4.1 Introduction to our Client's Business
The Industrial automation program for General International is an ERP
system, which will integrate all the department of the company. The main
system will comprise of seven major sub-systems the integration of theses
sub-system will form the main system. All the sub-systems will be tightly
integrated so as to give unanimity to user.
The current client set-up does not have any automation. Therefore, every
department and the section will be developed from the scratch as all departments
are currently working manually. Most of the work has been carried out
manually; therefore, the system will be limited to the working boundary
of the customer as there is no communication with any external interface
of the system.
Application Title Client Title Modules Time Frame
ERP System General International Co. - Accounts - Personal + Payroll-
Inventory- Export Invoicing- Website 120 Days
Table 4.1: Clients Demand
A number of factors influenced the client's decision to go with us for
this important project:- Customer Satisfaction, because we are PSEB registered
members. Already successfully delivered many - Critical systems.- Vast
skills of our team and consultant members.- Two-month Maintenance period.-
Cost effective solution using customized template models.
Figure 4.1: Selection Process
Here we need to analyse client's actual business process formally. Because
we have large amounts of historic maintenance data from different projects.
Our team was totally independent to suggest our clients all required Standard
Figure 4.2: Our Requirements
The project started with a system study by our Analyst team. The development
started from making of Accounts section (both receivable and payables)
module because other modules were dependent over it. Our team consisted
of the one-project manager, one-senior software engineer, three system
analysts and four other team members. This project has followed all necessary
quality guidelines during its entire lifecycle. Communication between
PSEB Project manager and our team is through e-mails, weekly and ad-hoc
visits of member from PSEB team to tract our monthly progress. Here we
have maintained data backups on daily basis to avoid disasters.
Figure 4.3: Project Methodology
Location - Korangi Industrial area Company Management hierarchy consist
of following posts:- General Manager- Production Manager- Production In-charge-
Merchandisers- Quantity Controller- Pattern Master- Manager Accounts-
Office AssistantProduction Facility:- We have 100 Machines, including
a variety of special machines capable of making Jeans, Shirts, Pants,
Blouses, Jumpers, and Shorts etc.Production Capacity:- 25000 Pieces to
35000 Pieces per month.Processing:- Latest Treatment Technology is used.Land
Holding of Factory:- 5840 Sq Yards.Construction Area of Factory:- 43000
Sq Ft.Main Market:- We have been doing business in the US, Canada and
Europe.Quota Holdings:- Categories 340, 341, 336, 347, 647, 359-C, 6.Stitching:-
50% is on Chain Stitching.Lead Time:- Categories 340, 341, 336, 347, 647,
359-C, 6.Fabrics- As our country is specialized in Twills, Drills, Denim,
Solids Plaid, Stripes, Canvas, Sheeting, Madras Plasids, Fannels and Textile
Fabrics etc.We are using all these fabrics etc. as per orders from our
buyers and as well we can use Imported fabrics.
Figure 4.4: Business Information
Time to deployment Project meet delivery dead line strictly.Development
cost savingsDue to past experience and customisable modules the cost savings
were unexpectedly high.Operational savingsAll internal Operations are
standardized now and after reasonable training our clients are enjoying
efficient solution for their business.
Figure 4.5: End Result
PSEB -- (Pakistan Software Export Board) Financer -- PSEB Client --
General International Co. Supplier -- Cyber Angels "IT Solution Providers"
SRS -- Software Requirement Specifications
Figure 4.6: Definitions and Acronyms
Hardware1. Server Machine1. Pentium 4 Processor2. Intel Mother Board3.
128 MB RAM4. Hard Drive 40 GB5. 10/100 LAN Card6. 1.44 MB Floppy Drive7.
52 X CD ROM Drive8. ATX Casing9. SVGA Colour Monitor2. Work Station(s)1.
Pentium I/II/III Processor2. Intel Mother Board3. 32/64 MB RAM4. Hard
Drive 1 - 40 GB5. 10/100 LAN Card6. ATX Casing7. SVGA Colour MonitorSoftware1.
Operating System1. Microsoft Windows Server 2000 (for Server Machine)2.
Microsoft Windows 95/98 (for Work Station(s))2. Database1. Microsoft SQL
Server 20003. Front-end1. Microsoft Visual Basic 64. Reports1. Crystal
Report 6/7/85. Other 1. Microsoft Office 2000 Professional Edition
Figure 4.7: Hardware and Software requirements
Project Life Cycle Phases1. Analysis2. Designa. Data design ERDb. Architecture
design Client Serverc. Interface design GUId. Component design3. Implementation4.
Testinga. Unitb. Integrationc. Stress testingFinal Work Breakdown Structure1.
Inventory Management System: 7 - Screens and 9 Reports2. Human Resource
System: 10 Screens and 6 Reports 3. Account Payable System: 6 Screens
and 7 Reports4. Account Receivable Systems: 3 Screens and 8 Reports5.
General Ledger System: 6 Screens and 13 Reports6. Export Invoice: 4 Screens
and 7 Reports7. Web Site
Figure 4.8: Project Phases and WBS
1. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (IMS)Purchase Contract is the first document
that is generated between Supplier and General International. The No.
Of Item(s) required for Specific Job are recorded in Purchase Contract.
After that when the Supplier supplies the ordered item, Inspection Report
is made after inspection, to check the quality as well as quantity of
Items supplied. If items are found according to standard criteria, then
GIRN (Goods Inward Receipt Note) is prepared which in turn raises the
Stock Inventory. But if items are not found according to Desired standard,
Gate pass is being made through which items are returned back to Supplier.
Whenever any department requires raw material from Stock, It raises a
document called Issue Requisition Slip. In reply Store issues the items
to concerned department along with Material Issue Note. When Finished
Good is prepared, Finished Good Inventory is raised.This application bears
following flow of entities:I. Purchase ContractII. Inspection ReportIII.
