AP GOVERNMENT FINAL EXAM

 

 

 

 

THE EXAM WILL BE GIVEN DURING YOUR SCHEDULED EXAM DAY.   YOUR TEST WILL CONSIST OF 50 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS BASED ON THE  "ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE" SECTION OF THE GOVERNMENT STANDARDS 2 THROUGH 18 LISTED BELOW.  READ AND REVIEW THESE SECTIONS TO PREPARE FOR THE TEST.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Curriculum Framework

 

Virginia and United States Government

 

 

 

Commonwealth of Virginia

Board of Education

Richmond, Virginia

2001

 
 

 

 

 



 


STANDARD GOVT.1 a, b, c, d, e, f, g                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate mastery of the social studies skills citizenship requires, including the ability to

a)     analyze primary and secondary source documents;

b)     create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheets;

c)     analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media;

d)     distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information;

e)     evaluate information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion;

f)     identify a problem and prioritize solutions;

g)    select and defend positions in writing, discussion, and debate.

 

 

The skills identified in standard GOVT.1a-g are cited in the “Essential Skills” column of each chart for Virginia and United States Government with the exception of “g” (select and defend positions in writing, discussion, debate). Students should have opportunities to practice writing, discussion and debating skills, but these skills will not be assessed on the Standards of Learning test. All other skills will be assessed on the Standards of Learning test.  Teachers should incorporate these skills into instruction throughout the year.

 

 

 

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.2a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of Virginia and United States constitutional governments by

a)     describing the development of Athenian democracy and the Roman republic.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The United States constitutional system incorporates democratic elements that were developed in Athens and Rome.

 

What elements of the United States constitutional system evolved from Athens and Rome?

 

 

Democratic elements of the United States constitutional system borrowed from Athens and Rome    J

 

·     ·     Athens—Direct democracy

·     ·     Rome—Indirect democracy/ republic

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. (GOVT.1d)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.2b                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of Virginia and United States constitutional governments by

 b)    explaining the influence of the Magna Carta, the English Petition of Rights, and the English Bill of Rights.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The United States constitutional system incorporated ideas from the Magna Carta, the English Petition of Rights, and the English Bill of Rights.

 

 

What elements of the Constitution of the United States of America are derived from the Magna Carta, the English Petition of Rights, and the English Bill of Rights?

 

 

Magna Carta

·     ·     Limited power of the government

·     ·     Fundamental rights

                  Trial by jury

                  Due process of law

 

English Petition of Rights

·     ·     Early document supporting idea that men have rights and establishing concept of rule of law

·     ·     Included basic rights

                  Guarantee of trial by jury

                  Protection against marshal law

                  Protection against quartering of troops

                  Protection of private property

 

English Bill of Rights

·     ·     Limited power of the monarch

                  No standing army in peacetime

                  Free elections

                  Right of petition

                  Parliamentary checks on power

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. (GOVT.1d)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 


STANDARD GOVT.2c                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of Virginia and United States constitutional governments by

c)     examining the writings of Hobbes, Locke, and Montesquieu.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Principles of government and law developed by leading European political thinkers—Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and  Montesquieu—may be found in the Constitution of Virginia, the Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution of the United States of America.

 

 

 

What were the fundamental principles of American government and law developed by leading European political thinkers?

 

 

Fundamental political principles   J

·     ·     Limited governmentJohn Locke, Thomas Hobbes (Constitution of Virginia, Constitution of the United States of America, Declaration of Independence)

·     ·     Government's authority coming only from the consent of the governedJohn Locke (Declaration of Independence, Constitution of the United States of America)

·     ·     Separation of powersMontesquieu (Constitution of the United States of America, Constitution of Virginia)

 

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Create and interpret tables and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.2d                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of Virginia and United States constitutional governments by

 d)    explaining the guarantee of the rights of Englishmen set forth in the charters of the Virginia Company of London.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The charters of the Virginia Company of London extended the rights of Englishmen to the colonists.

 

 

 

Why are  charters of the Virginia Company of London significant?

 

The basic rights of Englishmen were guaranteed to the colonists by the charters of the Virginia Company of London.

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.2e                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of Virginia and United States constitutional governments by

 e)    analyzing the natural rights philosophies expressed in the Declaration of Independence.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The Declaration of Independence is an expression of natural rights philosophy.

 

 

 

How are the natural rights philosophies, expressed by John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, reflected in the Declaration of Independence?

 

 

Natural rights philosophy of John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau expressed in the Declaration of Independence

                        J

·     ·     Rousseau believed that all men are equal.

·     ·     Locke believed that government is based on an agreement between people and their rulers ("social contract"). He felt that people have the right to life, liberty, and property.

 

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Create and interpret tables and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.3a, b, c, d, e                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the concepts of democracy by

a)     recognizing the fundamental worth and dignity of the individual;

b)     recognizing the equality of all citizens under the law;

c)     recognizing majority rule and minority rights;

d)     recognizing the necessity of compromise;

e)     recognizing the freedom of the individual.

