal suffrage is granted:

A.  to members of the communist party when they turn 18

B.  to anyone when they turn 18

C.  to men only when they turn 18

D.  all of the above

E.  None of the above

 

86. Since the late 1970s, with the end of the Cultural Revolution and initiation of economic reforms,

China has been carrying out a more pragmatic foreign policy aimed at promoting a peaceful and

stable environment for domestic economic development. China established:

A.      diplomatic relations with the United States in 1979.

B.       improved relations with the Soviet Union in the late 1980s.

C.      a more constructive position in many international organizations.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

87. China:

A. assumed its seat in the United Nations in 1972 and it now has diplomatic relations with about

     130 countries.

B.  assumed its seat in the United Nations in 1979 and it now has diplomatic relations with about

     110 countries.

C.  assumed its seat in the United Nations in 1971 and it now has diplomatic relations with about

     160 countries.

D.  all of the above

E.  None of the above

 

 

 

 

88. As the largest country in the Asia-Pacific region, China has sought to promote cooperation as well

as to avoid and reduce tensions in the region. To this end, China:

A.   is a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, and has engaged itself

       in promoting economic cooperation with all the APEC countries.

B.       has participated in the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) Regional Forum,

  seeking a more cooperative relationship with the ASEAN nations in promoting economic

  cooperation and solving disputes.

C.      has played an important role in promoting the dialogue and reconciliation between the two

 Koreas.

D.      all of the above

E.       None of the above

 

89. Since China and the United States established normal commercial relations in 1979, as a non-market

economy country, China's normal trade status (which allows non-discriminatory tariff treatment for

Chinese exports to the U.S.) must be debated by the U.S. Congress and renewed annually by a U.S.

presidential waiver stipulating that China meets the freedom of emigration requirements set forth in

the:

A.      Jackson-Vanik amendment to the Trade Act of 1974.

B.       McCain-Feingold amendment to the Trade Act of 1975.

C.      Jackson-Kerry amendment to the Trade Act of 1973.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

90. On May 24, 2000, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the bill of China's Permanent Normal

Trade Relations (PNTR) by a vote of 237-197, the U.S. Senate passed the bill on Sept. 19, 2000 by

a vote of 83-15, and in late December 2001 President George W. Bush signed the PNTR agreement

into law. The approval of normal trade relations with China:

A.      ended 20 years of annual congressional reviews of China's trade status with the United States.

B.       ended the use of the annual review to try to pressure the Chinese government on such issues as human rights and labor standards.

C.      is a consequence of a trade agreement between the U.S. and China in November 1999 that opened the way for China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO).

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

91. China is the largest country in Asia and has the largest population -- 1.3 billion -- in the world.

China is also a multinational country, with the:

A.   Zhuang Chinese as the largest ethnic group which constitutes about 92 percent of the total

  population.

       B.   Han Chinese as the largest ethnic group which constitutes about 92 percent of the total

  population.

C.   Guangxi Chinese as the largest ethnic group which constitutes about 92 percent of the total

  population.

D.   all of the above

E. none of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

92. The population of China is formed with a homogeneous mass of people sharing the same culture, the same traditions and the same written language. There are seven major Chinese dialects and many sub-dialects. The predominant dialect is:

A.  Mongolian Chinese spoken by over 70 percent of the population.

B.  Tibetan Chinese spoken by over 70 percent of the population.

C.  Mandarin Chinese spoken by over 70 percent of the population.

D.  all of the above

E.  none of the above

 

93. The most widely practiced religion in China with an estimated 100 million adherents is:

A.  Buddhism.

B.  Taoism

C.  Confucianism

D.  all of the above

E.  None of the above

 

94. In 1970 China initiated a strict birth control program aimed at late marriage and family limitation,

and it culminated in 1979 with implementing a policy of:

A.   one male child per family.

B.   one child per family.

C.   one female child per family.

D.   None of the above

 

95. Reforms and policies had a positive effect on the economies in both urban and rural China, with the

country boasting of significant economic achievements.  At the same time, there have been societal

and economic challenges which have presented themselves as a consequence of this process of

transformation.  One notable concern has been the matter of:

A.      regional disparity. 

B.       rural-urban disparity

C.      egalitarianism

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

96. China's 10th “Five Year Plan,” aimed at economic and social development from 2001 through 2005,

calls for:

A.   economic growth.

B.   restructuring and reform of state-owned enterprises as well as the financial system and legal

       infrastructure.

C.      encouragement of private investment among other initiatives targeted toward integration in the

 world economy. 

D.      all of the above

E.       none of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

97. The U.S. Department of State reports the existence of a Chinese extremist organization that uses

terrorism as a means to further its political agenda. Based in western China 's Xinjiang province, the:

A.  Western Turkistan Islamic Movement (WTIM) is comprised of ethnic Uighur separatists who

      seek to establish an independent "Western Turkistan."

B.  Northern Turkistan Islamic Movement (NTIM) is comprised of ethnic Uighur separatists who

      seek to establish an independent "Northern Turkistan."

C.  Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) is comprised of ethnic Uighur separatists who

      seek to establish an independent "Eastern Turkistan."

D.  all of the above

E.  none of the above

 

98. In the global war on terrorism, China has been an important partner in U.S. counterterrorism efforts by:

A.     voting in favor of UN Security Council Resolution 1373, as well as publicly supporting the coalition campaign in Afghanistan, and contributing $150 million of bilateral assistance to Afghan reconstruction following the defeat of the Taliban.

B.     pledging $25 million to the reconstruction of Iraq.

C.     commencing a counterterrorism dialogue, the fourth round of which was held in the summer of 2004.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

99. Hu Jintao was elected president of the People's Republic of China on March 15, 2003.  He is  responsible to:  

A.     be the general secretary of the CPC Central Committee.

B.     be president of the People's Republic of China.

C.     be vice chairman of the Central Military Commission.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

100. China today is the sixth-largest economy in the world. It accounted for about:

A.      4 percent of global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2002.

B.     3 percent of global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2002.

C.      7 percent of global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2002.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

AP COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT TEST 2ND  QUARTER - RUSSIA AND CHINA ANSWER KEY

1.      D

2.      A

3.      E

4.      B

5.      D

6.      C

7.      D

8.      D

9.      C

10.  D

11.  A

12.  B

13.  C

14.  A

15.  B

16.  A

17.  C

18.  B

19.  E

20.  D

21.  D

22.  C

23.  A

24.  B

25.  C

26.  A

27.  D

28.  B

29.  E

30.  D

31.  C

32.  C

33.  B

34.  C

35.  A

36.  C

37.  B

38.  D

39.  D

40.  D

41.  A

42.  D

43.  C

44.  D

45.  A

46.  C

47.  B

48.  A

49.  D

50.  D

51.  C

 

52.  A

53.  A

54.  C

55.  C

56.  B

57.  D

58.  B

59.  C

60.  A

61.  D

62.  D

63.  D

64.  A

65.  D

66.  B

67.  C

68.  D

69.  B

70.  A

71.  D

72.  D

73.  D

74.  B

75.  A

76.  C

77.  B

78.  D

79.  A

80.  B

81.  D

82.  D

83.  A

84.  D

85.  B

86.  D

87.  C

88.  D

89.  A

90.  D

91.  B

92.  C

93.  A

94.  B

95.  D

96.  D

97.  C

98.  D

99.  D

100.          A

 