Gate pass (Purchase Return)IV. GIRN (Goods Inward Receipt Note)V. Issue
Requisition SlipVI. Material Issue NoteFlaws in existing system:The flaw
in this system is that after inspection, if material does not meet the
desired criteria, then it is returned back to supplier without keeping
any track in existing system. When the consignment enters the premises,
its item wise quantity is not recorded, so gate pass of rejected items
cannot be prepared. The position and job wise quantity in hand of each
item is also not maintained.Proposed Validation(s) for automated system:Validations
that will be incorporated during development and implementation of software
will include date and time validation, quantity flow in each process,
unit of measure conversions and referential integrity. To remove the flaws
from the existing system entity flow should by as followI. Purchase ContractII.
Inward Delivery Challan (proposed)III. Inspection ReportIV. Gate pass
(Purchase Return)V. GIRN (Goods inward Receipt Note)VI. Issue Requisition
SlipVII. Material Issue Note1.1 ReportsI. Purchase ContractII. Inward
Delivery ChallanIII. Inspection ReportIV. Item ListingsV. Inventory in
handVI. Item Minimum Level ReportVII. 2Item Maximum Level ReportVIII.
Item Reorder Level ReportIX. Suppliers List2. HUMAN RESOURCES AND PAYROLL
SYSTEMCandidate Resume/Information is the first document of Personnel
System. Whenever company has vacancy, it calls suitable candidate(s) from
previously dropped Resume. If candidate is found suitable then company
offers him/her job. Upon acceptance of job offer, the candidate is given
Appointment Letter. The next step is Posting/Transfer of new/existing
employee. There are no salary heads in existing system. Tax is also not
deducted from Employees. Advance against salary and Loan exist in current
manual system. Half day and Late coming deduction is also performed in
current system. Salary is prepared on 1st of next month. This application
bears following flow of entities:I. Candidate InformationII. Interview
CallIII. Appointment LetterIV. Posting/ TransferV. AttendanceVI. Advance
against salaryVII. LoanVIII. Half day and Late coming deductionIX. Salary
PreparationX. Pay Slip2.1 Reports:I. Interview Call LetterII. Appointment
LettersIII. Employee List (Name Wise)IV. Employee List (Designation Wise)V.
Employee Pay SlipVI. Leaves Transaction Report3. ACCOUNTS PAYABLE SYSTEMPurchase
Contract is the first document generated in this system. When Supplier
supplies items, it also gives Purchase Invoice with it. If items do not
meet standard criteria, Gate pass is prepared and items are returned.
Next step is Payment .If payment is made before items inspection, and
items are returned, then Debit Note is prepared. This application bears
following flow of entities:I. Purchase Contract (Same for Inventory Management
System)II. Purchase InvoiceIII. PaymentsIV. Gate pass (Same for Inventory
Management System)V. Debit NoteVI. Voucher postingFlaws in existing system:The
flaw in this system is that Payment is made but company does not know
which invoices actually it is knocking off. So ageing is not maintained.
The automated system will maintain track of ageing of invoices.3.1 Reports
I. Aged Accounts PayableII. Purchase JournalIII. Purchase OrderIV. Purchase
Order (By Location, by Department)V. Payment registerVI. Vendors ListVII.
Vendors Phone Book4. ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE SYSTEMSales contract is the first
document generated between General International and Buyer. Sales Invoice
is the second document of this system. Payment is the third process of
this system. This application bears following flow of entities:I. Sales
Contract II. Sales InvoiceIII. ReceivablesFlaws in existing system:Ageing
is not maintained in manual system. The automated system will maintain
track of ageing of invoices.4.1 Reports I. Aged Accounts ReceivableII.
Sales JournalIII. Sales ContractIV. Party LedgerV. Invoice Detail ListingVI.
Master Customer List (Active)VII. Master Customer List (In Active)VIII.
Customer Phone Book5. EXPORT INVOICING SYSTEMSales Contract is the first
document generated between Buyer and General International. After production
of Garments mentioned in Sales Contract, Packing list is prepared which
contains size, colour, no. of cartons in current consignment. Customer
Invoice is next document in current system flow, which contains information
regarding No. of pieces, rate/ piece and total value of Sales Contract.
Custom Invoice is also generated for Custom, which contains value of Sales
Contract, and it is generated for the purpose of Rebate claim. Accounts
department books the receivable from Buyer. This application bears following
flow of entities:I. Sales Contract II. Packing ListIII. Customer InvoiceIV.
Custom Invoice5.1 Reports I. Sales Contract II. Packing ListIII. Customer
InvoiceIV. Custom InvoiceV. Customer's Year to DateVI. Order HistoryVII.
Print Sales Contract 6. GENERAL LEDGER SYSTEM (GL)Chart of Accounts is
the first process through which levels of Accounts and financial statements
are determined. Voucher types such as cash payment, cash receipt, bank
payment, bank receipt, sales journal, purchase journal, general voucher.
Fiscal year is used to set the financial year. Opening balances are used
to set the opening amount, which can be either8 debit or credit. Voucher
transactions is the process through which voucher are generated as well
as printed. These vouchers can also be posted by this process, which reflects
the balances in financial statements such as Trial balances, Profit and
Loss statement, Balance Sheet etc. YEAR-END Process is process, which
closes the financial year and transfers the closing balance of that fiscal
year to the opening balance of next fiscal year. This application bears
following flow of entities:I. Chart of AccountsII. Opening BalancesIII.
Fiscal YearIV. Voucher TypesV. Voucher TransactionsVI. Year end Process6.1
Reports I. Journal/ TransactionsII. General Journal III. Trial Balance
(Opening)IV. Trial Balance (6 Columns)V. Trial Balance (Closing)VI. Profit
and Loss statementVII. Balance SheetVIII. Ageing of Accounts Payable and
ReceivableIX. Voucher ListX. Voucher PrintingXI. Accounts LedgerXII. Bank
BookXIII. Cash Book 7. INTEGRATED PLAN WITH ACCOUNT DEPARMENTFigure bellow
is the proposed plan for integration of all systems.8. WEBSITEA website
is required for promotion of products for general international. With
the help of proposed website, buyers from all over the world can access
general international's products, its quality and can contact for any
further queries that they may have.
