Himno Nacional - Julio Nakpil

 

HIMNO  NACIONAL  (1896)

Page 1 of the original music transcription of 'MARANGAL NA DALIT NG KATAGALUGAN' by Julio Nakpil

 

MARANGAL  NA  DALIT  NG  KATAGALUGAN 
Philippine National Anthem  (1896)

Original MIDI Music Sequence by Ian-James R. Andres 08/22/03


 

In 1896 Julio Nakpil, Musician and Revolutionist (1867-1960) composed a national anthem with a Tagalog title; 'MARANGAL NA DALIT NG KATAGALUGAN', with lyrics by him, at the request of Andres Bonifacio, the Supremo of the Katipunan, the Filipino patriotic revolutionary society.

However after the assassination of A. Bonifacio, General Emilio Aguinaldo did not declare it the official anthem, preferring the 'MARCHA FILIPINA MAGDALO', a composition of Julian Felipe, his fellow Cavitenio which became our present day Philippine National Anthem (Lupang Hinirang).

Original handwritten lyrics of 'MARANGAL NA DALIT NG KATAGALUGAN' by Julio Nakpil

The term “Tagalog” defined all persons born in the archipelago, whether Bisayan, Ilocano, Pampango, etc. Therefore the Tagalog nation or KATAGALUGAN consisted not only of Tagalog speakers but included all those who grew up in the Philippines, regardless of ethnolinguistic classification and ancestry.

At the time, the term “Filipino” applied solely to Spaniards born in the archiepelago. Bonifacio and Jacinto made “Tagalog” a term applicable to all indios or natives.

In his unpublished memoir, “Ang Paghihimagsik ng 1896-1897” (The Revolution of 1896-1897), the Revolutionist Carlos V. Ronquillo explains the concept further:

"Ito ang dapat unawain ng mga bumabasa: sa tawag naming tagalog na makikita sa bawat dahon halos ng kasaysayang ito, ay di ang ibig naming sabihi’y ang paris ng palagay ng iba, na inuukol lamang sa tubong Maynila, Kabite at Bulakan, at iba pa, hinde kundi ang ibig naming tukuyin ay Filipinas…

Sapagka’t sa palagay naming ay ganito ang talagang nararapat ikapit sa tanang anak ng Kapilipinuhan. Ang tagalog o lalong malinaw, ang tawag na “tagalog” ay walang ibang kahulugan kundi ‘tagailog’ na sa tuwirang paghuhulo ay taong maibigang manira sa tabing ilog, bagay na di maikakaila na siyang talagang hilig ng tanang anak ng Pilipinas, saa’t saan mang pulo at bayan."

KKK:  Kataas-taasan Kagalang-galang na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan


The Assassination of Bonifacio and Antonio Luna
Exerpts from Julio Nakpil's  'Apuntes Sobre La Revolucion Filipina'
(Notes on the Philippine Revolution)

Page 30  'The Death of Bonifacio'


"The Bonifacio brothers were accused of promoting a
counter revolution to overthrow the power of Aguinaldo.
"

Unfortunately this slanderous accusation of Aguinaldo and his partisans was very common in Cavite. Andres Bonifacio challenged to a duel Emilio Aguinaldo to settle their differences, saying to him: "If you are offended by my behavior, name your seconds, hour, and place!"

The only reply of Aguinaldo was to send a company under the command of Colonel Ingtong (Agapito Monzon) which found the Bonifacio brothers breakfasting.
      
The Bonifacios asked them where they were going and invited them to join them at breakfast, to which they replied that they had just finished the same, and that they were going reconnoitering.

Then the Bonifacio brothers, unaware of what was going to happen to them, continued eating, their firearms being far from the reach of their hands. Aguinaldo's men thereupon began to seize the firearms of the Bonifacio men and when theY became aware of what was happening they were already disarmed.

Nevertheless, there was, a struggle, but very unequal. According to the eyewitnesses, the one who stabbed A. Bonifacio in the neck was Lazaro Makapagal.

The Bonifacios were also accused of drawing away soldiers from the Revolution in Cavite, the plan of Bonifacio being to continue the Revolution by joining his forces to those of Emilio Jacinto and the undersigned (i.e. Julio Nakpil) who were operating in the provinces of Manila, Laguna, and Morong. Inquire about this. incident from Antonino Guevara,- Paciano Rizal, and the brothers Agaton and Maximo Cecilio, and also the Veteran General Pio del Pilar and others.,

It was an act of banditry: The jewels and money of the families of the murdered men were confiscated like war booty.


We mortals are not infallible. Therefore, I suggest to the historian before taking these notes as verified truth to investigate carefully, consulting the aforementioned persons and others, and if perchance the majority confirm them without passion, accept them as an accomplished fad, otherwise' reject them as invalid.



 

Chapter VII,  page 103  'The Death of General Luna'

"....And driven by his patriotic fervor, he (General Antonio Luna) did not conceal his desire to be the head of the cabinet with the portfolio of war to prevent the autonomists or pacifists from controlling the government of the republic."