AP CGA 2nd    QUARTER

 REVIEW QUESTIONS AND TERMS

IRAN AND NIGERIA

 

TOPIC OUTLINE TERMS

 

(SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY, AND POWER – POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE – CITIZENS, SOCIETY AND THE STATE – POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS – PUBLIC POLICY

Advanced democracies – authoritarian regime – bicameral, unicameral legislatures – bureaucracy – civil society – command economies – communism – competitive elections – confederal system – conservatism – constitutional courts – corporatism – coup d’ etat – direct democracy – electoral systems – elites – empirical data – fascism – federal system – first past the post (plurality, winner-take-all) – fragmentation – Freedom House ratings – globalization – government – head of government – head of state – illiberal democracies – indications of democratization – indirect democracy – informal politics – institutions, institutionalized – judicial review – legitimacy (traditional, charismatic, rational-legal) – liberal democracies – liberalism as a political ideology – liberalism as an approach to economic and political change – linkage institutions – market economies – marketization – mixed economies – mixed electoral system – multi-member districts, single-member districts – nation – nationalism – normative questions – parliamentary system – patron-client system – political culture – political elites – political frameworks – political ideologies – political socialization – politicization of religion – presidential system – privatization – proportional representation – radicalism – reactionary beliefs – recruitment of elites – reform – regime – revolution – rule of law – Samuel Huntington’s “clash of civilizations” – social boundaries – social cleavages – socialism – sovereignty – state – succession – “third wave” of democratization – third world – three-world approach – unitary systems

 

IRAN

Constitutional revolution of 1905-09 – equality-with-difference – The Executives of Construction Party – faqih – fundamentalism – Guardian Council – Hidden Imam – imams – import substitution industrialization – Iranian Militant Clerics Society – The Islamic Iran Participation Front – The Islamic Society of Engineers – jurist’s guardianship – Ali Khamenei – Muhammad Khatami – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini – Khordad Front – MajlesMajles Election of 2004 – Muhammand Mosaddeq – Muhammad Reza Shah – National Front – qanunOajar Empire – Pahlavi foundation – the Pahlavis – People of the Book – Persian Empire – presidential election of 2005 – Akbar Hasemi Rafsanjani – reformers v. conservatives – rentier state – Resurgence Party – Revolution of 1979 – revolution of rising expectations – Revolutionary Guards – Reza Shah – Safavid empire – secularization – shari’aShi’ismstatists v. free-marketers – Sunni Muslims – Supreme Leader – theocracy – Tudeh Party – White Revolution – Workers’ House - Zoroastrianism

NIGERIA

Sani AbachaMshoud Abioli – Accountability – ANPP – Ibrahim BabangidaBiafraMuhammdu Buhari – civil society – constitutionalism – corporatism – cultural diffusion – “federal character” – Hausa-Fulani – Ife – Igbo – indirect rule – INEC – Jihad – Kanuri – kinship-based politics – “loyalty pyramid” – “military in barracks” – “military in government” – “the national question” – Olusegun Obasanjo – Oyo – para-statalspatrimonialism – patron-client system (prebendalism) – PDR – plurality vote – revenue sharing – rule of law – Ken Saro-Wiwashari’aSokoto Caliphate – state corporatism – structural adjustment program – “true federalism” movement - Yoruba

 

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR IRAN AND NIGERIA

 

 

  1. Archeological findings have placed knowledge of Iranian prehistory at middle Paleolithic times.  By the

      sixth millennium B.C.E, a fairly sophisticated agricultural society and proto-urban population had            emerged.  After centuries of inhabitation and peaceful co-mingling with the indigenous population, two major civilizations emerged out of these peoples:

A.      the Persian and the Medes

B.       the Hitties and the Slavs

C.      the Mesopetanians and the Kurds

D.      None of the above

E.       All of the above

 

  1. By the sixth century B.C.E., the two ancient civilizations were united under Cyrus the Great. Cyrus

      subverted neighboring kingdoms of Babylonia, Palestine, Syria and Asia Minor and consolidated all the territories into the great Persian Empire.  The following dynasty that ensued was called the:

A.      Achaemenian Dynasty, in deference to Cyrus' respect for his ancestors.

B.       Persia Dynasty until 1935 when it was officially changed to Iran.

C.      Persia Empire until 1935 when it was officially changed to Iran.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

  1. Greek influence in Persia was intense during the Hellenistic period, especially from 330 to 275 B.C.E. For his part, Alexander had great respect for the Persians and even married the daughter of a Persian nobleman. The resulting cultural integration gave rise to the:

A.       Xerxes  Dynasty, most famous for its fascinating artistic contributions.

B.        Parthian Dynasty, most famous for its fascinating artistic contributions.

C.       Seleucid Dynasty, most famous for      its fascinating artistic contributions.

D.       All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

  1. By the end of the seventh century:

A.       Persia was fully conquered by the Arabs

B.        the religion of Islam was disseminated among the populace.

C.       the concomitant culture and social ideology of Islam became firmly established in Persian life.

D.       All of the above

E.        None of the above

 

  1. In 1220 C.E. the history of Persia took a violent turn. The Mongols Genghis Khan

A.      had not extended his imperial powers into Persian jurisdiction, out of respect for the Persian culture.

B.       attempted to establish a trading relationship with the Kharazmshahi sultan, and sent emissaries armed with magnificent gifts to negotiate a trading treaty.

C.      ravaged most of the Persian territories and kingdoms.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

  1. Persia was occupied by various European powers.   In 1906, it was divided into two spheres of influence under Russian and British command.  These occupations were largely due to Persia's

A.       strategic location on the Persian Gulf (which was also called the Arabian Gulf).

B.        discovery of oil.

C.       Both A and B

D.       None of the above

 

  1. In 1921, Reza Khan, an officer of the Persian Cossack Brigade, seized control of the Iranian

      government. In 1925, Reza Khan declared himself shah, ruling as Reza Sh ah Pahlavi for almost 16

      years and installing the new Pahlavi Dynasty.  Under his reign:

A.      Persia's name was officially changed to Iran.

B.       the country began to modernize and secularize politics.

C.      the central government reasserted its authority over the tribes and provinces.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

8.         The Cold War atmosphere and the fear of Soviet influence in Iran also shaped U.S. policy. The             Eisenhower administration approved a British proposal for a joint Anglo-American operation to        overthrow Mossadeq.  On August 19, 1953,

            A.  pro-shah army units and street crowds defeated Mossadeq's forces.

            B.  the shah returned to the country.

            C.  Mossadeq was sentenced to three years' imprisonment for trying to overthrow the monarchy.

            D.  All of the above

            E.  None of the above

 

9.         On Feb. 1, 1979, a religious leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, returned from France to direct a       revolution that resulted in a new, theocratic republic guided by Islamic principles. Back in Iran after 15       years in exile, Khomeini remained Iran's national religious and political leader until his death in 1989.       In 1989, just after the Ayatollah's death, Ali Akbar Rafsanjani, was elected president. During his      administration, Rafsanjani

            A.   strengthened the bond between mosque and state, thought to be synonymous in Iran.

            B.   brought Iran less onto the world stage, both economically and politically.

            C.   returned to France to direct a revolution.

            D.  All of the above

            E.  None of the above

 

10.       Supporters of reform policy dominated the new Iranian parliament formed after the February 2000        elections, while conservative hard- liners continued to control the judiciary branch as well as the    military and government media.  The struggle between would-be reformers and fundamentalist hard-  liners took a turn in the direction away from reform and moderation with the election of:

            A.    Ali Mohammad Khatami  in 2005.

            B.    Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in 2005.

            C.    Ruhollah Khomeini in 2005.

            D.   All of the above

            E.    None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

11.    In Iran, after the fall of the Pahlavi regime in 1979:

A.     much of the urban upper class of prominent merchants, industrialists and professionals, favored by the former Shah, lost standing and influence to the senior clergy and their supporters.