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Concepts of democracy define and shape the meaning of citizenship.

 

 

What concepts define the meaning of democracy as expressed in the United States constitutional system?

 

 

Fundamental political concepts

·     ·     Fundamental worth and dignity of the individual: All persons are entitled to life, liberty, and due process under the law.

·     ·     Equality: All persons are entitled to equal rights and treatment before the law.

·     ·     Majority rule: The will of the majority as expressed through elections is fundamental to the American system.

·     ·     Minority rights: The Constitution of the United States protects the rights of the few from oppression.

·     ·     Compromise: The structure of the United States government necessitates compromise by all sides.

·     ·     Individual freedom: All persons are born free, equal, and independent.

 

An analysis of current events demonstrates contemporary applications of democratic concepts.

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.4a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Constitution of the United States of America by

a)     examining the ratification debates and The Federalist. 

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The debates over ratification of the Constitution of the United States of America focused on power given to the national government.

 

 

How did the amount of power given to the national government polarize the ratification debates?

 

 

Ratification debates

                J

·     ·     Nine of thirteen states needed to ratify constitution

·     ·     Anti-Federalist position

                  Suspicious of a strong central government

                  Wanted bill of rights to protect personal liberties

·     ·     Federalist position

                  Believed that a strong central government was the best way to protect freedom

 

The Federalist was a series of essays supporting adoption of the Constitution of the United States of America.

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.4b                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Constitution of the United States of America by

 b)    identifying the purposes for government stated in the Preamble.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The purpose of government is established in the Preamble of the Constitution of the United States of America.

 

 

 

What is the significance of the Preamble of the Constitution of the United States of America?

 

 

Purposes for government as stated in the Preamble

                    J

·     ·     To form a more perfect union

·     ·     To establish justice

·     ·     To ensure domestic tranquillity

·     ·     To provide for the common defense

·     ·     To promote the general welfare

·     ·     To secure the blessings of liberty

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.4c                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Constitution of the United States of America by

 c)    examining the fundamental principles upon which the Constitution is based, including the rule of law, consent of the governed, limited government, separation of powers, and federalism.

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The Constitution of the United States of America is based on fundamental principles.

 

 

What are the fundamental principles contained in the Constitution of the United States of America?

 

Fundamental principles

                    J

·     ·     Consent of the governed: People are the only source of governmental power.

·     ·     Limited government: The government may do only those things that the people have given it the power to do.

·     ·     Separation of powers: Government is divided into three branches— legislative, executive, and judicial.

·     ·     Checks and balances: This is a system whereby each branch of government exercises some control on the others.

·     ·     Federalism: In this form of government, powers are divided between the national government and state governments.

·     ·     Rule of law: The Constitution of the United States of America is supreme and all individuals are accountable under the law.

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.4d                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Constitution of the United States of America by

 d)    illustrating the structure of the national government as outlined in Article I, Article II, and Article III.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Articles I, II, and III of the Constitution of the United States of America establish three co-equal branches of government.

 

 

 

How does the Constitution of the United States of America organize the national government?

 

Organization of the national government

                      J

·     ·     Article I establishes the legislative branch of the national government setting forth the two houses of Congress to make laws.

·     ·     Article II establishes the executive branch to carry out the laws passed by Congress.

·     ·     Article III creates the United States Supreme Court and empowers Congress to establish lower Federal Courts to interpret the laws.

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.4e                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Constitution of the United States of America by

 e)    describing the amendment process.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The amendment process provides a way that the Constitution of the United States of America can remain responsive to the needs of a changing nation.

 

To date, there have been 27 amend-ments to the original Constitution.

 

 

 

 

What are the procedures to amend the Constitution of the United States of America?

 

 


Terms to know

Amendment:  A formal revision to the Constitution, responding to needs of a changing nation

 

National amendment procedure (Article V)    J

·     ·     To propose an amendment

                  Requires a 2/3 vote of both Houses of Congress

or

                  Requires a national convention requested by 2/3 of state legislatures

·     ·     To ratify an amendment

                  Approval by 3/4 of state legislatures

or

                  Acceptance by conventions in 3/4 of states

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

 


 STANDARD GOVT.5a, b, c, d                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the federal system described in the Constitution of the United States of America by

a)     explaining the relationship of the state governments to the national government;

b)     describing the extent to which power is shared;

c)     identifying the powers denied state and national governments;

d)     examining the ongoing debate that focuses on the balance of power between state and national governments.

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The Constitution of the United States of America provides for a federal system of government in which power is shared between the states and the national government.

 

 

 

What is the relationship of the state governments to the national government?

 

How is power divided and shared between the national and state levels of government?

 

What powers are denied to both national and state governments?

