UNIT 2 TEST 3RD QUARTER ESSAYS
CHAPTER 18 SOCIAL WELFARE – CHAPTER 19 HEALTH CARE AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY – CHAPTER 20 NATIONAL SECURITY POLICYMAKING
2. Briefly explain the following concerning Social Security:
A. How Social Security works. (Edwards p. 576 plus interactive from class)
B. The “financing” problem - http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6935046/site/newsweek/
C. Your choice and reasons from the proposals to solve the “financing” problem –
Your typed response according to the above categories is due on Unit 2 test day - 2/25/09 (A) & 2/26/09 (B)
8. 2002 AP Question 2: Using the information in the figure above (Distribution of Government Benefits for Children and
Elderly, 1965-1986) and your knowledge of
(a) Describe what the figure above demonstrates about the distribution of government benefits over time.
(b) Identify two politically relevant factors that have affected the changing distribution of government benefits
between children and the elderly.
(c) Explain how each of the two factors identified in (b) has affected the changing distribution of government benefits.
9. 2006 AP
Question 2: In recent decades,
entitlement programs have constituted a substantial portion of the
Social Security is the largest
entitlement program in the
a. Define entitlement program
b. What is the primary source of revenue for the Social Security program?
c. Identify one threat to the future of the Social Security program should the trends depicted in the chart continue.
d. Describe one demographic trend that threatens the future of the Social Security program and explain how it is
responsible for the threat that you identified in (c).
e. Explain how any one of the trends in the chart would change if the age of eligibility for Social Security were raised.
Impact on Global Warming May Be Largely Symbolic
By Shankar Vedantam
The global environmental movement calls it a historic victory, but critics in the industry and elsewhere say the bang could end in a whimper: Emissions of carbon dioxide will continue to rise, many of the cuts in greenhouse gases claimed under Kyoto probably would have happened anyway, and its future could be derailed by the stony opposition of the Bush administration.
Supporters acknowledge those realities but argue that the real impact of the treaty is not tangible.
"The greatest value is symbolic," said Eileen Claussen, president
The treaty is aimed at controlling global warming linked to carbon dioxide
and other greenhouse gases. It was negotiated in
The pact, ratified by 141 nations, limits emissions from 35 industrialized countries. Developing countries were exempted from limits to give them a chance to catch up with the economic development of the industrialized world.
"They are going to take credit for sagging economies and flat populations," said James L. Connaughton, chairman of the White House Council on Environmental Quality. Bush's proposals for voluntary emission controls and incentives to develop clean technologies would have as much impact on American emissions as Europe would achieve under Kyoto, he said.
Claussen disputed Connaughton's claim. And Robert Donkers, an environment
counselor for the European Union in
"It is not just the European Union versus the
Mountains of paper and oceans of ink have been expended debating
Global temperatures are indisputably rising -- and, while there are persistent skeptics, the vast majority of scientists say human activity is to blame.
Rising temperatures have already been linked to impacts on agriculture,
coastal areas and public health. Melting ice caps could raise sea levels and
inundate coastal areas, scientists say. Changes in ocean temperature could
disrupt the Gulf Stream and make
It is no coincidence that as the treaty takes effect, a slew of bipartisan
legislative proposals to control greenhouse gases are being introduced in Congress.
And some states are taking matters into their own hands.
No one expects the Bush administration to change course, but dealing with a
hodgepodge system might eventually prove more expensive to American industry
than outright participation in a global system, said Robert W. Fri, a board
member at American Electric Power Co., which burns more coal than any other
utility in the
The treaty's activation this week will intensify a debate in corporate boardrooms over the cost of doing nothing vs. the cost of doing something, said Fri, who formerly headed the environmental advocacy group Resources for the Future. He and Claussen said most American companies acknowledge -- at least in private -- that global controls on greenhouse gas emissions are inevitable. Farsighted companies, they said, want a seat at the bargaining table and are investing in cleaner technologies.
Both sides agree on one thing: The most contentious battles over controlling greenhouse emissions lie ahead.
