The change in wavelength of light as it traverses the universe, toward the red, cosmological redshift, first defined by Edwin P. Hubble, as a linear relationship between redshift and distance, is interpreted as a signal of "expansion of the Universe".|
Cosmological redshift shows galaxies in motion, a general, curved displacement of galaxies over time. Distant galaxies have larger redshifts than nearby ones, indicating a curvature of the track of light while traveling across the Universe, a curvature on the track followed by the distant galaxy itself, otherwise, if galaxies were traveling in straight line, the light signal from far luminous galaxies, would not shift wavelenght, would not distort light toward the red as distance increases.
Light as an electromagnetical wave, it needs of an electromagnetical mean, medium or field to displace.
Electromagnetical fields are curved, consequently, the electromagnetical Universal Field, where light displaces, it must be curved. Light trajectory in the Universe is curved, so are galaxies trajectories. The curvature on the trajectories of galaxies is a consequence of the curvature of the field where they transit, orbiting. In Space, curved trajectories are intimatelly associated with orbitation.
Galaxies are orbiting, simultaneously displacing at different levels, in the same direction, inmersed in a flat, three dimensions, plane, curved field, here denominated the Universal Gravitational Field, or Gravitational Sea.
As light travels in the curved Universal Field, the trajectory of light must be curved. The bending, shifting or curving of light in the Universal Field is evidenced by the linear relationship between cosmological redshift and distance. Physically, in real terms, the relationship between galaxies trajectory arc and distance is also linear, in the curved Universal field, the arc will increase when distance increases.
Space isn't curved. The Universe is one thing and Space is a different one. The Universe is contained in the Space. The Universe, and more precisely, the Universal Field, where galaxies orbit, is CURVED, a curved field.
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The Orbiting Universe. Planets displace at different orbitational speeds. Stellar and solar systems also displace at different speeds within the galaxy. Galaxies, very possibly, displace at different speed one from each other. In the same way planets and stars have different orbitational speeds, and its own particular orbitational pattern or path, galaxies displace as well at different orbitational speeds and follow a particular orbit within the Universal Field. Galaxies speeds differential, from our relative position, has being traditionally interpreted as if galaxies were moving away from each other, in an "ever expanding Universe", which at the best of cases it only can labeled as an "ever displacing Universe".
Cosmic Background Radiation, (CBR), or Cosmic Microwave Background, is made up of photons. Microwave and in general radiations must be generated or produced by a source. In the same way, CBR, a constant radiation must be send out to Space by an active, emitting source. The very small size of the fluctuations of CBR indicates it is a steady, constant radiation, uniformly distribuited and continually emitted.
CBR is the first evidence of the existence of a central Universal entity, the Nucleus of the Universe. The Universal Nucleus is responsible, among other things, for this background radiation uniformly distribuited, which saturates the Universal Field.
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There is a difference between attraction, gravitation and orbitation. Attraction is the condition of getting together magnetic, electromagnetic nuclei, electromagnetical waves and masses . Examples Sun's nucleus attraction over Earth's nucleus. The deviation of light when traverses the Space, as is attracted by galactic nuclei. Gravitation Is the condition set by the Universal Gravitational Field to all masses and entities in the Universe, where masses, without exceptions, are forced to remain suspended, float or gravitate in Space. Orbitation Is the elliptical, over a plane, displacement of a mass, object, around a nucleus. Is the condition imposed by the nuclei of any spatial agrupation to the minor elements, to orbit around the nucleus, conforming all the elements together a flat, discal structure. The higher attraction of the main or central mass of the spatial system makes the minor masses, within the attractional range, to orbit around the central, referential mass.
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In this way solar systems first gravitate in the Universal field and second orbit around the galactic nucleus. In a similar way, galaxies first gravitate in the Universal Field and second, orbit around the Universal Nucleus.
The model of a flat, plane, curved Universe, based on a central Nucleus, spreading a Universal Field where everything gravitate and galaxies orbit, is consistent with planetary, solar, galactic structural models and operational behaviors.
Universal Formation. Planets absence at stars clusters, close to the nucleus of the galaxy, is explained because cluster's minor orbiting stars (future planets), are not yet cooled and hardened to be observed from Earth as planets, at that early formation stage of the stellar cluster.
SStellar clusters close to the nucleus of the galaxy, are solar systems at an early, initial, formation age.