 

The Constitution of the United States of America establishes a federal form of government in which the national government is supreme.

 

The powers not given to the national government by the Constitution of the United States of America are reserved to the states or people.

 

Powers of national government

                         J

·     ·     Expressed powers—Powers directly stated in the Constitution of the United States of America, such as the power to levy and collect taxes, make war, and regulate trade among the states

·     ·     Implied powers—Powers reserved by the national government but not specifically listed; source for implied powers is the elastic clause or “necessary and proper” clause (Article I, Sec. 8)

·     ·     Inherent powers—Powers that the national government may exercise simply because it is the national government, such as establishment of diplomatic relations and regulation of immigration

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. (GOVT.1d)

 

Evaluate information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion. (GOVT.1e)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


 STANDARD GOVT.5a, b, c, d (continued)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the federal system described in the Constitution of the United States of America by

a)     explaining the relationship of the state governments to the national government;

b)     describing the extent to which power is shared;

c)     identifying the powers denied state and national governments;

d)     examining the ongoing debate that focuses on the balance of power between state and national governments.

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

 

 

 

 

 

Areas where powers are shared      J

·     ·     Taxation

·     ·     Education policy

·     ·     Criminal justice laws

 

Conflicts between the state and national authority in a federal system are found in concurrently held powers.

 

Powers denied to both the national and state governments

·     ·     Ex post facto laws

·     ·     Tax on exports

 

Federalism is not a static relationship between levels of government.  The distribution of power between the states and the national government is the source of considerable political debate.

 

 

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.6a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of local, state, and national elections by

 a)    describing the organization, role, and constituencies of political parties.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Political parties are organized to win elections.

 

 

How do political parties organize to win elections?

 

Political parties have national, state, and local organizations.

 

Roles of political parties  J

·     ·     Select candidates

·     ·     Raise funds

·     ·     Conduct campaigns

·     ·     Identify important issues

·     ·     Monitor the party in power

 

Each major political party seeks to define itself in ways that wins majority support while remaining committed to core principles.

 

The two major parties are coalitions of several factions and interest groups and recognize the importance of conducting campaigns that appeal to voters in the middle of the political spectrum, veering neither too far left nor too far right of the political center.

 

Third parties can form to highlight single issues in a given election or provide a long-term forum for minority views.

 

Create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheet. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. (GOVT.1d)

 

Evaluate information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion. (GOVT.1e)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.6b                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of local, state, and national elections by

 b)    describing the nomination and election process.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

At each level of government, candidates for elective office are chosen using a variety of nominating methods.

 

 

 

How do political parties nominate candidates for national, state, and local offices?

 

How do the major political parties select presidential candidates?

 

 

Ways individuals may seek nomination for national, state, and local office    J

·     ·     Caucus

·     ·     Nominating conventions

·     ·     Petitions

·     ·     Direct primary

 

The two major political parties use the national nominating convention to select presidential and vice-presidential candidates.

 

In Virginia, state and local party organizations determine which method of nomination will be used to select candidates. Once nominated, candidates campaign and go before the voters for election to office.

 

Democracy requires that elections be free, honest, and accurate.

 

Create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheet. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. (GOVT.1d)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.6c                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of local, state, and national elections by

c)     examining campaign funding and spending.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Running for political office is expensive.

 

 

How has the high cost of getting elected affected campaign funding and spending?

 

Laws limit the amount individuals and groups may contribute to federal, state, and local candidates.

 

The Federal Election Campaign Act provides for a system of financing based on three principles:   J

·     ·     Public funding of presidential elections

·     ·     Limitations on the amounts presidential and congressional candidates may receive from contributors

·     ·     Public disclosure of the amount candidates spend to get elected

 

In state and local campaigns, campaign contributions are unlimited but must be reported.

 

Rising campaign costs require candidates to conduct extensive fundraising activities.

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Evaluate information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion. (GOVT.1e)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.6d                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of local, state, and national elections by

d)     analyzing the influence of media coverage, campaign advertising, and public opinion polls.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Media coverage, campaign advertising, and opinion polls influence public opinions during a political campaign.

 

 

 

How do media coverage, campaign advertising, and public opinion polls influence national, state, and local elections?

 

 

Mass media (including Internet) influence public opinion.

 

Campaign advertisements are used to persuade and/or mobilize the electorate.

 

Scientific polling is used to measure public attitudes, target ads, and refine campaign strategies.  J

 

 

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, charts, and spreadsheet. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Evaluate information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion. (GOVT.1e)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.6e                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of local, state, and national elections by

e)     examining the impact of reapportionment and redistricting.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Changes in population and resulting reapportionment have a political effect on legislative membership at the national, state, and local levels.

 

 

 

How do demographic changes lead to reapportionment?

 

What effect does reapportionment have on elections?