Under the treaty, the European Union committed to reducing its emissions 8
percent below 1990 levels; Japan and Canada committed to a 6 percent cut; and
Russia, whose entry three months ago provided the quorum needed to put the
treaty into effect, committed to limit emissions right at 1990 levels. The
That would have been a prescription for disaster, said the White House's
Connaughton, adding that it would have cost 5 million jobs and $400 billion
annually. "The problem with
Connaughton and Frank Maisano, an energy lobbyist and former spokesman for a
defunct industry coalition on climate change, said that rather than limit
By 2010, said William O'Keefe, a former oil industry executive who now works at the Marshall Institute, an advocacy organization, developing countries will account for the bulk of greenhouse emissions. Maisano endorsed a recent proposal by Sen. Chuck Hagel (R-Neb.) to develop and spread clean technology. Rather than set limits on emissions, the proposal seeks to set efficiency standards.
Environmentalists dispute Connaughton's estimate of the costs and say the administration is ignoring a fundamental reality: Improving efficiency, while necessary, will never suffice to lower greenhouse gas levels.
"You can't solve global warming by increasing emissions," said Jeremy Symons, manager of the global warming program at the National Wildlife Federation, an advocacy group. "That is what we are doing now. That is what President Bush is doing. You can't stop an environmental problem by increasing pollution."
The countries that ratified
"You can't expect developing countries to waive their right to grow
because the industrialized countries for the last 100 years have eaten all the
cake," said Donkers of the European Union delegation in
Many environmentalists are getting behind a proposal by Sens. John McCain
(R-Ariz.) and Joseph I. Lieberman (D-Conn.) that would impose modest emission
limits in the
McCain said Thursday that it is time to end the wrangling over global warming. If scientists are wrong about the catastrophic consequences of greenhouse gases, efforts to limit emissions would still result in cleaner air and a more competitive industrial base, he said.
"Given the high stakes involved -- the future of our children and our grandchildren, not to mention the future of the planet as we inherited it -- which approach are you willing to bet on?" he asked.
Watching the System
There are three layers to Medicare's system of oversight:
Location, Location, Location
varies widely from state to state, often even in neighboring Zip codes, after
adjusting for regional differences in prices,
age or other population factors. Experts say that spending tends to be higher in areas where there are more doctors, more hospitals,
more technology and a culture that encourages more medical interventions. The chances that a patient will have certain surgeries, such
as an open-heart operation, also fluctuate with geography.
The rate of heart
Medicare Through the Years
Since its inception, Medicare's mission has expanded as costs and the number of beneficiaries have soared.
Social Security Around the World
As Congress considers including
voluntary private accounts as part of Social Security, it will not be treading
on virgin territory. More than a dozen nations have converted their
traditional, government-financed pension systems to programs that are at least
partially financed through personal accounts invested in the private sector.
For a sense of how private accounts have worked overseas, The Washington Post
has focused on two countries,
BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS
Although legislation has been enacted to replace the term "most-favored-nation" treatment in existing and future legislation with the term "normal trade relations" or another appropriate expression, the former term is still used in this issue brief for reasons of historical continuity and because of its continued universal use in international trade relations as well as in several U.S. bilateral trade treaties.
In international trade, the expression "most-favored-nation," usually abbreviated "MFN," status (or treatment) has a specific meaning quite at variance with what it appears to mean. While suggesting special and exclusive privileges granted to one country, it means in reality equal treatment of all countries. More precisely, it denotes the extension by a country of any concessions, privileges, or immunities granted, or yet to be granted, in a trade agreement to one country that is, or would be, the "most favored" in this respect, to all countries to which it accords MFN treatment. As a consequence, all countries to which a country extends MFN treatment are, or would be, treated equally by the extending country. Most-favored-nation treatment in fact means equal treatment, and the terms "most-favored-nation" and "nondiscriminatory" are often used interchangeably.
In practice, the principal benefit a country gains from being accorded MFN status by another country is that the latter's imports from the former are dutied at concessional (often referred to as "MFN", and listed in the tariff schedules as "General") rather than full rates. Thus, the extension of MFN treatment to a country can often mean a significantly lower cost and, hence, greater competitiveness of its products in the extending country's markets.