Figure 4.9: Information description
COCOMO' Basic Model for Semi-detached type of projectsModel: The Basic
COCOMO model is a static, single-valued model that computes software development
effort (and cost) as a function of program size expressed in estimated
lines of code (LOC).Software project ab bb cb db
Organic (relatively small, simple software projects in which small teams
with good application experience work to a set of less than rigid requirements)
0.8 1 1.5 .32
Semi-detached (an intermediate (in size and complexity) software project
in which teams with mixed experience levels must meet a mix of rigid and
less than rigid requirements) 1.1 1.10 1.5 .29
Embedded (software project that must be developed within a set of tight
hardware, software and operational constraints) 1.6 1.10 1.5 .30
The COCOMO models are defined for three classes:Note: Component data a,
b, c and d is driven according to Pakistani software development market.E
= ab KLOC bbD = cb E dbWhere E is the effort applied in person-months,
D is the development time in chronological months and KLOC is the estimated
number of delivered lines of code for the project (express in thousands).
ab and cb and the exponents bb and db are given in above Table.E = 1.1
(KLOC) 1.10 = 1.1(30) 1.10 = 46 person-monthsTo compute project duration,
we use the effort estimate described above: D = 1.5 E 0.29 = 1.5 (46)
0.29 = 4.5 monthsThe value for project duration enables the planner to
determine a recommended number of people, N, for the project: N = E/D
= 46/5 9 peoples Total Cost calculated = No of months [(No of peoples
expenses per month * Total No of People) + Other Expenses per month]Total
cost calculated = 4 [(10,000 * 9)+3000] = 372,000 Rupees
Figure 4.10: Estimations
Project Manager --1Senior Software Engineer --1System Analyst --3Programmer
Figure 4.11: Team members
Earned Value Analysis (Parameters for assessing progress Quantitatively)1.
EV= measure of progress2. BCWS=Budgeted cost of work scheduled each task3.
BAC= sum (BCWS k), Budgeted cost of all k no of work tasks 4. BCWP=sum
(BCWS k) up till time t, Budgeted cost of work performed 5. SPI = BCWP/BCWS,
schedule performance index, value close to 0.1 indicate effective execution
of project schedule. 6. SV= BCWP - BCWS, schedule variance7. Percent complete
= BCWP/BCWS, provide quantitative indication of % of work should have
been completed by time t8. Percent schedule for completeness = BCWS/BAC,
provide quantitative indication of % of completeness of project at time
t9. ACWP= Sum (effort actually expanded on work tasks that have been completed
by a point in time on project schedule--h), Actual cost of work performed
10. CPI = BCWP/ACWP, cost performance index, value close to 0.1 indicate
project is within its defined budget.11. CV = BCWP - ACWP, Cost Variance,
absolute indication of cost saving against planned cost.
Figure 4.12: Earned Value Analysis
Figure 4.13: Gant chart to make time lines for tracking milestone
Figure 4.14: Task Network diagram PERT chart
Risk IdentificationRisk Item Check List a focus on Product specific Predictable
risks includes following sub category:1. Product size - No 2. Business
Impact -- No3. Customer characteristics -- No4. Process definition --No5.
Development environment --No6. Technology to be build --No7. Staff size
and experience -NoRisk Component and Drivers list along with their probability
of occurrence.Risk Drivers, actions that effect risk components' performance
cost support and schedule.Risks Components Category of Risk Probability
Impact RIS No
Funding will be lost Cost 30% 1 001
Staff turnover will be high Support 80% 2 002
Risk components include:1. Performance: product meets requirement2. Cost
risks: project budget increase3. Support Risks: easy enhancement in resultant
software 4. Schedule Risks: component deliver in timeCategory made for
drivers:1. Catastrophic - tragic actions --12. Critical - important --23.
Marginal - minor --34. Negligible - unimportant - 4Risk Projection/Estimation,
Risk rating based on probability of its occurrence Risk Table 1. Scale
was established to remark possibility of a risk2. Mark out consequences/penalty
of the risk3. Estimate the impact of risk on product or project (risk
categories as defined above) Note over all risk accuracy for no misunderstandings.Risk
Risk ID: 002 Date: 19/3/02 Probability: 80% Impact: Critical
Reason: One of the programmers left and moves to another company.RE estimated:
50,000 Rs. approx.Trigger: Mitigation steps unproductive as of 25/2/02Current
Status: Interviews for new hiring started
Originator: Project Manager Assigned: Human Resources Manager
Cut-off line: high impact value limit has made so that if any risk had
crossed that line than it can be managed, pointer value of Risk information
sheet was assigned in RMMM column.--- If risk probability increases more
than 80% Assessment Risk Impact ---consequences or penalty of riskRisk
Exposure was calculated using probability of risk occurrence and Cost
that risk should occur on project RE = P * C, Total risk exposure cost
provide mean for adjusting final cost estimate or predict probable increase
in resources required at various point during scheduling.Risk assessment
for accuracy of estimates was made that may help in thinking about its
control strategiesA risk component as given above was taken as a referent
level to make decision if degradation occurs and breakpoint will come
than project may be terminated. Risk Refinement -condition transition
consequences CTC used to refine risk in set of more detailed risk, its
possible in case of COTS. - No refinement doneRisk Mitigation Monitoring
and Management, strategy for dealing with risks contain Risk avoidance,
for proactive approach to risk avoidance is best strategy; risk mitigation
plan was made to reduce turn over. Turnover Li * Xi likelihood and impact
for risk Ri. Risk monitoring is done to identify more or less likely risks
and to take possible actions before risk impact increased.Risk management,
if risks fail than we did backup activity ---- new hiring.
Figure 4.15: Risk Management
Figure 4.16: Analysis technique, Statistical Process Control (XmR, to
drive limit and analyse data), monitoring performance of selected sub
process, Measures selection, defect density a measure of product quality
Table 4.2: Quality and Process-performance objectives QPO's (sample values)
Project Process Performance Baseline
Life Cycle Phase Project's Measures Process ID Measure Specification from
projects QM Mean UCL LCL Units
Test PEM20 DDr .0005 + - .00005 .3168 1.1674 0.5339 Pages
Test PEM20 DDt .0005 + - .00005 .0604 0.3247 0.2040 Pages
Table 4.3: Manage Project Performance (sample values)
4.2 Project Management Steps
This framework comprise of three basic and four advance processes including
project planning, project monitoring and control, supplier agreement management,
integrated project management, risk management and quantitative project
management. First we go through generic practices then discuss specific
goals one by one in detail.