 

The Constitution of Virginia and the Constitution of the United States of America require reapportionment of national, state, and local legislative bodies following each census.  J

 

Redistricting is a legislative function.

 

Redistribution of legislative seats can significantly change the outcome of elections.

 

Gerrymandering is the process of redrawing district boundaries to benefit one political party or group of citizens.

 

United States Supreme Court cases in the early 1960s established the "one man, one vote" principle—Wesberry v. Sanders (1964).

 

 

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, charts, and spreadsheet. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons. (GOVT.1c)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.6f                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of local, state, and national elections by

f)     identifying how amendments extend the right to vote.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America have extended the right of suffrage.

 

 

 

How have the amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America extended suffrage?

 

 

Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America that extended suffrage   J

·     ·     15th Amendment—Ensures right to vote regardless of race

·     ·     17th Amendment—Calls for direct election of United States senators

·     ·     19th Amendment—Grants women the right to vote

·     ·     23rd Amendment—Allows voters in Washington, D.C., to vote for President and Vice President

·     ·     26th Amendment—Gives the right to vote to citizens 18 years and older

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.6g                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of local, state, and national elections by

g)    analyzing voter turnout.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The extent of engagement in a political campaign can be measured by voter turnout.

 

 

 

What factors influence voter participation?

 

Influences on voter turnout

                      J

·     ·     Campaign issues

·     ·     Candidates

·     ·     Voter attitudes toward government

·     ·     Voter loyalty to political parties

 

Education, age, and income are important factors in predicting which citizens will vote.

 

More citizens vote in presidential elections than in other national, state, and local contests, but the percentage of Americans voting in presidential elections is on the decline.

 

Voter apathy, dissatisfaction, and the failure to meet voting requirements contribute to the decline in voting.

 

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, charts, and spreadsheet. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.7a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the national government by

a)     examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The legislative branch is a bicameral body with committees playing a major role in the legislative process.

 

The Constitution of the United States of America grants both expressed and implied powers to the legislative branch.

 

The executive branch consists of the President, Vice President, and the federal bureaucracy.

 

The organization and powers of the judicial branch are derived from the Constitution of the United States of America and federal law.

 

 

 

 

How is Congress organized?

 

How are committees organized and what is their purpose?

 

What are the expressed and implied powers?

 

What are the three parts of the executive branch and how are these positions filled?

 

What are the expressed and implied powers of the executive branch?

 

What is the organization and jurisdiction of the federal court system?

 

 

The two houses of Congress

                       J

·     ·     The Senate: 100 members, with each state having two senators

·     ·     The House of Representatives: 435 members, with representation based on the population of the state(s)

 

Congressional committees

·     ·     Committees are organized by subject matter.

·     ·     Because of the large volume of work, committees are essential to the legislative process.

 

Expressed powers of Congress

·     ·     Levy taxes

·     ·     Borrow money

·     ·     Regulate commerce

·     ·     Coin money

 

Implied powers allow Congress to do all things “necessary and proper” to carry out its expressed powers.

 

The executive branch is headed by the President and Vice President, who are supported by the Executive Office, the cabinet, and the federal bureaucracy.

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, charts, and spreadsheet. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.7a (continued)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the national government by

a)     examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

 

 

 

 

 

Responsibilities of the President and Vice  President

                       J

·     ·     Overseeing the various parts of the executive branch

·     ·     Enforcing laws

·     ·     Issuing executive ordinances

·     ·     Appointing and removing officials

·     ·     Making treaties and executive agreements

·     ·     Commanding the military

 

United States Court System

                        J

·     ·     Supreme Court

                  Nine justices, no jury

                  Hears appeals from lower federal courts and highest state court

                  Has limited original jurisdiction

·     ·     United States Court of Appeals

                  Judges, no jury

                  Hears appeals from United States district courts and certain other federal courts and commissions

·     ·     United States District Court

                  Judge and jury

                  Tries cases involving federal crimes and federal civil proceedings

                  Does not hear appeals

 

 

STANDARD GOVT.7b                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the national government by

b)     analyzing the relationship between the three branches in a system of checks and balances.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

A constitutional system of checks and balances gives each of the three branches of government ways to limit the powers of the other branches.

 

 

 

How does the system of checks and balances protect against an abuse of power by any one branch of government?

 

 

Checks of the legislative branch

·     ·     Over the executive branch

                  To override vetoes

                  To impeach a President

                  To approve treaties

                  To approve presidential  appointments

·     ·     Over the judicial branch

                  To approve federal judges

                  To impeach judges

 

Checks of the executive branch

                          J

·     ·     Over the legislative branch

                  To veto acts of Congress

                  To call special sessions of Congress

·     ·     Over the judicial branch

                  To appoint federal judges

 

Checks of the judicial branch

                        J

·     ·     Over the legislative branch

                  To declare laws unconstitutional

·     ·     Over the executive branch

                  To declare executive acts unconstitutional

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.8a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the state and local governments described in the Constitution of Virginia by

a)     examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The Constitution of Virginia provides for legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

 

 

 

 

How are the three branches organized and what are their essential duties?