(MFN), provision in a commercial treaty binding the
signatories to extend trading benefits equal to those accorded any third
state. The clause ensures equal commercial opportunities, especially
concerning import duties and freedom of investment. Generally reciprocal, in
the late 19th and early 20th cent. unilateral MFN clauses were imposed on
Asian nations by the more powerful Western countries (see Open Door). In the
late 20th cent. tariff and trade agreements were negotiated simultaneously by
all interested parties through the General Agreement on
Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which ultimately resulted in the World Trade Organization.
Such a wide exchange of concessions is intended to promote free trade, although
there has been criticism of the principle of equal trading opportunities on
the grounds that freer trade benefits the economically strongest countries.
GATT members recognized in principle that the MFN rule should be relaxed to
accommodate the needs of developing countries, and the UN Conference on Trade
and Development (est. 1964) has sought to extend preferential treatment to
the exports of the developing countries. Another challenge to the MFN
principle has been posed by regional trading groups such as the European
Union, which have lowered or eliminated tariffs among the members while
maintaining tariff walls between member nations and the rest of the world. In
the 1990s continued MFN status for
Anzus Treaty , defense agreement
signed in 1951 by
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO), established under the North Atlantic Treaty (Apr. 4, 1949) by Belgium,
Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the
Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United States.
The treaty, one of the major Western countermeasures
against the threat of aggression by the Soviet Union during the cold war, was
aimed at safeguarding the freedom of the
In the 1990s, with the collapse of the Soviet Union
and the Warsaw
Treaty Organization, NATO's role in world affairs changed, and
NATO has increasingly concentrated on extending
security and stability throughout
NATO's highest organ, the North Atlantic Council, may
meet on several levels—heads of government, ministers, or permanent
representatives. The council determines policy and supervises the civilian and
military agencies; NATO's secretary-general chairs the council. Under the
council is the Military Committee, which may meet at the chiefs of staff or
permanent representative level. Its headquarters in
NATO is now divided into two commands. Allied Command
Operations is headed by the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR). SACEUR
directs NATO forces and, in time of war, would control all land, sea, and air
operations. Allied Command Transformation, with headquarters at
There are currently 26 members within NATO (out of which 21 are EU members).
1.A - The General Assembly
UN Member States are represented in
the General Assembly — a "parliament
of nations" which meets regularly and in special sessions to consider the
world's most pressing problems. Each
During the main part of its 2004 session, the Assembly took up more than 150 different topics, including United Nations reform, restoring respect for the rule of law, the needs of small island developing States, climate change and related humanitarian dangers, and participation by all States in the global trading system. It addressed the situation in many different countries and regions, including Iraq and the Darfur region of the Sudan.
The centrepiece of the Assembly’s 60th anniversary session, in 2005, is a five-year review by world leaders of its 2000 Millennium Declaration, including action on a comprehensive set of recommendations submitted by the Secretary-General to reduce poverty, address security threats, stem human rights abuses, and approve major changes to strengthen the functioning of the United Nations.
The Assembly holds its annual regular session from September to December. When necessary, it may resume its session or hold a special or emergency session on subjects of particular concern. Its work is also carried out by its six Main Committees, other subsidiary bodies and the UN Secretariat.
1.B - The Security Council
UN Charter gives the Security Council primary responsibility
for maintaining international peace and
security. The Council may convene at any time, whenever peace is
threatened. Under the Charter, all Member States are obligated to carry out the
There are 15 Council members. Five of these —
Decisions of the Council require nine yes votes. Except in votes on procedural questions, a decision cannot be taken if there is a no vote, or veto, by a permanent member.
When the Council considers a threat to international peace, it first explores ways to settle the dispute peacefully. It may suggest principles for a settlement or undertake mediation. In the event of fighting, the Council tries to secure a ceasefire. It may send a peacekeeping mission to help the parties maintain the truce and to keep opposing forces apart.
The Council can take measures to enforce its decisions. It can impose economic sanctions or order an arms embargo. On rare occasions, the Council has authorized Member States to use "all necessary means," including collective military action, to see that its decisions are carried out.