B.      bazaar merchants, who were allied with the clergy against the Pahlavi Shah, gained political and economic power in the aftermath of the revolution.

C.      the urban working class enjoyed somewhat enhanced status and economic mobility, spurred, in part, by opportunities provided by revolutionary organizations and the government bureaucracy.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

12.       In Iran, the early days of the regime were characterized by political turmoil including the seizure of the

            United States (U.S.) embassy compound and its occupants on Nov. 4, 1979, by Iranian militants.  By

            mid-1982:

A.     a succession of power struggles first eliminated the center of the political spectrum, followed

quickly by the leftists, leaving only the clergy.

B.     there was no moderation of excesses both internally and internationally.

C.     Iran no longer sponsored terrorism.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

13. In Iran, after the elections of 1997, President Khatami:

A.     did not attempt to implement some political reforms on the domestic front nor open diplomatic channels with former "enemies of the Islamic Revolution".

B.     was met with fierce resistance by the hard-line conservatives, especially fundamentalist religious leaders.

C.     was frequently in alignment with the policy preferences of the supreme religious leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

14.    In Iran, he February 2000 legislative elections revealed that President Khatami's reform policies are

       widely supported by the Iranian people. In a surprisingly open and competitive election campaign:

A.     pro-Khatami candidates dominated the elections, and won a large majority of the 290 Majlis

seats.

B.     election fraud and violations were minor or non-existent.

C.     several electoral areas held a recount round.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

15.    The forming feature of Iranian politics was to be found in the power-play between the reform-dominated parliament, the hard-line judiciary and the Guardian Council. On two occasions, in June 2000 and January 2001, around 150 members of parliament signed letters to the head of the judiciary, Ayatollah Ma hmoud Hashemi Shahroudi, protesting:

A.     the holding of intelligence officers on charges of religious persecution.

B.     a campaign to allow dissidents to protest openly.

C.     the closing of newspapers and the convictions of opposition activists and reform writers to harsh prison sentences.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

16.    Relations with the United States had been slowly improving, despite the United States' concern for Iran-

supported terrorism. In August 2000, Iranian and American legislators met in New York discussing   issues of mutual concern and ways to reduce hostilities. In part due to Iran's staunch pro-Palestinian stand in the Israel-Palestinian conflict:

A.   the Iran Libya Sanctions Act, or ILSA, was prolonged with another ten years by the United States

       Congress on June 20, 2001.

B.   the Iran Libya Sanctions Act, or ILSA, was prolonged with another two years by the United States

       Congress on June 20, 2001

C.   the Iran Libya Sanctions Act, or ILSA, was prolonged with another five years by the United States

       Congress on June 20, 2001

D.      All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

17.    The issue of Iran's nuclear program garnered attention in June 2003, when:

A.     the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) delivered a report on the nature of Iran's burgeoning nuclear program.

B.     Washington hoped that the IAEA would declare Iran to be in violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

C.     Russia said that it would continue to assist Iran in developing the country's first nuclear reactor, despite objections from the United States.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

18.    In May 2003, with the reconstruction efforts in Iraq starting, the United States was concerned that groups from neighboring Iran might be interfering with the process, while Iran itself might be providing a safe haven for Islamic militants. Whether or not these fears were justified, the United States speculated that Iranian factions might have been working to:

A.      advance the establishment of an Islamic democracy in a post-war Iraq.

B.      advance the establishment of an Islamic theocracy in a post-war Iraq.

C.      advance the establishment of an Islamic monarchy in a post-war Iraq.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

19.  In June 2003, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a report stating that:

A.    Iran had failed to account for certain nuclear materials.

B.    Iran had failed to provide specific documentation related to imported nuclear materials.

C.    Iran had failed to report subsequent processing and use of nuclear materials.

D.   All of the above

E.    None of the above

 

20. In October 2005, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran attended a conference in Tehran  titled "The

      World Without Zionism."  There, in front of about 3,000 students, he asserted the view that:

A.     Israel's establishment had been a move by the West against the Islamic world.

B.     Israel be wiped off the map.

C.     Both A and B

D.     None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

21.  The December 1979 Iranian constitution defines the political, economic and social order of the Islamic

       republic. It declares that:

A.      Shi'a Islam of the Jaafari sect is Iran's official religion.

B.       Secular and religious    leaders, as well as councils, govern the country.

C.      frequently, the duties of secular and religious officials overlap.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

22.  In Iran, the Rahbar-e Moazam" (supreme leader), is a "Wali Faqih" (religious leader) or, in the absence of a

       single leader:

A.      a three- or five-man council of religious leaders.

B.       a three- or five-man council of political leaders.

C.      a three- or five-man council of local leaders

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

23.    In Iran, the constitution stipulates that the national religious leader (or council) is to be chosen from:

A.     the political establishment on the basis of qualifications and the 'high esteem of the Iranian Methodist population.

B.     the clerical establishment on the basis of qualifications and the 'high esteem of the Iranian Muslim population.

C.     the local establishment on the basis of qualifications and the 'high esteem of the Iranian Hindu population.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

24.  In Iran, the "Majlis-e Khobregan" (Council of Experts), a group of clerics, was first constituted on Dec. 10,

       1982,  to designate a successor to then "Wali Faqih" (religous leader), the Ayatollah Khomeini.  The current

       Council of Experts is dominated by:

A.     Conservatives and hard-liners.

B.     Liberals and libertarians

C.     Moderates and centrists

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

25. The supreme leader (or council) in Iran:

F.      is commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

G.     appoints the highest judicial authorities.

H.     appoints the six religious members of the "Shura-e-Nigahban" (Council of Guardians).

I.        All of the above

J.       None of the above

 

26.    The "Shura-e-Nigahban" (Council of Guardians) in Iran:

A.      includes six lay members, all lawyers.

B.      are first named by the High Council of the Judiciary and then approved by the "Majlis-e-Shura e Eslami" (Islamic Consultative Assembly).

C.     certifies the competence of candidates for the presidency and the assembly and oversees all elections.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

 

27.    The president of the republic in Iran:

A.      is elected by limited male suffrage to a six-year term by an absolute plurality of

                         votes and supervises the affairs of the executive branch.