4.3 Generic Goals and Increasing Capability levels
As generic practices are the checkpoints for reminding us that we have
done things right. Performing each generic goal is equivalent to improving
its corresponding level of capability. Below discussed is a brief relation
ship between capability levels and their respective generic goals, which
we have to follow after completion of specific goal of each Sub process
Capability level number zero is known as Incomplete. It is a process that
is either not performed or partially performed. One or more of the specific
goals of the process area are not satisfied.
To achieve generic goal one, we have to perform base practices i.e. its
corresponding specific practices. We have to perform generic goal one
in order to achieve Capability level one which is known as Performed.
A critical distinction between an incomplete process and a performed process
is that a performed process satisfies all of the specific goals of the
To achieve generic goal two i.e. Institutionalize a managed process; we
have to perform all previous goals and following practices i.e. to establish
an organizational policy, plan the process, provide resources, assign
responsibility, train people, manage configurations, identify and involve
relevant stakeholders, monitor and control the process, objectively evaluate
adherence and review status with higher level management. Generic goal
two corresponds to capability level two which is known as Managed. Critical
distinction between a performed process and a managed process is the extent
to which the process is managed. A managed process is Planned (capability
level 1) and the performance of the process is managed against the plan.
Corrective actions are taken when the actual results and performance deviate
significantly from the plan. A managed process achieves the objectives
of the plan and is institutionalized for consistent performance.
To achieve generic goal three i.e. Institutionalize a defined process;
we have to perform all previous goals and following practices i.e. to
establish a defined process and collect improvement information. Generic
goal three corresponds to capability level three, which is known as Defined.
A defined process is a managed (capability level 2) process that is tailored
from the organization's set of standard processes according to the organization's
tailoring guidelines, and contributes work products, measures, and other
process-improvement information to the organizational process assets.
To achieve generic goal four i.e. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed
Process we have to perform all previous goals and following practices
i.e. to establish quantitative objectives for the process and stabilize
sub process performance. Generic goal four corresponds to capability level
four which is known as Quantitatively Managed. A quantitatively managed
process is a Defined (capability level 3) process that is controlled using
statistical and other quantitative techniques.
To achieve generic goal five i.e. Institutionalise an Optimising Process;
we have to perform all previous goals and following practices i.e. to
ensure continuous process improvement and correction of root causes of
problems. Generic goal five corresponds to capability level five which
is known as Optimising. An optimising process is a quantitatively managed
(capability level 4) process that is changed and adapted to meet relevant
current and projected business objectives.
As specific goals and practices are the actual project management steps
that a project manager should follow therefore they are discussed in more
4.4 Project Planning
In this process area we have to perform three specific goals.
4.4.1 Establish Estimates
This is the first goal to achieve by performing its four specific practices.
First practice is Estimating the Scope of the Project. Its typical work
products include: Descriptions of tasks, Work package, and Work Breakdown
See figure 4.8 for WBS, in this project it permits identification of the
following items risks and their mitigation tasks, tasks for deliverables
and supporting activities, tasks for skill and knowledge acquisition,
tasks for development of needed support plans, such as configuration management,
quality assurance, and verification plans. Work packages were identified
in sufficient detail to specify estimates of project tasks, responsibilities,
and schedule. The top-level WBS is intended to help in gauging the project
work effort in terms of tasks and organizational roles and responsibilities.
The amount of detail in the WBS at this more detailed level helps in developing
realistic schedules, thereby minimizing the need for management reserve.
The main divisions of the system are: General Ledger, Accounts Payable,
Accounts Receivable, Inventory Management System, Export Invoicing System,
Payroll System and Website.
Second practice is Establishment of estimates of the Work product and
task attributes. Its typical work products include: Technical approach
adopted, Size and complexity of tasks and work products, Estimating models
and Attribute estimates.
Technical approach that was taken is a distributed client server application.
Work products for which size estimates were made included: Non-deliverable
work products daily activity sheets, Documents SRS, System Operational
Manuals and Operational Modules. Method that we have used is based on
historical data and lines of code for this software.
Third Practice is Defining Project Life Cycle. Its typical work product
includes: Project Life cycle Model.
RAD model was used because of following reasons: shorter development,
business focus, lower cost and stakeholder commitment.
Fourth practice is Determination of Estimates of Effort and Cost. Its
typical work product includes: Estimation grounds, Project effort estimates
and Project cost estimates.
Effort and cost inputs used for estimating include the following: Judgmental
estimates provided by an expert or group of experts, Technical approach,
WBS, Size estimates of work products and anticipated changes, Selected
project life-cycle model and processes, Life-cycle cost estimates, Skill
levels of managers and staff needed to perform the work, Knowledge, skill,
and training needs, Facilities needed (e.g., office and meeting space
and workstations) and the Level of security required for tasks, work products,
hardware, software, personnel, and work environment. See figure 4.10 above
for cost and effort estimation.
4.4.2 Developing a Project Plan
This is the second goal to achieve by seven specific practices.
First practice is Establishment of the Budget and Schedule. Its typical
work product includes: Project schedules, Schedule dependencies and Project
Microsoft project 2000 was used to generate basic scheduling and dependency
charts i.e. Gantt chart and PERT chart (Program Evaluation and Review
Technique). Because Time frame was very short and critical that is why
Corrective action criteria is when ever any task may take four more days
as compared to its scheduled time, after this time we have taken immediate
action over it. Which include revising the original plan, establishing
new agreements, or including mitigation activities within the current
plan. See figure 4.13 above for Gantt chart and figure 4.14 for PERT chart.
Second practice is Identification of Project Risks. Its typical work products
include: Identified risks, Risk impacts and probability of occurrence
and Risk priorities
We had used following risk identification and analysis tools: Risk assessments
and Checklists. Risks were document properly, and agreements were obtained
with relevant stakeholders on the completeness and correctness of the
documented risks. Major risks involved were: Unavailability of any of
team member or Stakeholder (Manager of Cyber Angels), Shortage in Allocated
resources. Identified risks were revised when: New risks were identified,
Risks become problems and Risks get retired. See figure 4.16 above for
the summary of risk management.