 

Branches of Virginia government  J

·     ·     The executive branch consists of three statewide elected officials:

                  The governor, who is the chief executive officer of the state, is responsible for preparing the biennial state budget, overseeing the execution of state laws and policies, and proposing legislation to the legislature. Governors serve for a four-year term and may not serve two consecutive terms.

                  The lieutenant governor's main duty is to preside over the state Senate when it is in session. 

                  The attorney general is the state's highest legal officer, who oversees all law enforcement activity.

·     ·     The legislative branch of Virginia is known as the General Assembly. It is the oldest continuous legislative body in the Americas. The General Assembly is a bicameral (two-house) law-making body.

 

Create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

STANDARD GOVT.8a (continued)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the state and local governments described in the Constitution of Virginia by

a)     examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                  The Senate consists of 40 members, who serve single-member districts based upon population.  Senators are elected to four-year terms.

                  The House of Delegates consists of 100 members representing single-member districts based upon population.  Members serve two-year terms.

·     ·     Virginia's judicial system consists of four levels of courts.  Judges are elected by the state legislature for a specific term.

                  Supreme Court: Reviews decisions of lower courts

                  Court of Appeals: Provides a review of lower court decisions and state commissions

                  Circuit Courts: Has original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases

                  General District Courts: Has original jurisdiction in misdemeanor and traffic cases

 

 

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.8b                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the state and local governments described in the Constitution of Virginia by

b)     examining the structure and powers of local governments: county, city, and town.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Virginia local governments vary in type, form of organization, and responsibilities.

 

Regional authorities are political subdivisions of the state and address needs that cross local government boundaries.

 

Responsible citizens can exert influence on the policymaking process at the local level.

 

 

 

How are local governments in Virginia organized?

 

How can citizens shape the policy agenda and influence the decisions of local government officials?

 

 

Counties, independent cities, and incorporated towns are the three types of local government in Virginia.  J

 

Cities are separate governmental entities independent of the authority and taxing power of adjoining counties.

 

Incorporated towns are governmentally part of the county in which they are located.

 

Counties and independent cities, as units of local government, adopt and enforce ordinances and provide services for their residents.

 

An elected board of supervisors is generally responsible for the legislative and administrative affairs of the county.

 

An elected council is the local legislative body in independent cities and incorporated towns.

 

 

 

Create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheet. (GOVT.1b)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.8b (continued)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the state and local governments described in the Constitution of Virginia by

b)     examining the structure and powers of local governments: county, city, and town.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regional authorities are created by the General Assembly to serve one or more special functions such as planning, land use, developing regional transportation facilities, and maintaining water and waste disposal systems.

 

 

 

 

 

STANDARD GOVT.8c                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the state and local governments described in the Constitution of Virginia by

c)     analyzing the relationship between state and local governments.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The authority of local governments in Virginia is derived from the state.

 

 

 

What is the relationship between the state and local governments?

 

Dillon's Rule: All power of the local government is derived from the state.    J

 

Counties and cities, as administrative subdivisions of the state, assist in the local implementation of state laws and programs.

 

Create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheet. (GOVT.1b)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.9a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the process by which public policy is made by

a)     examining different perspectives on the role of government.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Individuals have different opinions about the role of government  in shaping public policy.

 

 

 

How do individuals differ in their opinions about the role of government?

 

 

Differences of opinion about the role of government are due primarily to ideology.

                     J

An ideology is a set of basic beliefs about life, culture, government, and society.  A person's ideology provides a framework for looking at government and public policy.  Ideology is shaped by many factors including family, education, religion, socio-economic status, race and ethnicity, gender, and region.  Traditionally, American political perspective falls into two broad categories of opinion:   J

·     ·     Conservative—Generally believes that the role of government should be limited and that freedom of opportunity should be promoted

·     ·     Liberal—Generally believes that the role of government should be active and that economic equality should be promoted

 

Individuals may not always be consistent in their opinions about public policy (e.g., a person may hold conservative views about the economy and liberal views about society).

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Evaluate information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion. (GOVT.1e)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.9b                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the process by which public policy is made by

b)     explaining how local, state, and national governments formulate public policy.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Public policy is shaped by the interaction of the participants in the policy process with the policy agenda.

 

 

 

How are policy agendas and policy decisions shaped by individual citizens, interest groups, and the media?

 

Public policy is the action the government takes to address an issue, solve a problem, or meet the needs and wishes of the citizens.

                        J

Participants in the policy process include political leaders, interest groups, the media, and individual citizens.