 

They slandered him of wishing to wrest the presidency from Emilio Aguinaldo, and for that purpose they invited him to enter the rattrap of Kabanatuan to enable the very ones whom he had disarmed for cowardice in different war actions to deal him the deathblow. Do not lose sight of the fact that the one who invited him (i.e. Emilio Aguinaldo) to a conference absented himself, which was a cowardly stratagem.

When General A. Luna was dastardly assassinated on the stairs of the Convent of Kabanatuan and already fallen on the ground, the mother of Emilio Aguinaldo looked out the window and asked: "
Ano, humihinga pa ba?" (Is he still breathing?)

The Spanish soldier-prisoners who witnessed this iniquitous assassination said:
"We admired the valor and intrepidity of General Luna who, tormented with shots and already fallen to the ground, could still shout: "Cowardly Cavitenios !"

History condemns these barbaric acts, He (E, Aguinaldo) also gave orders to assassinate the undersigned to Generals Severino Taino and Pio del Pilar who did not obey the said orders for considering them infamous, unjust, and without any motive, whatever. It was nothing more than a mean and despicable order.

General Pio del Pilar himself told me this in his barracks at San Pedro Makati, when Manila was under blockade.

Pages 157 and 158    'The Capture of Aguinaldo'


Emilio Aguinaldo's surrender to the American's was a cowardly act. There was no doubt that he coveted the presidency. He surrendered for fear that others more competent than he would occupy the post of president of tne Republic.

Had he fought with his captors, regardless of whether he succumbed so that he might be considered a hero, at least to vindicate his crimes, by this time we would be admiring a monument to the second hero of the Philippines, unlike what he did delivering himself as prisoner and afterward taking an oath of allegiance to the American flag.

The crimes he committed against Andres Bonifacio and Antonio Luna, and his attempt to assassinate the undersigned (i.e. Julio Nakpil) should be condemned by history, and Universal Freemasonry ought to expel him and declare him a spurious son. The coward finds many dangers where none exist!

March, 1897 - A persistent rumor circulated that Andres Bonifacio was paid by the friars to promote the rebellion against Spain and also it was said he was sanguinary. Is this the work of his enemies to discredit him?

Emilio Aguinaldo censured by those from Cavite. On account of the abuses and immoralities of his soldiers, such as robberies and rape of married women as well as single, many complaints were brought to E. Aguinaldo; but, instead of punishing the culprits, he would reply invariably:
"Please be patient because we do not pay our soldiers."

Among the despicable ones was a Major surnamed Ritual who boastfully recounted with the greatest pleasure and effrontery the following: He and two of his soldiers went up a house in one of the towns of Cavite finding there two sisters, single and pretty. As they would not accede to their satyric de sires, he kicked one of them several times on the hips, and when the other protested and shouted for help, then Ritual himself hit them with the butt of his gun until they fell on the floor; and once the two sisters had fainted, they succeeded to satisfy their vile appetite.

Many of these barbarous acts occurred in Cavite principally, inasmuch as they were left unpunished. Under Andres Bonifacio and Antonio Luna these cases were severely punished. Ritual related this in the presence of Atilano Sta. Ana, two Spanish soldiers who were deserters, and the undersigned in the town of Cainta. I was very indignant. Thanks that I was able to refrain from shooting him with my revolver for fear of committing murder.

Finally, Emilio Aguinaldo ought to give an example of national solidarity. Considering those murders committed by him on the precious lives of Bonifacio and Luna and others their indignant relatives as well as their friends and the people in general did not rise against him for the sake of national unity.

His ambition to occupy the presidency is fully demonstrated when General L. Wood promised it to him (deceiving him for his own purposes) when we would' be granted our independence'. It is a common belief that this post would be occupied by one who held it during the Revolution, and for this reason he persists in winning sympathy, using as an instrument the Veterans of the Revolution, endeavoring to establish throughout the Archipelago Commandancias Departamentales (Departmental Commands.)

Another reproach against Aguinaldo was his acceptance of P12,OOO as annual life-pension so that he is already paid for his services during the Revolution.

He himself destroyed his work due to his excessive ambition for grandeur and riches, and the like. Had he renounced this great amount in favor of the invalid veterans of the Revolution. he would have performed an act of patriotism and charity.

I swear before God and before History that everything related in these notes is the truth and I entreat the historian not to publish this until after my death.

(Signed) JULIO NAKPIL - Year 1925


Supplement:

General  Antonio  Luna's  Assassination

General Antonio Luna fortified the battle lines of Bagbag and Santo Tomas, Pampanga, established arsenals and encouraged material and financial support from civilians.

On May 4, 1899, General Luna was wounded in an encounter with the Americans at the fortlines of Santo Tomas, Pampanga. While recuperating from his wounds, he dispatched a patrol to Benguet hoping to find a site for guerilla activities against the Americans. General Antonio Luna's tragic death came unexpectedly on June 17, 1899.