Third practice is Plan for Data Management. Its typical work products
include: Data management plan, Master list of managed data, Data content
and format description, Data requirements lists for acquirers and for
suppliers, Privacy requirements, Security requirements, Security procedures,
Mechanism for data retrieval, reproduction, and distribution, Schedule
for collection of project data and Listing of project data to be collected.
To ensure privacy and security of the data related to project plan and
management only access was allowed to our data resource manager and our
project manager on relevant dates. Documented issuance dates were also
monitored separately. Separate files were maintained to store every record
including daily task sheet.
Fourth practice is Plan for Project Resources. Its typical work products
include: WBS work packages, WBS task dictionary, Staffing requirements
based on project size and scope, Critical facilities/equipment list, Process/workflow
definitions and diagrams and Program administration requirements list.
A well-defined process was identified, defined, and coordinated with all
the relevant stakeholders to ensure efficient operations during project
execution to manage project. The staffing of a project was done after
the decomposition of the project requirements into tasks, roles, and responsibilities
for accomplishing the project requirements as lay out within the work
packages of the WBS. By considering the knowledge and skills required
for each of the identified positions, as defined in the specific practice
plan for needed knowledge and skills. A list was compiled as shown in
figure 4.7 of hardware and software requirements that contain facilities,
equipment, and parts (e.g., number of computers for the personnel working
on the project, software applications, office space, etc.).
Fifth practice is Plan for Needed Knowledge and Skills. Its typical work
products include: Inventory of skill needs, Staffing and new hire plans
and Databases (e.g., skills and training).
The required knowledge and skills were already identified before staffing
team member. No training was as such required. Study of CMMI's project
management process area was required by the Project manager to fulfil
all required steps. Mechanisms for providing needed knowledge and skills
were attached with identification and removal or risks include: Staffing
and New hires no out sources were required. Whole project was developed
in-house. All above selected criteria was mentioned in our project plan
Sixth practice is Plan for Stakeholder Involvement. Its typical work products
include: Stakeholder involvement plan.
Material that was included in the plan for stakeholder interaction include
the following: List of all relevant stakeholders, justification for stakeholder
involvement like manager Cyber Angels was responsible to provide in-house
resources that includes machines staffing support software's etc and like
our client was responsible and committed to provide full cooperation during
system analysis and regression testing phase at client site. Relationship
between relevant stakeholders was also defined like for new staffing Project
Manager was committed to interact with manager Cyber Angels to hire new
Seventh practice is Establishing the Project Plan. Its typical work products
include: Overall project plan.
Software project plan document is the one, which addressed all relevant
planning items that were necessary to achieve the mutual understanding,
commitment, and performance of individuals, groups, and organizations
that must execute or support the plans. The plan generated for the project
has defined all aspects of the effort, tying together in a logical manner:
project life-cycle considerations; technical and management tasks; budgets
and schedules; milestones; data management, risk identification, resource
and skill requirements; and stakeholder identification and interaction.
Infrastructure descriptions include responsibility and authority relationships
for project staff, management, and support organizations.
4.4.3 Obtain Commitment to the Plan
This is the third goal to achieve by performing its three specific practices.
First practice is Reviewing Plans that Affect the Project. Its typical
work products include: Record of the reviews of plans that affect the
Separate records were maintained in a project plan file if any of project
plans were reviewed.
Second practice is Reconciliation of Work and Resource Levels. Its typical
work products include: Revised methods and corresponding estimating parameters
(e.g., better tools, use of off-the-shelf components), Renegotiated budgets,
Revised schedules, Revised requirements list and Renegotiated stakeholder
To obtain commitment from relevant stakeholders, it is really important
to resolve any differences between the estimates and the available resources,
by lowering or deferring technical performance requirements, negotiating
more resources, finding ways to increase productivity, outsourcing, adjusting
the staff skill mix, or revising all plans that affect the project or
Third practice includes Obtaining Commitment Plan. Its typical work products
include: Documented requests for commitments and Documented commitments.
Obtaining commitment involves interaction among all relevant stakeholders
both internal and external to the project. The individual or group making
a commitment with confidence that the work can be performed within cost,
schedule, and performance constraints. Often, a provisional commitment
is adequate to allow the effort to begin and to permit research to be
performed to increase confidence to the appropriate level needed to obtain
a full commitment. Needed support and negotiate commitments with relevant
stakeholders was first identified. WBS was used as a checklist for ensuring
that commitments were obtained for all tasks. The stakeholder interaction
plan has identified all parties from whom commitment was to be obtained.
All organizational commitments were documented, both full and provisional,
ensuring appropriate level of signatories with senior management as appropriate.
4.5 Project Monitoring and Control
In this process area we have to perform two specific goals.
4.5.1 Monitor Project Against Plan
This is the first goal to achieve by performing its seven specific practices.
First practice is Monitoring Project Planning Parameters. Its typical
work products include: Records of project performance and Records of significant
For actual completion of activities and milestones, weekly measurements
were performed that included the comparison of the actual completion of
activities and milestones against the schedule documented in the Gantt
chart of software project plan and identification of significant deviations
from the budgets in the project plan. Effort and cost monitoring typically
includes periodically measuring the actual effort and cost expended and
staff assigned by comparing actual effort, costs, staffing, and training
to the estimates and budgets documented in the software project plan and
identification of significant deviations from the budgets in the project
plan. The actual attributes of the work products were measured on a monthly
basis. Tasks, such as size or complexity and the changes to the attributes
by comparing the actual attributes of the work products and tasks and
the changes to the attributes to the estimates documented in the project
plan, identified significant deviations from the estimates in the project
plan. Provided resources were monitored and used that included all hardware
and software resources as given in figure 4.7, used in design, manufacturing,
testing and operation and project staff. Knowledge and skills of project
personnel were also monitored that included measuring weekly the growth
of knowledge and skills by project personnel, particularly the project
manager, by comparing the actual training obtained to that documented
in the project plan and identifying significant deviations from the estimates
in the project plan. At the end of each monitoring activity, significant
deviations in the project planning parameters were documented and attached
with the software project plan.