B.     appoints and supervises the High Council of the Judiciary.

C.     coordinates government decisions, and selects government policies to be placed before the assembly.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

28.  The "Majlis-e-Shura e Eslami" (Islamic Consultative Assembly) in Iran consists of:

            A.   190 members directly elected to a six-year term.

            B.   290 members directly elected to a four-year term.

            C.   490 members directly elected to a two-year term.

            D.   All of the above

            E.   None of the above

 

29.  The Council of Guardians in Iran reviews all legislation from the assembly while the council's six lay                          members:

A.      vote only on limited questions of the constitutionality of legislation.

B.     consider all bills for conformity to Islamic principles.

C.      vote to impeach the Islamic Consultative Assembly members.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

30.    Judicial authority in Iran is constitutionally vested in:

A.      the Supreme Court.

B.      the four-member High Council of the Judiciary.

C.      Both A and B

D.     None of the above

 

31.    Iran's foreign policy was based on:

A.      eliminating outside influence in the region.

B.      exporting the Islamic revolution.

C.      supporting Muslim political movements abroad.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

32.    Iran's relations with many of its Arab neighbors have been strained by:

A.      Iranian attempts to spread its Islamic revolution.

B.      attempts to form closer ties with the United States.

C.      a plot to overthrow the Syrian government.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33.    Iran has no diplomatic relations with Israel, and does not support the Middle East peace process in its

 current form. Ayatollah Khamenei has repeatedly called for:

A.     the development of the Zionist regime, and the removal of all Palestinian refugees to Syria.

B.     the dismantlement of the Zionist regime, and the repatriation of all Palestinian refugees to their homeland.

C.     the destruction of the Zionist regime, and the removal of all Palestinian refugees to Iraq.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

34.    Iran backs several hard-line forces in the Arab world, such as:

A.      Hezbollah.

B.      Hamas.

C.      the Palestinian Islamic Jihad.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

35.  Over the last few years, Iran has:

A.   maintained formerly hostile relations with Gulf Arab countries, and pursued a policy of gradual

       isolationism in regional relations.

B.   intensified formerly hostile relations with Gulf Arab countries, and pursued a policy of gradual

       imperialism in regional relations.

C.   improved formerly hostile relations with Gulf Arab countries, and pursued a policy of gradual

       rapprochement in regional relations.

D.   All of the above

E.   None of the above

 

36. Tension between Iran and Iraq escalated in September 1980, when:

A.     Iraq invaded Iran.

B.      Iran invaded Iraq.

C.      Iran invaded Syria

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

37.    Iran is a major transit route for:

A.     drugs smuggled to the West from Afghanistan and Pakistan, and also has a large domestic drug-problem with an estimated two million drug-addicts.

B.     oil smuggled to the West from Afghanistan and Pakistan, and also has a large domestic oil shortage problem.

C.     weapons smuggled to the West from Afghanistan and Pakistan, and also has a large domestic weapons production problem with an estimated two million weapons exported each year.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

38.  Iran maintains regular diplomatic and commercial relations with Russia and the other newly independent

       states of the former Soviet Union.  Under a secret agreement from 1995, Russia was banned from selling

       destabilizing weapons and high technology to Iran. In November 2000, Russia announced that:

A.       it would continue to observe the agreement.

B.       it no longer would observe the agreement.

C.       it would seek UN approval to the agreement.

D.       All of the above

E.        None of the above

 

39. Relations with Western European nations have alternated between improvements and setbacks when:

A.     French-Iranian relations were badly strained by the sale of French arms to Iraq.

B.     bilateral relations between London and Tehran have remained strained over human rights, nuclear proliferation as well as policies regarding the Middle East.

C.     a German court ruled that senior Iranian officials were involved in the murder of Iranian Kurdish dissident exiles at a restaurant in Berlin in 1992.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

40.    European nations generally have not agreed with United States in considering Iran as:

A.      part of the "Axis of Evil," as designated by United States President George W. Bush.

B.      an important player in the fight against global terrorism.

C.      a peaceful developer of nuclear abilities.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

41.  Iran cooperates closely with Japan, a large oil importer. In November 2000, the two countries signed a

      deal allowing Japan priority-bidding rights to develop Iran's largest oil field, the:

A.      Azerbaijan oil field in northwestern Iran.

B.       Azadeban oil field in southwestern Iran.

C.      Kazakhstan oil field in southwestern Iran.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

42. Sino-Iranian relations have gradually been strengthened since the 1979 revolution. Iran and China have

 signed cooperation agreements in the fields of:

A.     culture and the economy.

B.     trade and transportation.

C.     energy and telecommunications.

D.     All of the above

E.      None of the above

 

43.  On Nov. 4, 1979, militant Iranian students occupied the American embassy in Tehran with the support of

       Ayatollah Khomeini. For 444 days, 52 Americans were held hostage. On April 7, 1980, the United States

       (U.S.) broke diplomatic relations with Iran, and on April 24, 1981, the:

A.   British government assumed  representation of U.S. interests in Tehran.

B.   German government assumed  representation of U.S. interests in Tehran.

C.   Swiss government assumed  representation of U.S. interests in Tehran.

D.  All of the above

E.   None of the above

 

44.    In 1996 the U.S. Congress passed the Iran Libya Sanctions Act. The act gives the U.S. president

 discretionary power to:

A.   impose sanctions on any individual or company anywhere in the world that

       invests more than $20 million or more in an Iranian or Libyan oil or gas project.

B.       freeze Iranian bank assets anywhere in the world.

C.      Embargo any countries exports if they trade with Iran.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

 

 

45.    Commercial relations between Iran and the United States consist mainly of:

A.      Iranian purchases of food and manufactured products.

B.      Iranian purchases of nuclear technology and parts.

C.      U.S. exports of weapons and rocket technology.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

46.    On June 20, 2001, the U.S. Congress voted to:

A.      impose UN sanctions on Iran for a five-year period.

B.      extend ILSA for a second five-year period.

C.      authorize the use of force against Iran during the next five-year period.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

47.  The extensive legacy of Islam extends to contemporary Iran, which was officially designated as a theocratic

Islamic republic as a result of the 1979 Iranian revolution. Most Iranians belong to:

A.      the orthodox Shiite sect of Islam.

B.       the Sunni sect.

C.      a mixture of Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian and Baha'i minorities.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

48.  One notable indicator used to measure a country's quality of life is the Human Development Index (HDI),

which is compiled annually since 1990 by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The HDI  is a composite of several indicators, which measure a country's achievements in three main arenas of human development: longevity, knowledge and education, as well as economic standard of living. In a recent ranking of 177 countries, the HDI placed Iran in the

A.       lower human development category, at 201st place.

B.       upper human development category, at 81st place.

C.       medium human development category, at 101st place.

D.       All of the above

E.        None of the above

 

49.    Iran's economy is characterized by:

A.      a large measure of central planning.

B.      state ownership of petroleum and other large enterprises.

C.      village agriculture and small-scale private trading and service  ventures.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

50.  Iran is OPEC’s:

A.   second largest oil producer and holds about 10 percent of the world’s proven oil reserves

                   (125.8 billion barrels).

B.   third largest oil producer and holds about 5 percent of the world’s proven oil reserves

                   (12.8 billion barrels).

C.   fourth largest oil producer and holds about 3 percent of the world’s proven oil reserves

                   (10.8 billion barrels).