The Council also makes recommendations to the General Assembly on the appointment of a new Secretary-General and on the admission of new Members to the UN.
1.C - The Economic and Social Council
Economic and Social Council, under
the overall authority of the General Assembly,
coordinates the economic and social work
of the United Nations and the UN family of organizations. As the central forum
for discussing international economic and social issues and for formulating
policy recommendations, the Council plays a key role in fostering international
cooperation for development. It also consults with non-governmental
organizations (NGOs), thereby
maintaining a vital link between the United Nations and civil society.
The Council has 54 members, elected by the General Assembly for three-year terms. It meets throughout the year and holds a major session in July, during which a high-level meeting of Ministers discusses major economic, social and humanitarian issues.
The Council's subsidiary bodies meet regularly and report back to it. The Commission on Human Rights, for example, monitors the observance of human rights throughout the world. Other bodies focus on such issues as social development, the status of women, crime prevention, narcotic drugs and sustainable development. Five regional commissions promote economic development and cooperation in their respective regions.
1.D - The Trusteeship Council
The Trusteeship Council was established to provide international
supervision for 11
Its work completed, the Trusteeship Council now consists of the five permanent members of the Security Council. It has amended its rules of procedure to allow it to meet as and when the occasion may require.
1.E - The International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice,
also known as the
1.F - The Secretariat
The Secretariat carries out
the substantive and administrative work of the United Nations as directed by
the General Assembly, the Security Council and the other organs. At its
head is the Secretary-General, who provides
overall administrative guidance.
The Secretariat consists of departments and offices with a total staff of about 7,500 under the regular budget, drawn from some 170 countries. Duty stations include UN Headquarters in New York, as well as UN offices in Geneva, Vienna, Nairobi and other locations.
Ban Ki-moon of the
At the time of his election as Secretary-General, Mr. Ban was his country’s Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade. His long tenure with the ministry included postings in New Delhi, Washington D.C. and Vienna, and responsibility for a variety of portfolios, including Foreign Policy Advisor to the President, Chief National Security Advisor to the President, Deputy Minister for Policy Planning and Director-General of American Affairs. Throughout this service, his guiding vision was that of a peaceful Korean peninsula, playing an expanding role for peace and prosperity in the region and the wider world.
Mr. Ban has longstanding ties with the United
Nations, dating back to 1975, when he worked for the Foreign Ministry’s United
Nations division. That work expanded over the years, with assignments as First
Secretary at the ROK’s Permanent Mission to the UN in
Mr. Ban has also been actively involved in
issues relating to inter-Korean relations. In 1992, as Special Advisor to the
Foreign Minister, he served as Vice Chair of the South-North Joint Nuclear
Control Commission following the adoption of the historic Joint Declaration on
the Denuclearization of the
Mr. Ban received a bachelor's degree in
international relations from
Prizes and awards
Mr. Ban has received numerous national and international prizes, medals and honours. In 1975, 1986 and again in 2006, he was awarded the ROK’s Highest Order of Service Merit for service to his country.
Mr. Ban was born on 13 June 1944. He and his wife, Madam Yoo (Ban) Soon-taek, whom he met in high school in 1962, have one son and two daughters. In addition to Korean, Mr. Ban speaks English and French.
1.G - The UN System
The International Monetary
Fund, the World Bank
and 13 other independent organizations known as "specialized agencies"
are linked to the UN through cooperative agreements. These agencies, among them
the World Health Organization
and the International Civil
Aviation Organization, are autonomous bodies created by intergovernmental
agreement. They have wide-ranging international responsibilities in the
economic, social, cultural, educational, health and related fields. Some of
them, like the International
Labour Organization and the Universal
Postal Union, are older than the UN itself.
In addition, a number of UN offices, programmes and funds — such as the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) — work to improve the economic and social condition of people around the world. They report to the General Assembly or the Economic and Social Council.
All these organizations have their own governing bodies, budgets and secretariats. Together with the United Nations, they are known as the UN family, or the UN system. Together, they provide technical assistance and other forms of practical help in virtually all economic and social areas.