Second practice is Monitoring Commitments. Its typical work products include:
Records of commitment reviews.
Regular review of commitments (both external and internal) was taken and
those commitments were identified that had not been satisfied or which
were at a significant risk of not being satisfied, such as a delay in
hiring. The results of the commitment reviews were documented previously.
See RIS in figure 4.16 for risk management.
Third practice is Monitoring Project Risks. Its typical work products
include: Records of project risk monitoring.
The documentation of the risks in the context of the project's current
status and circumstances was reviewed weekly and revised as additional
information became available to incorporate changes. Communication about
risk status to relevant stakeholders was performed regularly because its
delay mostly resulted in change in the probability that the risk occurred.
Fourth practice is Monitoring of Data Management. Its typical work products
include: Records of data management.
Data management activities against their description in the project plan
were weekly reviewed, identified and significant issues and their impacts
Fifth practice is Monitoring Stakeholder Involvement. Its typical work
products include: Records of stakeholder involvement.
The status of stakeholder involvement was reviewed weekly. Significant
issues and their impacts were identified and documented.
Sixth practice is Conducting Progress Reviews. Its typical work products
include: Documented project review results.
Daily progress sheets were maintained for regular communication to find
out the status on assigned activities and work products to relevant stakeholders,
this was done to keep stakeholders informed. Managers and team members
within the organization were included in the reviews. Results of collecting
and analyzing measures were reviewed for controlling the project. Significant
issues and deviations from the plan were identified and documented. Change
requests and problems identified in any of the work products and processes
were documented. Results of the reviews were also documented at the end
of the review document.
Seventh practice is conducting milestone reviews. Its typical work products
include: Documented milestone review results.
Reviews were conducted at meaningful points in the project's schedule,
such as the completion of selected stages, with relevant stakeholders.
Managers, staff members, and customers within the organization are included
in the milestone reviews as appropriate. Review the commitments, plan,
status, and risks of the project. Identify and document significant issues
and their impacts. Document the results of the review, action items, and
decisions. Track action items to closure.
4.5.2 Manage Corrective Action to Closure
This is the first goal to achieve by performing its three specific practices.
First practice is Analysing Issues. Its typical work products include:
List of issues needing corrective actions.
Issues were gathered for analysis from reviews and the execution of other
processes like: Issues discovered through performing verification and
validation activities, Significant deviations in the project planning
parameters from the estimates in the project plan, Commitments (either
internal or external) that have not been satisfied, Significant changes
in risk status, Data access, collection, privacy, or security issues,
Stakeholder representation or involvement issues and Issues were analysed
to determine need for corrective action. Corrective action was required
when the issue, if left unresolved, might prevent the project from meeting
Second practice is Taking Corrective Action. Its typical work products
include: Corrective action plan.
Appropriate actions were determined and documented which were needed to
address the identified issues, like: Modifying requirements, Renegotiating
commitments and Revising project risks. Actions to be taken were reviewed
and agreements obtained with relevant stakeholders. Changes were negotiated
to internal and external commitments.
Third practice is Managing Corrective Action. Its typical work products
include: Corrective action results.
Corrective actions were monitored for completion. Results of corrective
actions were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the corrective
actions. Appropriate actions to correct deviations from planned results
for corrective actions were determined and documented. Lessons learned
as a result of taking corrective action were inputted to planning and
risk management processes.
4.6 Supplier Agreement Management
In this process area we have to perform two specific goals.
4.6.1 Establish Supplier Agreement
This is the first goal to achieve by performing its three specific practices.
First practice is Determination of Acquisition Type. Its typical work
products include: List of the acquisition types that will be used for
all products and product components to be acquired.
There are many different types of acquisition that can be used to acquire
products and product components that will be used by the project like:
Purchasing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products, Obtaining products
through a contractual agreement, Obtaining products from an in-house vendor
and Obtaining products from the customer.
Second practice is Selection of Suppliers. Its typical work products include:
List of candidate suppliers, Preferred supplier list, Rationale for selection
of suppliers, Advantages and disadvantages of candidate suppliers, Evaluation
criteria and Solicitation materials and requirements.
The only supplier involved in this project was a computer hardware shop
for buying machines as given in figure 4.7 hardware and software requirements
for the clients and to help them in finding vendors for implementing LAN
Network for the client to deploy this system. Finally we refer the selected
vendor to our clients.
Third practice is Establishment of Supplier Agreements. Its typical work
products include: Statements of work, Contracts, Memoranda of agreement
and licensing agreement
Vendor prepared related delivery and service documents to the client for
satisfactory service. The supplier agreement contained a statement of
work, a specification, terms and conditions, a list of deliverables, a
schedule, a budget, and a defined acceptance process. All parties were
made to understand the agreement and consent to all requirements before
implementing the agreement.
4.6.2 Satisfy Supplier Agreement
This is the third goal to achieve by performing its four specific practices.
First practice is Reviewing COTS products. Its typical work products include:
Trade studies, Price lists, Evaluation criteria, Supplier performance
reports and Reviews of COTS products.
Supplier performance was tracked before mid-completion of our ongoing
project to guarantee timely LAN installation before the deployment of
Second practice is Execution of the Supplier Agreement. Its typical work
products include: Supplier progress reports and performance measures,
Supplier review materials and reports, Action items tracked to closure
and Documentation of product and Document deliveries.
Supplier progress was monitored during Quality assurance process. Final
review was conducted with the supplier as specified in the supplier agreement.
Results of management reviews were taken to improve the supplier's performance
and to establish and nurture long-term relationships with preferred suppliers.
Third practice is Acceptance of the Acquired Product. Its typical work
products include: Acceptance test procedures, Acceptance test results
and Discrepancy reports or corrective action plans.
Here acceptance procedure was that the installed network and hardware
must perform accurately after installing our system. After verifying that
the acquired products fulfilled their requirements, confirmation was made
that the non-technical commitments associated with the acquired work product
were satisfied. That included confirmation of the appropriate license,
warranty, ownership, usage, and support or maintenance agreements is in
place and that all supporting materials are received. Acceptance was finally
documented after satisfactory verification and confirmations.