            D.   All of the above

            E.   None of the above

 

 

 

51. Nigerians are

F.      overwhelmingly Christian.

G.     overwhelming Muslim.

H.     a mixture of Christian, Muslim and other beliefs.

I.        a mixture of Hindu and Christian.

 

      52. Which of the following groups primarily inhabits the North of Nigeria?

A.     the Yoruba.

B.     the Hausa-Fulani.

C.     the Ibo.

D.     none of the above.

 

       53.   Why did Britain colonize what is now Nigeria?

A.     because it wanted to export slaves.

B.     because it wanted access to Nigeria's oil.

C.     to offset the spread of French influence.

D.     because many Britons wanted to settle there and farm.

 

       54.  Who was president of Nigeria at the time of the civil war?

A.     Shehu Shagari.

B.     Jerry Rawlings.

C.     Yakubu Gowon.

D.     Ibrahim Babangida.

 

       55.  Who was elected the leader of Nigeria in 1999?

A.     Ibrahim Babangida.

B.     Ernest Shonekan.

C.     Moshood Abiola.

D.     Olusegun Obasanjo.

 

       56.  Which of the following best describes the Second Republic?

A.     a federal parliamentary system like Canada.

B.     a unitary parliamentary system like Britain.

C.     a federal presidential system like the United States.

D.     a unitary presidential system like France.

 

       57.  Why did the Second Republic collapse?

A.     because Shehu Shagari was unable to control corruption, especially in the wake of Nigeria's new oil profits.

B.     because party politics broke down along ethnic lines.

C.     low oil prices worsened economic problems.

D.     all of the above.

 

       58.  How many constitutions has Nigeria had since 1947?

A.     seven, the last of which was published in 1999.

B.     four, the last of which was published in 1989.

C.     four, the last of which was published in 1979.

D.     two, the last of which was published in 1960.

 

 

 

       59.  What did the 1991 Nigerian census reveal?

A.     a population of only 88.5 million, but the real figure is probably about 122 million.

B.     a population of 85 million, more or less as predicted.

C.     a population of 113 million, a figure that was close to previous estimates.

D.     a population of 130 million, fulfilling everyone's worst fears about Nigeria's rapid population growth rate.

 

       60.  Which one of the following is true of the Nigerian military?

A.     it has been a cornerstone of democracy in the country.

B.     it tends to take power given the weakness of civilian governments and a zest for power in the military.

C.     it takes power mainly when it feels that its own best interests are being overlooked by the civilian government.

D.     it is probably no longer an important force in Nigerian politics.

 

       61.  What was the name of Nigeria's most famous nationalist of the 1930s and 1940s?

A.     Herbert Macaulay.

B.     Ahmadu Bello.

C.     Nnamdi Azikiwe.

D.     Obafemi Awolowo.

 

       62.  Which party was led by Shehu Shagari?

A.     National Party of Nigeria.

B.     Unity Party of Nigeria.

C.     Nigerian People's Party.

D.     Social Democratic Party.

 

       63.  How many parties were allowed to contest the 1993 presidential elections in Nigeria?

A.     Two

B.     three

C.     four

D.     an unlimited number

 

       64.  Who ran as candidate for the Social Democratic Party in the 1993 elections and claimed to have won?

A.     Shehu Shagari

B.     Moshood Abiola.

C.     Bashir Tofa.

D.     Sani Abacha.

 

       65.  Where do most of Nigeria's Muslims live?

A.     in the northern half of the country.

B.     in the southern half of the country.

C.     in southwest Nigeria.

D.     in southeast Nigeria.

 

       66.  For what proportion of Nigeria's exports does oil now account?

A.     25 percent.

B.     52 percent.

C.     78 percent.

D.     99 percent.

 

 

       67.  Nigeria's capital city

A.     was moved from Abuja to Lagos in 1981.

B.     was moved to Abuja when the British left Nigeria.

C.     has always been in Abuja.

D.     was moved from Lagos to Abuja in 1981.

 

       68.  What is the "parallel market" in Nigeria?

A.     the agricultural market.

B.     the foreign market.

C.     the black market.

D.     the traditional rural market.

 

       69.  The Nigerian media is

A.     controlled completely by the government.

B.     active, independent and varied.

C.     controlled by a single family.

D.     open, but limited in the number of choices.

 

       70.  In terms of the national-state distribution of power,

A.     Nigeria is a unitary system

B.     Nigeria has gone from having 36 regions to having 2 states according to the 2000 Constitution

C.     Nigeria has gone from having 2 regions to 12 states according to the 2000 Constitution

D.     Nigeria has gone from having 2 regions to 36 states according to the 2000 Constitution

 

       71. In Nigeria, political development is marked by social divisions based on:

A.     geography, oil, social stratification and colonialism.

B.     ethnicity, religion, region and class.

C.     military, social and political stability.

D.     None of the above

 

       72.  The President in Nigeria:

A.     is elected by the electoral college for a 5 year nonrenewable term.

B.     has the power of appointment with confirmation by the Senate.

C.     can declare war without the approval of the National Assembly.

D.     does not have the veto power concerning legislation.

 

       73.  The Senate in the National Assembly of Nigeria:

A.     has 360 members.

B.     has a fixed and renewable 6 year term.

C.     are elected on a single-member, winner-take-all basis.

D.     None of the above

 

       74.  In Nigeria, the Judiciary:

A.     has a Supreme Court.

B.     has lower courts.

C.     has Sharia courts.

D.     All of the above

 

 

 

 

 

       75.  In Nigeria, every State:

A.     is governed by an appointed governor and a bicameral legislature.

B.     is governed by an appointed council and a prime minister.

C.     is governed by an elected governor serving a renewable 4 year term and a unicameral House of Assembly.

D.     is governed by a tribal leader and the appointed council from each of the ethnic tribes of that state.

 

       76.  In Nigeria, military governments would:

A.     suspend the constitution and abolish civilian rights.

B.     allow the judiciary, courts,  and bureaucracy to go on “as usual” .

C.     allow the police and public and private business to go on “as usual”.

D.     All of the above

 

       77.  Political parties in Nigeria:

A.     are built on regional rather than ideological differences.

B.     are permanent and long lasting.

C.     all have a national platform.

D.     are supported by the military.

 

       78.  In Nigeria, the Caliphate of Sokoto:

A.     is responsible for administration and enforcement of parliamentary law with no supervision over local taxes.

B.     is responsible for administration and enforcement of Islamic law and supervision of local taxes.

C.     is responsible for administration and enforcement of Sardauna law and supervision of religious rituals.

D.     None of the above

 

       79.  In Nigeria, the most successful interest groups are:

A.     ethnically or  religiously based.

B.     business or labor union based.

C.     military or tribal based.

D.     Local or provincially based.

 

       80.  Nigeria's economy is plagued by:

A.     a decaying infrastructure.

B.     A prosperous black market.

C.     Institutionalized corruption.

D.     All of the above

 

81.       Nigeria suffers from which of the following social divisions?

  1. Ethnic divisions among the Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Igbo groups
  2. Religious divisions among Buddhists and Hindus
  3. Regional divisions among the industrial west and the agrarian south
  4. All of the above

 

82.       Which of the following is a feature of Nigeria’s political system?

  1. a concentrated effort to build a sense of national unity among Nigerians
  2. a commitment to a the development of a professional and expert bureaucracy
  3. the lasting effects of the legacy of colonialism
  4. all of the above