 

These participants shape the policy agenda and develop public policy by

·     ·     Attending political and governmental meetings

·     ·     Lobbying

·     ·     Working in campaigns

·     ·     Contributing money to candidates and funding causes

·     ·     Organizing public opinion

·     ·     Filing a legal challenge

·     ·     Petitioning government

·     ·     Demonstrating

·     ·     Running for office

 

 

Create and interpret diagrams, charts, and graphs. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Evaluate information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion. (GOVT.1e)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.9c                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the process by which public policy is made by

c)     describing the process by which policy is implemented by the bureaucracy at each level.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Public policy is primarily implemented by bureaucracies at the national, state, and local levels.

 

 

 

How do bureaucracies implement public policy?

 

At all levels of government, bureaucracies conduct the day-to-day operation of government and carry out public policy. Bureaucracies shape the meaning of laws passed by legislatures through rule-making and help to draft new bills for lawmakers.  Some bureaucrats shape policy by providing information and advice to the executive branches of government. 

 

Levels of bureaucracy  J

·     ·     National

                  Cabinet departments

                  Office of the President

                  Federal agencies

·     ·     Virginia

                  Cabinet departments

                  Office of the Governor

                  State agencies

·     ·     Local

                  County/city agencies

                  Regional authorities

 

 

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.9d                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of how public policy is made by

 d)    describing how individuals, interest groups, and the media influence public policy.

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Individuals, interest groups, and the media influence public policy.

 

 

How do individuals, interest groups, and the media influence policymakers?

 

 

Ways individuals influence public policy

·     ·     Participating in politics (voting, campaigning)

·     ·     Expressing opinions (lobbying, demonstrating, writing letters)

·     ·     Joining interest groups

 

Ways interest groups influence public policy

·     ·     Identifying issues

·     ·     Making political contributions

·     ·     Lobbying  government officials

 

Ways the media influences public opinion   J

·     ·     Giving selective attention to issues

·     ·     Shaping public opinion by influencing attitudes and beliefs

·     ·     Providing information to policy-makers

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.10a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the operation of the federal judiciary by

a)     explaining the jurisdiction of the federal courts.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The United States has a separate court system whose jurisdiction is derived from the Constitution of the United States of America and federal laws.

 

 

 

 

Where do the regular federal courts derive their jurisdiction?

 

What is the jurisdiction of each of the federal courts?

 

 

Article III of the Constitution of the United States of America and federal laws identify the jurisdiction of the federal courts.

 

Types of jurisdiction  J

·     ·     Exclusive jurisdiction—Certain cases, such as bankruptcy and federal crimes, can only be tried in federal courts.

·     ·     Concurrent jurisdiction—Congress allows some cases to be tried in either federal or state courts (e.g., cases between citizens of different states).

 

Jurisdiction of regular federal courts   J

·     ·     Supreme Court—Appellate and limited original

·     ·     U. S. Court of AppealsAppellate

·     ·     U. S. District Courts— Original

 

The Supreme Court of the United States is the court of last resort.  It hears appeals from state and special courts.

 

 

 

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheet. (GOVT.1b)

 

Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. (GOVT.1d)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.10b                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the operation of the federal judiciary by

b)     examining how John Marshall established the Supreme Court as an independent, co-equal branch of government through his opinion in Marbury v. Madison.

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The United States Supreme Court gained recognition as an equal branch of government as a result of John Marshall's judicial strategy.

 

 

 

 

How did the Supreme Court gain status equal to the other two branches of the federal government?

 

 

Prior to the appointment of Chief Justice John Marshall, the Supreme Court had little power.

                        J

In Marbury v. Madison (1803), Chief Justice Marshall and the Supreme Court first declared an act of Congress unconstitutional, thus establishing the power of judicial review.

 

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheet. (GOVT.1b)

 

Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. (GOVT.1d)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.10c                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the operation of the federal judiciary by

c)     describing how the Supreme Court decides cases.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The Supreme Court hears cases and makes decisions based on the opinions of the majority.

 

 

 

 

How are Supreme Court cases decided?

 

 

Steps in deciding cases  J

·     ·     Briefs—Both sides of the case and any interested parties submit written information summarizing their point of view.

·     ·     Oral arguments—Lawyers for each side present oral arguments. They are often questioned by the justices regarding their arguments.

·     ·     Conference—Following oral arguments, justices meet to discuss the merits of a case.  The decision of the court is determined by a majority vote.

·     ·     Opinions—Justices are assigned to write the majority and minority opinions of the court.  When all opinions have been written and justices have determined which opinion they will support, the decision is announced in public. Justices who disagree with those opinions may write a dissenting opinion.

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Evaluate information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion. (GOVT.1e)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.10d                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the operation of the federal judiciary by

d)     comparing the philosophies of judicial activism and judicial restraint.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Supporters of the philosophies of judicial activism and judicial restraint disagree regarding the role of the federal judiciary.

 

 

 

 

How do the philosophies of judicial activism and judicial restraint relate to the federal judiciary’s exercise of its authority?