Fourth practice is Transitioning of Products. Its typical work products
include: Transition plans, Training reports and Support and Maintenance
It was ensured that distribution, and usage of the acquired products are
performed according to the terms and conditions specified in the supplier
agreement or license.
4.7 Integrated Project Management
In this project there was no remarkable difference between standardized
and defined processes because of the availability of customised modules
and no major changes in our client's standard business processes. In this
process area we have to perform two specific goals.
4.7.1 Use the Project's Defined Processes
This is the first goal to achieve by performing its five specific practices.
First practice is Establishment of the Project's Defined Process. Its
typical work products include: The project's defined process.
Selection was made for a life-cycle model from those available from the
organizational process assets. Here already only those standard processes
from the organization's set of standard processes were taken which best
fulfill the need of the project. No major tailoring was required so there
was no need to seek approval to deviate from what was required by the
organization. Because we were already using lessons-learned (documents,
templates, example documents and estimating models) from our asset library,
so projects standard processes were taken as project's defined processes.
Peer review was conducted for the project's defined process.
Second practice is Use of Organizational Process Assets for Planning Project
Activities. Its typical work products include: Project estimates and Project
No new estimates and plans required at this stage because no dissimilarities
were found in the work product and task attributes, application domain,
design approach, operational environment and in experience of the people.
Third practice is Integration of Plans. Its typical work products include:
Here we integrated all plans that affect the project with the project
plan that includes the following: Quality assurance plans, Configuration
management plans, Risk management strategy and Documentation plans.
This thesis is only highlighting project management related process areas
so process, support and engineering process areas were left that were
involved in this project (like Quality assurance plans, Configuration
management plans). Because of complete analysis no product and project
interface risks were identified that usually included incomplete interface
descriptions, unavailability of tools or test equipment, and no COTS were
required to buy. Peer reviews on the work products of the project's defined
process were taken for verification. No additional training plans were
required that typically involved negotiating with the organizational training
group the support they will provide. Objective entry and exit criteria
was established during the analysis phase to authorize the initiation
and completion of the tasks described in the work breakdown structure.
Fourth practice is Management of the Project using the Integrated Plans.
Its typical work products include: Work products created by performing
the project's defined process, Collected measures ("actual")
and progress records or reports, Revised requirements, plans, and commitments
and Integrated plans.
Integrated Plan was on focus for actual implementation of project with
no changes in standard business process. Monitoring and control activities
are then transferred to it with understanding of the relationships among
the various tasks and work products of the project's defined process,
and of the roles to be performed by the relevant stakeholders, along with
well-defined control mechanisms (e.g., peer reviews), achieves better
visibility into the project's performance and better control of the project.
Weekly reviews were taken to meet the project's needs and to support coordination.
No addition of new tools, no additional networks, equipment, training,
and support were required. No alignments were required.
Fifth practice is Contribution to the Organizational Process Assets. Its
typical work products include: Proposed improvements to the organizational
process assets, Actual process and product measures were collected from
the project and documentation (e.g., exemplary process descriptions, plans,
training modules, checklists, and lessons learned).
Remarkable improvements were proposed to organizational process assets.
4.7.2 Coordinate and Collaborate with Relevant Stakeholders
This is the second goal to achieve by performing its three specific practices.
First practice is Management of Stakeholder Involvement. Its typical work
products include: Agendas and schedules for collaborative activities,
Documented issues (e.g., issues with customer requirements, product and
product-component requirements, product architecture, and product design)
and Recommendations for resolving relevant stakeholder issues.
Coordination was maintained with the relevant stakeholders who were supposed
to participate in the project's activities. The relevant stakeholders
were already being identified in the project plan. Recommendations were
developed here and coordination was made for actions to resolve misunderstandings
and problems with the product and product-component requirements, product
and product-component architecture, and product and product-component
Second practice is Manage Dependencies. Its typical work products include:
Defects, issues, and action items resulting from reviews with relevant
stakeholders, Critical dependencies, Commitments to address critical dependencies
and Status of critical dependencies.
Separate reviews were conducted with relevant stakeholders like manager
Cyber Angels to identify each critical dependency. Also, the establishment
of needed dates and plan dates for each critical dependency based on the
project schedule reviews were completed after the review agreements were
made on the commitments to address each critical dependency with the people
responsible for providing the work product and the people receiving the
Third practice is Resolve Coordination Issues. Its typical work products
include: Relevant stakeholder coordination issues and Status of relevant
stakeholder coordination issues.
Issues were identified and documented regarding late critical dependencies
and commitments as well as product and product-component requirements,
design defects and product-level problems and the unavailability of critical
resources or personnel. Issues always are notified and discussed with
relevant stakeholders to resolve them. If not, resolved tracks were made
and discussed further for remedy.
4.8 Risk Management
In this process area we have to perform three specific goals.
4.8.1 Prepare for Risk Management
This is the first goal to achieve by performing its three specific practices.
First practice is Determination of Risk Sources and Categories. Its typical
work products include: Risk source lists (external and internal) and Risk
First we determine risk sources. Our risk source list only contains one
major risk, which is unavailability of our team member. See figure 4.16
risk management for details.
Second practice is Defining Risk Parameters. Its typical work products
include: Risk evaluation, categorization, and prioritization criteria
and Risk management requirements (control and approval levels, reassessment
Thresholds and boundaries were defined for risk category.
Third practice is Establishing a Risk Management Strategy. Its typical
work products include: Project risk management strategy. See figure 4.16
risk management for details
4.8.2 Identify and Analyse Risks
This is the second goal to achieve by performing its two specific practices.
First practice is identification of risks. Its typical work products include:
List of identified risks, including the context, conditions, and consequences
of risk occurrence.
Cost, schedule, and performance risks were examined during all phases
of the product life cycle to the extent that they impacted project objectives.
Risk with funding levels was associated with this project, which resulted
in loosing one of our key members. No Performance risks were identified
due to our asset library, which usually includes requirements, analysis
and design, functional performance and operation and performance maintenance
attributes. One more very outstanding risk was risks associated with strikes
but Alhamdulillah no strikes were seen in Karachi. All identified risks
were documented with context, conditions, and potential consequences of
the risk using standard formats. See figure 4.16 risk management for details.