 

 

83.       Which of the following was at the heart of Nigeria’s economy in the Eighteenth Century?

  1. gold
  2. silver
  3. the slave trade
  4. cotton

 

84.       After years of existing as a British colony, Nigeria became independent in

  1. 1861
  2. 1914
  3. 1960
  4. 1979

 

85.       Which of the following occurred in the first twenty years of Nigeria’s independence?

  1. Two military coups in the space of a year when the civilian government collapsed amidst corruption, ethnic fighting, riots, and civil unrest
  2. A bloody civil war that lasted over two years and resulted in the loss of over two million lives
  3. The assassination of a Brigadier General who took power, purged the army, dismissed hundreds of officers on charges of corruption, and promised a return to civilian rule
  4. All of the above

 

86.       After the second civilian government took power,

  1. corruption was brought under control and ethnic conflict was channeled into the courts
  2. the price of oil dramatically increased and improved Nigeria’s economy
  3. a series of popularly elected prime ministers were assassinated
  4. a fourth military coup set the stage for over fifteen more years of military rule

 

87.       Nigerian political culture includes

  1. a belief that democratic civilian rule is preferable to unelected military government and a support for political parties, a free press and interest groups
  2. a belief that ethnic differences are unimportant and that Nigerians must unify around their similarities
  3. a belief that the national government must take precedence over local communities
  4. all of the above

 

88. The Nigerian approach to constitutions is an example of constitutional engineering, which is based on the idea that

  1. constitutions work best if they are based on political and social realities
  2. constitutions should actively try to change political behavior
  3. constitutions should be limited to the most basic statement of the structure and power of government
  4. constitutions must not deal with overly specific matters and issues best left to legislatures

 

89.       Olusegun Obasanjo

  1. served as the military leader of Nigeria from 1976-79 and was elected as the civilian president in 1999
  2. launched a program of privatization in Nigeria
  3. was criticized for his use of the army to put down unrest and allowing an excessive use of force against government opponents
  4. all of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

90.       Which of the following is true?

  1. The Nigerian President is the dominant force in the government, while the National Assembly serves merely to rubber stamp the decisions of the President.
  2. The Nigerian President is largely a puppet, taking orders from the much more powerful National Assembly
  3. The Nigerian President will succeed to the extent that he is able to make public opinion work for him, although his powers are checked by the National Assembly
  4. The Nigerian President is appointed by the National Assembly, and may only be removed if determined to be of unsound mind.

 

91. The human rights abuses perpetrated by the _________ regime were so extensive and unpopular that the prospects of a return to military government are weaker now than they have ever been.

  1. Abacha
  2. Muhammed
  3. Obasanjo
  4. Biafra

 

92. Which of the following has had the greatest impact on the laws regulating the conduct of elections in Nigeria?

  1. Ensuring that a strong multiparty system is in place for elections
  2. Requiring that the people be given a wide range of choices among candidates in an election
  3. Requiring that the winners of elections demonstrate a broad base of support among voters in different areas
  4. Ensuring that the election process be as democratic as possible

 

93.       Babangida’s “old brigade” policy

  1. required that members of the bureaucracy with twenty years of experience be promoted to top levels of management
  2. dictated that members of the military could retire after twenty years of service and be provided with a pension that would be adjusted to meet the cost of living
  3. prevented anyone with experience in politics from running for election, hoping to create a new breed of leader driven by ideology and free of regional ties
  4. mandated that any member of the bureaucracy with more than twenty years of service be required to retire, in order to bring about a more efficient bureaucracy

 

94.       Why has the party system in Nigeria been so weak?

  1. Because so many of the parties are national in focus, they don’t appeal to the regional interests in Nigeria.
  2. Because the military governments were such vocal supporters of parties, the people developed a natural distrust for parties.
  3. Because so many parties are regional in focus and emphasis, they have difficulty attracting support on a national basis.
  4. Because the government has only allowed one party to exist in the years since Nigeria’s independence, there has been no room for other parties to develop.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

95.       Which of the following is true?

  1. Nigerian interest groups have been more effective at articulating citizens’ demands than the political parties in Nigeria.
  2. Traditional leaders were used by the British when Nigeria was a colony, and these traditional leaders continue to be significant actors in the governing of Nigeria.
  3. The media establishment in Nigeria is vibrant and playwrights and novelists engage in extensive criticism of the civilian government.
  4. All of the above

 

96.       Patron-client relationships in Nigeria refer to

  1. the relationship between the President and the members of his Cabinet
  2. the relationship between members of the People’s Assembly and the people of Nigeria
  3. the relationship between elites in the government and networks of political supporters
  4. the relationship between the government and multinational corporations paying Nigeria billions of dollars for oil

 

97.       Today Nigeria’s economy is

  1. in good shape because Nigeria invested oil profits from the last two decades in many other segments of its economy
  2. in good shape because the price of oil has steadily increased since the 1970’s
  3. in bad shape because Nigeria made the decision to focus its resources on agriculture rather than oil in the 1970’s
  4. in bad shape because oil profits were wasted and not invested in other parts of the economy, and the price of oil plummeted

 

98.       Which of the following is still a problem for Nigeria?

  1. an active black market
  2. corruption in the government
  3. widespread poverty
  4. all of the above

 

99.       The United States sees Nigeria as

  1. a nation that foolishly squandered billions of dollars in oil profits and undeserving of a relationship with the United States
  2. a nation that suffers from extraordinary poverty and in need of the generosity of the American people
  3. a nation that could be an excellent source of oil at a point at which U.S. relations with many oil producing Arab states are vulnerable
  4. a nation whose commitment to effective and efficient government can serve as a model for the other countries on the African continent

 

100.    From the outset, Nigeria's ethnic, regional and religious tensions were magnified by the significant

disparities in economic and educational development between the south and the north. Smaller   ethnicities, especially those from oil-producing regions,

A.      challenged the hegemony of the three larger ethnic groups.

B.       argued that such a federal system robs them of access to the mineral and oil wealth in their own lands.

C.      supported secessionist movements by minority groups who felt they would be excluded from the benefits of membership.

D.      All of the above

E.       None of the above

 

Iran and Nigeria – Key

    1. A
    2. A
    3. C
    4. D
    5. D
    6. C
    7. D
    8. D
    9. A
    10. B
    11. D
    12. A
    13. B
    14. A
    15. C
    16. C
    17. D
    18. B
    19. D
    20. C
    21. D
    22. A
    23. B
    24. A
    25. D
    26. D
    27. C
    28. B
    29. A
    30. C
    31. D
    32. A
    33. B
    34. D
    35. C
    36. A
    37. A
    38. B
    39. D
    40. A
    41. B
    42. D
    43. C
    44. A
    45. A
    46. B
    47. A
    48. C
    49. D
    50. A
    51. C
    52. B
    53. C
    54. C
    55. D
    56. C
    57. A
    58. A
    59. A
    60. B
    61. C
    62. A
    63. A
    64. B
    65. A
    66. D
    67. D
    68. C
    69. D
    70. D
    71. B
    72. B
    73. D
    74. D
    75. C
    76. D
    77. A
    78. B
    79. A
    80. D
    81. A
    82. C
    83. C
    84. C
    85. D
    86. D
    87. A
    88. B
    89. D
    90. C
    91. A
    92. C
    93. C
    94. C
    95. D
    96. C
    97. D
    98. D
    99. C
    100. D