 

                        J

Judicial activists believe federal courts should use the power of judicial review to solve important societal issues.  Since justices are not elected, they can make controversial decisions without fear of losing office.

 

Those in favor of judicial restraint argue that the Supreme Court should avoid ruling on constitutional issues whenever possible. When action is necessary, it should decide cases in as narrow a manner as possible.

 

 

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Evaluate information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion. (GOVT.1e)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.11a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of civil liberties and civil rights by

a)     examining the Bill of Rights, with emphasis on First Amendment freedoms.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America, known as the Bill of Rights, outline American civil liberties.

 

 

 

What is the Bill of Rights?

 

What are the freedoms listed in the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America?

 

Term to know

Civil liberties: Freedoms upon which the government may not infringe

 

The Bill of Rights is composed of the first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America. It guarantees the rights of individuals and expresses limitations on federal and state governments.

 

First Amendment freedoms

                      J

·     ·     Religion

                  Government may not establish an official religion, nor endorse, or unduly interfere with the free exercise of religion.

·     ·     Speech

                  Individuals are free to express their opinions and beliefs.

·     ·     Press

                  The press is free to gather and publish information, including that which criticizes the government.

 

 

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. (GOVT.1d)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 


STANDARD GOVT.11a (continued)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of civil liberties and civil rights by

a)     examining the Bill of Rights, with emphasis on First Amendment freedoms.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

 

 

 

 

·     ·     Assembly

                  Individuals may peacefully gather.

·     ·     Petition

                  Individuals have the freedom to make their views known to public officials.

 

Rights of the accused    J

The Bill of Rights protects citizens from

·     ·     Unreasonable search and seizures

·     ·     Double jeopardy

·     ·     Self-incrimination

·     ·     Cruel and unusual punishment

 

 

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.11b                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of civil liberties and civil rights by

b)     analyzing due process of law expressed in the 5th and 14th Amendments.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The right to due process of law is outlined in the 5th and 14th Amendments of the Constitution of the United States of America.

 

 

 

 

How do the 5th and 14th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America protect due process of law?

 

 

Two types of due process of law

·     ·     Procedural due process of law—The government must use fair proceedings.

·     ·     Substantive due process of law—The laws under which the government acts must be constitutional.

 

Amendments protecting due process of law   J

·     ·     5th Amendment—Prohibits the national government from acting in an unfair or arbitrary manner

·     ·     14th Amendment—

·                      J

·     Prohibits state and local governments from acting in an unfair or arbitrary manner

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.11c                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of civil liberties and civil rights by

c)     explaining selective incorporation of the Bill of Rights.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The selective incorporation of the Bill of Rights through the 14th Amendment (due process of law clause) greatly enhances the protection of civil rights.

 

 

 

How did the Supreme Court use the 14th Amendment to extend the Bill of Rights protections to state proceedings?

 

 

Beginning in the twentieth century, the Supreme Court used the 14th Amendment (due process of law clause) to limit state actions, just as the Bill of Rights limits the national government.

 

The Supreme Court has incorporated in the due process clause all of the provisions of the Bill of Rights except those of the 2nd, 3rd, 7th, and 10th Amendments and the grand jury requirement of the 5th Amendment.

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.11d                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of civil liberties and civil rights by

d)     exploring the balance between individual liberties and the public interest.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The protection of civil liberties and civil rights, as guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States of America, is balanced by compelling public interest.

 

 

 

How does the public interest influence the liberties and rights of individuals?

 

 

Few rights, if any, are considered absolute.

 

Limitations of rights  J

·     ·     Some forms of speech are not protected (e.g., libel, slander, and obscenity).

·     ·     Speech that is a "clear and present danger” is not protected (e.g., shouting fire in a crowded building).

·     ·     The press can be restricted when publication will cause serious and irreparable harm (e.g., national security).

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.11e                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of civil liberties and civil rights by

e)     explaining every citizen's right to be treated equally under the law.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The equal protection guarantee of the 14th Amendment provides the basis for the safekeeping of civil rights.

 

 

 

 

How does the equal protection guarantee affect civil rights?

 

The equal protection clause is contained in the 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America.

 

The promise of equal protection under the law does not guarantee all people will be treated exactly the same.

 

The government may classify or categorize people into groups for justifiable government goals (e.g., adults under 21 may not purchase alcohol).

 

Applications of the equal protection principle

·     ·     Civil Rights Movement—Congress passed a series of laws outlawing discrimination.

·                        J

·     ·     Affirmative Action—The government passed laws and implemented procedures to reverse the effects of years of discrimination primarily against women and minorities.

 

 

Analyze primary and secondary source documents. (GOVT.1a)

 

Create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Evaluate information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion. (GOVT.1e)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.12a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of the United States in a changing world by

a)     describing the responsibilities of the national government for foreign policy and national security.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

American foreign policy consists of the official positions and actions that the national government takes in its relationships with other countries.