Second practice is Evaluation, Categorization and Prioritization of risks.
Its typical work products include: List of risks, with a priority assigned
to each risk.
Each risk was evaluated and assigned values in accordance with the defined
risk parameters, which included likelihood, consequence, and thresholds.
The assigned risk parameter values were integrated to produce additional
measures such as risk exposure, which can be used to prioritise risks
for handling. For consequences see figure 4.16 risk management for details.
Risks were categorized and grouped according to the defined risk categories.
A relative priority was determined for each risk, based on the assigned
risk parameters. A clear criterion was used to determine the risk priority.
The intent of prioritization was to determine the most effective areas
to which resources for mitigation of risks could be applied with the greatest
positive impact to the project. See table 4.16 Risk management for details.
4.8.2 Mitigate Risks
This is the second goal to achieve by performing its two specific practices.
First practice is Development of Risk Mitigation Plans. Its typical work
products include: Documented handling options for each identified risk,
Risk mitigation plans, Contingency plans and List of those responsible
for tracking and addressing each risk.
Necessary risk mitigation activities were examined and documented for
the benefits they provide versus the resources they will expend. No major
contingency plan was made for selected critical risks in the event their
impacts are realized.
Second practice is Implementation of risk mitigation plans. Its typical
work products include: Updated lists of risk status, Updated assessments
of risk likelihood, consequence, and thresholds, Updated lists of risk-handling
options, Updated list of actions taken to handle risks and Risk mitigation
Risk handling was performed for those risks judged by observing cut-off
4.9 Quantitative Project Management
Quantitative Project Management was performed to predict and track successful
completion of the project as it was already based on quality estimations
and historical data. In spite of that, for maintenance/testing process
group of this project some specific sub processes were required to be
statistically managed. In this process area we have to perform two specific
4.9.1 Quantitatively Manage the Project
This is the first goal to achieve by performing its four specific practices.
First practice is Establishment of the Project's Objectives. Its typical
work products include: The project's quality and process-performance objectives.
Organization's (Client Org.) objectives were already reviewed for quality
and process performance. Process performance attributes for which needs
and priorities were identified include functionality, reliability and
maintainability. The Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method was used
during analysis phase to identify and translate the needs of customers
into technical requirements. Earned value analysis was used for measuring
process performance and measurable quality and process-performance objectives
QPO's for the project were defined. See figure 4.12 for earned value analysis
and table 4.2 for quality and process-performance objectives QPO's. Quality
attribute was "Number and severity of defects in the released product".
Process performance attributes are: Percentage of defects removed by product
verification activities (perhaps by type of verification, such as peer
reviews and testing), Defect escape rates, Number and density of defects
(by severity) found during the first year following product delivery (or
start of service), Cycle time and Percentage of rework time. Appropriate
short-term objectives for each life-cycle phase were obtained to monitor
progress toward achieving the project's objectives. Like process performance
model was used to predict the hidden defects in the delivered product
using short-term measures of defects identified during product verification
activities (i.e., peer reviews and testing). Quality Function Deployment
(QFD) was used to trace the project's quality and process-performance
objectives from their source like requirements, organization's quality
and process-performance objectives, customer's quality and process-performance
objectives, business objectives, discussions with customers and potential
customers and market surveys.
Second practice is Composing the Defined Process. Its typical work products
include: Criteria used in identifying which subprocesses are valid candidates
for inclusion in the project's defined process, Candidate subprocesses
for inclusion in the project's defined process and Subprocesses to be
included in the project's defined process.
Objectives were identified for quality and process-performance that were
required to be statistically managed. Then a criterion was established
to select sub-processes on which QPO will be applied. Customer requirements
related to quality and process performance were used as the criteria to
be utilized in selecting the sub-processes that are the main contributors
to achieving the identified QPO and for which predictable performance
is important. Here, it wasn't economically justifiable to apply statistical
techniques to certain sub-processes. Product and process attributes of
the selected sub-processes were identified (defect density, cycle time
and test coverage) which were supposed to get measured and controlled.
Third practice is Selection of the Subprocesses that will be Statistically
Fourth practice is Management of Project Performance.
4.9.2 Statistically Manage Sub process Performance
This is the second goal to achieve by performing its four specific practices.
First practice is Selection of Measures and Analytic Techniques. Its typical
work products include: Definitions of the measures and analytic techniques
to be used in (or proposed for) statistically managing the subprocesses,
Operational definitions of the measures, their collection points in the
subprocesses, and how the integrity of the measures will be determined,
Trace-ability of measures back to the project's quality and process-performance
objectives and Instrumented organizational support environment to support
automatic data collection.
See figure 4.17 quantitative analysis technique for measures selection,
defect density a measure of product quality and analysis technique, statistical
process control (SPC) (XmR charts, to drive limit and analyse data). Here
defect density by build (DDB) is a primary measure and indirect indicator
of product quality. Defects are inserted by building and releasing the
product prior to testing and discovered by testers. Here XmR SPC charts
were used to derive limits and analyze data, in which data plotted chronologically
and limits were based on variability within data set; reset when process
Second practice is Application of Statistical Methods to Understand Variation.
Its typical work products include: Collected measures, Natural bounds
of process performance for each measured attribute of each selected sub
process and Process performance compared to the natural bounds of process
performance for each measured attribute of each selected sub process.
See figure 4.17 quantitative analysis technique for measures selection,
defect density a measure of product quality and analysis technique, SPC
(XmR charts, to drive limit and analyse data).
Third practice is Monitoring Performances of the Selected Subprocesses.
Its typical work products include: Natural bounds of process performance
for each selected sub process compared to its established (derived) objectives,
For each sub process, its process capability and For each sub process,
the actions needed to address deficiencies in its process capability.
See table 4.3 manage project performance for monitoring performance of
selected sub process.
Fourth practice is Maintaining of Statistical Management Data Record.
Its typical work products include: Statistical and quality management
data recorded in the organization's measurement repository. See table
4.3 manage project performance.
This chapter has discussed all possible details of GI's ERP system that
was taken as a case study in this thesis, so that it may help a reader
to understand CMMI's Advance project management process area's implementation
in a better way. Its details include generic goals and increasing capability
levels and specific goals in details.