 

 

AP CGA 3RD    QUARTER

 REVIEW QUESTIONS AND TERMS

GREAT BRITAIN AND MEXICO

 

TOPIC OUTLINE TERMS

 

(SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY, AND POWER – POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE – CITIZENS, SOCIETY AND THE STATE – POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS – PUBLIC POLICY

Advanced democracies – authoritarian regime – bicameral, unicameral legislatures – bureaucracy – civil society – command economies – communism – competitive elections – confederal system – conservatism – constitutional courts – corporatism – coup d’ etat – direct democracy – electoral systems – elites – empirical data – fascism – federal system – first past the post (plurality, winner-take-all) – fragmentation – Freedom House ratings – globalization – government – head of government – head of state – illiberal democracies – indications of democratization – indirect democracy – informal politics – institutions, institutionalized – judicial review – legitimacy (traditional, charismatic, rational-legal) – liberal democracies – liberalism as a political ideology – liberalism as an approach to economic and political change – linkage institutions – market economies – marketization – mixed economies – mixed electoral system – multi-member districts, single-member districts – nation – nationalism – normative questions – parliamentary system – patron-client system – political culture – political elites – political frameworks – political ideologies – political socialization – politicization of religion – presidential system – privatization – proportional representation – radicalism – reactionary beliefs – recruitment of elites – reform – regime – revolution – rule of law – Samuel Huntington’s “clash of civilizations” – social boundaries – social cleavages – socialism – sovereignty – state – succession – “third wave” of democratization – third world – three-world approach – unitary systems

 

 

GREAT BRITAIN

Backbenchers – Beveridge report – British Broadcasting Corporation – caucuses – “civic culture” – Clause 4 – collective consensus – collective responsibility – Conservative Party – “Constitution of the Crown” – cultural heterogeneity – Democratic Unionist Party – devolution – the English Bill of Rights – Euroskeptics – “first past the post” voting system – the Glorious Revolution – the “government” – gradualism – hereditary peers – home rule – insularity – Irish Republican Army – “Iron Lady” – law lords – Liberal Democratic Alliance – Labour Party – life peers – limited government – “loyal opposition” – Magna Carta – multi-nationalism – noblesse oblige – OPEC – Oxbridge – parliamentary system – Plaid Cymru – plurality voting system – politics of protest – Question Time – safe districts – Scottish National Party – “shadow cabinet” – Sinn Fein – solidarity – Speaker of the House – Thatcherism – the third way – Tories – Trade Union Congress – unitary government – “vote of confidence” – Whigs

 

EUROPEAN UNION

The Commission – Common Market – The Council of Ministers – crisis management – democratic deficit – EC – EEC – European Constitution – European Court of Justice – European Parliament – European Monetary Union – EU – farm subsidies – free movement – integration – Maastrict Treaty – MEPs – monetary policy – requirements for EU membership – supranational organization – “three pillars” – Treaty of Amsterdam

 

MEXICO

accommodation – Amerindians – Amigos de Fox – camarillas – Cuauhtemoc Cardenas – Lazaro Cardenas – caudillos – Chiapas Rebellion – corporatism – Cristeros Rebellion – dependency – ejidos – election reform in Mexico – EZLN – Federal Election Commission (Mexico) – Vicente Fox – GATT – GNP –HDI – mport substitution – Porfirio Diaz – Benito Juarez – mestizos – “Mexican Miracle” – NAFTA – neoliberalism – patron-client system – PEMEX – pendulum theory – politicos – proportional representation in Mexico – PAN – PPP – PRD – PRI – Santa Anna – sexeniotecnicosPancho Villa – WTO – Emiliano Zapata – Zapatistas – Ernesto Zedillo

 

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR GREAT BRITAIN

 

1.         Which one of the following is true?

A.     almost every liberal democracy is a federal state; Britain is a rare exception.

B.      federalism is best suited to small, homogeneous countries.

C.     in federal systems, subnational government units have powers that are independent of the powers of national government.

D.     in federal systems, national and subnational units of government are fused, with equal powers.

2.         Which one of the following is true in terms of social class in Britain?

A.     social class was a long defining characteristic of British society.

B.     social class has ceased to be significant in Britain.

C.     the middle class is very small.

D.     social class was never really that important in Britain.

 

3.         Which countries make up Great Britain?

A.     England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.

B.     England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

C.     England, Scotland, and Wales.

D.     England, Scotland, and Ireland.

 

4.         Devolution:

A.     is the shifting of government powers from the central government in London to the regions.

B.     refers to the gradual nature of change in Britain.

C.     describes the loss of power by the monarchy.

D.     has made the United Kingdom more of a unitary state.

5.         All but one of the following are features of British political culture; mark the exception.

A.     confrontation

B.     faith in the political system.

C.     pragmatism.

D.     political moderation.

 

6.         Which one of the following is true of the British constitution?

A.     it consists of laws, customs, and conventions.

B.     it consists of a single written document.

C.     it is difficult to change.

D.     being unwritten, it is routinely abused.

 

7.         Which one of the following is true of elections to the House of Commons?

A.     they are held at the discretion of the monarch.

B.     they are held on a fixed five-year cycle.

C.     there is no fixed cycle, but they must be held at least once every three years.

D.     there is no fixed cycle, but they must be held at least once every five years.

 

8.         The British monarch

A.     rules Britain with an iron hand.

B.     often vetoes legislation.

C.     provides a strong counterbalance to the Prime Minister.

D.     performs largely ceremonial functions.

 

9.         Which of the following is true of the British prime minister?

A.     he/she must be a member of the House of Commons.

B.     he/she is head of the majority party or coalition.

C.     he/she is normally a seasoned politician.

D.     all the above.

 

10.       Which statement best describes the modern British party system?

A.     it is an active and competitive multiparty system with many strong parties.

B.     the Liberal Democrats have dominated the system.

C.     it has been dominated principally by the Conservative and Labour parties.

D.     the Socialists, the Republicans, and the Liberals have shared power for all about the same amount of time.

 

11.       Which of the following is true of the House of Commons?

A.     its 659 members elected from single member districts.

B.     its 561 members elected from single member districts.

C.     its 659 members elected by proportional representation.

D.     its 561 members elected by proportional representation.

 

12.       What constitutes Her Majesty's Government in Britain?

A.     the prime minister and cabinet.

B.     the prime minister, cabinet, and parliament.

C.     parliament.

D.     the prime minister, cabinet, and shadow cabinet.

 

13.       By what name are MPs who are not members of the cabinet or the shadow cabinet known?

A.     the government.

B.     the opposition.

C.     backbenchers.

D.     frontbenchers.

 

14.       Despite being undemocratic, the House of Lords is useful because

A.     members do not have to worry about reelection and so can debate controversial issues.

B.     it has more time to debate issues than the Commons.

C.     it is a point of access for lobbyists and interest groups.

D.     all the above.

 

 15.      The shadow cabinet is really

A.     a government in waiting.

B.     the members of the Prime Minister's staff.

C.     those members of the Prime Minister's party without cabinet positions.

D.     MPs who pressure the Government for information.

 