 

 

 

 

 

How are foreign policy decisions made and implemented?

 

How are American interests safeguarded at home and abroad?

 

The President has primary responsibility for making foreign policy; the President can negotiate, persuade, apply economic pressure, and threaten military intervention.

 

Foreign policy powers of other branches

·     ·     Congress has the power to declare war and to appropriate funds.

·     ·     The Senate has the power to confirm ambassadors and to ratify treaties.

·     ·     The Supreme Court  has the power to interpret treaties.

 

Key agencies in the foreign policy arena   J

·     ·     State Department

·     ·     National Security Council

·     ·     Foreign Service

·     ·     Department of Defense

·     ·     Central Intelligence Agency

 

Public opinion, special interests, international organizations, and foreign countries influence foreign policy and national security issues.

. 

 

 

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.12a (continued)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of the United States in a changing world by

a)     describing the responsibilities of the national government for foreign policy and national security.

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                 J

The President is the Commander in Chief of the armed forces.

 

Conventional diplomacy, foreign aid, economic sanctions, and military intervention abroad serve to protect American interests and promote national security.

 

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.12b                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of the United States in a changing world by

b)     assessing the role played by national interest in shaping foreign policy and promoting world peace.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

United States foreign policy priorities reflect American political values.

 

 

 

 

 

How does the national interest shape foreign policy decisions?

 

Foreign policy goals   J

·     ·     Fulfilling a commitment to preserve a peaceful world

·     ·     Promoting democratic values

·     ·     Protecting nations from aggression

·     ·     Encouraging market-oriented economies and free trade

·     ·     Safeguarding the global environment

·     ·     Advancing international cooperation

 

Making foreign policy decisions requires balancing competing or contradictory foreign policy goals.

 

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.12c                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of the United States in a changing world by

c)     examining the relationship of Virginia and the United States to the global economy.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Total world production is greater when nations specialize in the production of those products that can be produced most efficiently.

 

The economies of Virginia and the United States depend on resources and markets around the world for the production and sale of goods and services.

 

 

 

 

 

What is the nature of the relationship of Virginia and the United States to the global economy?

 

 

Virginia and United States businesses have become multinational in their quest for resources, markets, and profits.

 

International trade provides Virginia and the United States with goods and services for which they do not possess absolute or comparative advantage.

 

Virginia and the United States benefit when they produce goods and services for which they have a comparative advantage and trade for other items. 

 

Create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.12d                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of the United States in a changing world by

d)     examining recent foreign policy and international trade initiatives since 1980.

 

 

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

The United States continues to face challenges to its security and economic well-being in the post-Cold War era. 

 

In recent decades the national government has worked to reduce barriers to international trade.

 

 

 

 

 

What challenges shaped American foreign policy in the post-Cold War world?

 

How has the national government worked to promote fair and free trade throughout the world?

 

 

Recent initiatives addressing foreign policy challenges 

·     ·     Trade with China

·     ·     Human rights abuses

·     ·     Nuclear and biological arms control

·     ·     The future of NATO

·     ·     Curbing drug traffic

·     ·     Global environment

 

United States trade agreements    J

·     ·     North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)—A free-trade zone (Canada, Mexico, and the United States) intended to eliminate trade barriers, promote fair competition, and increase investment opportunities

 

Create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media. (GOVT.1c)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.13a, b, c                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

 

The student will demonstrate knowledge of how governments in Mexico, Great Britain, and the People’s Republic of China compare with government in the United States by

a)     describing the distribution of governmental power;

b)     explaining the relationship between the legislative and executive branches;

c)     comparing the extent of participation in the political process.

 

Essential Understandings

Essential Questions

Essential Knowledge

Essential Skills

 

Governments organize their institutions to serve the fundamental purposes for which government is established.

 

Participation in the political process reflects the degree to which governmental power is limited.

 

 

 

 

 

How are constitutional governments typically organized?

 

How does participation in the political process reflect  restraints on the power of government?

 

The two most common ways to organize institutions of the central government

                        J

·     ·     A federal system of government (United States and Mexico)— Powers are shared between levels of government; powers are separated and shared among the branches of the national government.

·     ·     A unitary system of government (Great Britain)—All governmental power is vested in the central government, which may choose to delegate some of its authority; this type of government often has a parliamentary system. The legislative branch holds both legislative and executive powers.  The executive is chosen by the legislature.

 

Limited governments have restraints on power and encourage broad-based participation in the political process.

 

Governments of unlimited power (authoritarian governments) place no limits on the power wielded by one person or small group. 

 

 

Create and interpret diagrams, tables, and charts. (GOVT.1b)

 

Identify a problem and prioritize solutions. (GOVT.1f)

 

 


STANDARD GOVT.13a, b, c (continued)