On June 4, 1899, a telegram  from Gen Emilio Aguinaldo, arrived ordering him to go to Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija for a Conference. He left at once with his aide, Col. Paco Roman.

When they arrived at Aguinaldo's headquarters in Cabanatuan  they learned that he had left for Pampanga.  While going down the stairs of the headquarters, the assassins, guards who happened to be the same men on whom he had imposed disciplinary punishments after the battle at Caloocan, pounced on him, riddled his body with bullets while others stabbed him.

He fired blindly with his pistol while shouting "Cowards and assassins! Coward Cavitenios!"  Col. Paco Roman rushed to his aid but was shot dead a few meters away from him.

At the age of 31, General Antonio Luna was already dead. Juan Luna, elder brother of Gen Antonio and renowned painter of 'La Spoliarium' died because of extreme disappointment and intense grief shortly after  learning that his youngest brother was assassinated.


Gen Antonio Luna's soldiers, by whose side he had stood loyally, greatly mourned the leader's death and they would always remember him as the one who exhorted them to a profound love of country; the one who had vowed to them:

"I will defend my country until I exhaust the last recourse for the cause... thus complying with my oath to the flag."
 


The Arrest and Execution of Andres Bonifacio

On the morning of April 28, 1897, while Bonifacio was in Limbon, a remote village near Indang town where he had been staying since the tumultuous Tejeros Convention, the Supremo was taken by surprise by a group of armed men led by Col. Agapito Bonzon and Aguinaldo’s brother-in-law Major Jose Ignacio Paua.


Bonifacio's wife, Gregoria de Jesus, affirmed in her letter to Emilio Jacinto, the Katipunan's secretary, that Aguinaldo's troops attacked their camp even as the Supremo had already ordered his men to stop retaliating against their compatriots.

She narrated that her husband was shot, stabbed, and beaten while trying to pacify the attackers. Two men collared her brother-in-law, Ciriaco, before he was gun down and murdered, while Procopio was hog-tied and hit with a revolver.

Seriously wounded on the left arm, Andres Bonifacio was easy prey for Aguinaldo's brother-in-law, Major Ignacio Paua, who then stabbed him on the right side of the neck with a dagger. Blood spurted and made the Supremo dizzy.

When Major Paua made another move to attack and finish the Supremo, Alejandro Santiago rushed forward and pleaded that they take his life instead of the Supremo's.


After the treacherous assault at Limbon, a half-starved and wounded Bonifacio was carried by hammock to Naic, where General Emilio Aguinaldo, who had just been elected President of the Philippine Republic by the Magdalo faction, had set up his headquarters.

The Bonifacio brothers were jailed in a narrow, dark, damp and dirty room under the stairs of a friar estate house and, in the three days they were detained, were fed only twice.

Bonifacio's trial opened in Naik on April 29, a day after his arrest. Aguinaldo's Council of War was directed to try Bonifacio and his associates for the crime of sedition, treason, and of attempting a counterrevolution.

Although there was nothing in the forged testimonies of the false witnesses that could condemn Bonifacio and his brother Procopio to death, Bonifacio's fate was sealed by Emilio Aguinaldo from the start.

His brother Procopio, whose alleged involvement in the so-called counterrevolutionary movement was never proven in the false witnesses' testimonies, was also condemned to death.

All the council members signed the decision, except Brig. Gen. Mariano Riego de Dios, who absented himself.


Gen. Lazaro Makapagal's  Account of  Bonifacio's  Execution

“With some troops, I was ordered to escort the Bonifacio brothers to Mount Buntis. I was instructed to stop before reaching the summit of the mountain at a concealed yet spacious place; there I was to put the prisoners under heavy guard. Then I was to open the sealed letter to be given to me by General Mariano Noriel and to read it to the Bonifacio brothers.

“I followed the instructions carefully ... First I read the letter by myself. When I understood its contents, my lips trembled and I was speechless for some time. Oh, what compassion I felt!

“The instructions said I was to obey strictly the order to shoot the brothers. Should I fail to do so, it would be I who would be shot on my return to headquarters ...

After I had read the order to the prisoners, Procopio wept, embraced Andres, and asked, 'Kuya, paano tayo?'

“Andres did not say a word. He bowed his head and sobbed while bitter tears welled in his eyes and rolled down his cheeks. Not able to bear it, I turned my back, and when I faced them again, the deed was done. My men had fired shots and the poor Bonifacio brothers were prostrate and dead. Then I paid proper respect to their remains.”

The Bonifacio brothers were assassinated on Monday, May 10, 1897. Andres Bonifacio, the Supremo and Father of the Philippine Revolution was only 34 years old.

Aling pag-ibig pa ang hihigit kaya
Sa pagka dalisay at pagka dakila
Gaya ng pag-ibig sa tinubuang lupa?
Aling pag-ibig pa ?
Wala na nga wala..

- Andres Bonifacio

Informations gathered and compiled by Ian-James R. Andres


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