16.       The "Third Way" refers to

A.     Margaret Thatcher's policies.

B.     policies based on an ideology between right wing conservatism and left wing liberalism.

C.     Labor's policies during the 1970?s.

D.     politics using the Westminster system.

 

17.       Which one of the following is true of British general elections?

A.     the campaigns usually last 3 to 4 months.

B.     the campaigns usually last 3 to 4 weeks.

C.     they are longer and more expensive than U.S. elections.

D.     they have lower voter turnout than those in the United States.

 

18.       One of Margaret Thatcher's most popular policies was privatization. How is it defined?

A.     the sale to the private sector of businesses and industries previously owned by the government.

B.     the promotion of private health care and private education.

C.     the protection of the personal privacy of citizens.

D.     the lowering of the private income tax rate.

 

19.       How long has the Labour Party been in power?

A.     since 1995.

B.     since 1978.

C.     since 1997.

D.     since 1986.

 

20.       Which one of the following statements best describes British attitudes towards Europe?

A.     long-standing enthusiastic commitment to the European Union.

B.      a refusal to take any part in European integration.

C.     Britain is not a member of the European Union.

D.     a growing commitment to the European Union despite initial reluctance.

 

21.       Britain lacks a single, codified document for its constitution and instead is governed on

            the basis of constitutional principles that come from:

A.     Common Law

B.     Statute Law

C.     Traditions and Conventions

D.     All of the above

 

22.       The Queen's so-called reserve powers allow her to:

A.     meet with the prime minister at confidential weekly meetings

B.     dissolve Parliament and call new elections

C.     give the "Royal Assent" to every piece of new legislation

D.     all of the above

 

23.       The foundations to the prime minister's authority are:

A.     the power to call elections to the House of Commons and the power of appointment

B.     to give "Royal Assent" to legislation and to act as an arbitrator in the House of Commons

C.     the role as head of the Commonwealth and giving the State Opening of Parliament address.

D.     All of the above

 

24.       Members of the House of Lords consist of:

A.     religious leaders

B.     the law lords

C.     life peers

D.     all of the above

 

25.       In Britain, judicial review is carried out in a complex system of courts topped by:

A.     a Supreme Court and Circuit Court of  Appeals.

B.     a Court of Appeal and the House of Lords

C.     a European Court of Justice and a Supreme Court

D.     none of the above

 

26.       In Britain, local government units have so little independent power that they can be:

A.     overruled by the European Union

B.     represented by "backbenchers" in Parliament without direct elections

C.     reformed, restructured, or even abolished by the national government

D.     none of the above

 

27.       Compared to the electoral system in the United States, Britain:

A.     offers its voters no primaries

B.     has relatively few elective offices

C.     has an election process that is simpler, cheaper and quicker

D.     all of the above

 

28.       Most British interest groups are:

A.     either sectional or promotional

B.     regional or national

C.     liberal or conservative

D.     either Welsh or Scottish

 

29        Concerning British interest groups, the largest Labor movement interest group is the:

A.     CBI

B.     TUC

C.     AFL-CIO

D.     None of the above

 

30.       In Britain in the 1960s, economic decline was blamed on "creeping socialism" which consisted of:

A.     the growing costs of welfare

B.     problems with the growing power of labor unions

C.     the government taking over large sectors of the economy

D.     All of the above

 

31.       Great Britain is composed of

  1. England, Ireland, and Northern Ireland
  2. England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales
  3. England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales
  4. England, Northern Ireland, Ireland, and Scotland

 

32.       Devolution involves

  1. the shifting of power from Great Britain to the European Union
  2. the shifting of power from the monarchy to the Parliament
  3. the shifting of power from the central government in Britain to the regions
  4. the shifting of power from the prime minister to the cabinet

 

33.       Which of the following is a problem that is on the increase in Great Britain?

  1. distinctions based upon social class
  2. racism in the larger urban areas
  3. the cultural differences between the English and the Scots, Welsh, and Northern Irish
  4. polio

 

34.       The document that obligated the English King to engage in consultation before levying taxes and prevented him from arbitrarily arresting subjects or

            seizing their property was the

  1. Declaration of Independence
  2. Magna Carta
  3. Constitution
  4. Commonwealth Manifesto

 

35.       In the years following World War II, Great Britain went through a time of great change, including

  1. the dismantling of its empire and a the process of decolonization
  2. the construction of a welfare state
  3. the shift to a centrally managed economy
  4. all of the above

 

36.       Margaret Thatcher

  1. argued that government was too big, there were too many government-owned businesses, and labor unions had become too influential
  2. worked to create an enterprise culture intended to make British industry more competitive and to sell state-owned services to the private sector
  3. was criticized for failing to meet the needs of the underclass, allowing too many people to slip through the safety net of welfare, and widening the gap between haves and have nots
  4. all of the above

 

37.       Tony Blair led a revolution in

  1. the Conservative Party
  2. the Labour Party
  3. the Liberal Party
  4. the European Union

 

38.       Which of the following is a feature of British political culture?

  1. The British tend to have an optimistic, even naïve, view of the possibilities for democracy.
  2. The British experience an overwhelming sense of alienation toward their government.
  3. The British are suspicious of any sort of secrecy and favor an open society.
  4. The British take liberal positions on social and moral issues and expect the government to take liberal positions on matters of public policy

 

39.       Which of the following is true?

  1. The British Constitution was written in the Thirteenth Century, making it the longest lasting constitution in history.
  2. The British Constitution was the basis for the American Constitution.
  3. The British Constitution is the longest constitution in the world, with over a thousand articles.
  4. Great Britain has no constitution.

 

 

40.       The British Monarch

  1. is a ceremonial head of state
  2. is expected to be a neutral symbol of history, stability, tradition, and national identity
  3. possesses reserve powers, including the right to dissolve Parliament and call new elections and has the power to veto legislation
  4. all of the above

 

41.       “Her Majesty’s Government” is composed of

  1. the prime minister and the cabinet
  2. the prime minister and Parliament
  3. the cabinet and Parliament
  4. the prime minister, the cabinet, and Parliament

 

42.       The prime minister

  1. sets the national political agenda, oversees the military, and appoints ambassadors
  2. must be a member of the House of Lords
  3. govern with the help of a cabinet, which must be composed of individuals from outside of the government
  4. all of the above

 

43.       In the House of Commons,

  1. the membership includes two archbishops and twenty-four bishops of the Church of England, as well as six hundred people who have been active in public service and are rewarded with a life tenure by the Queen
  2. is structured to encourage debate, with the governing party sitting on one side and the opposition party sitting on the other side
  3. discussion and debate are conducted pursuant to formal rules of decorum, earning it the title “the stiff house”
  4. all of the above

 

44.       Which of the following is true?

  1. The role of judicial review in the British system is being diminished with the growing power of the European Court of Justice.
  2. Even though Britain is a unitary state, Scotland and Wales were given their own elected regional assemblies in 1998.
  3. The British Prime Minster must appear in the House of Commons every Wednesday afternoon to answer questions.
  4. All of the above

 

45.       British citizens vote in elections to determine the composition of

  1. town and city councils
  2. the House of Commons
  3. th