MARANGAL NA DALIT NG
Philippine National Anthem (1896)
Original MIDI Music Sequence by Ian-James
R. Andres 08/22/03
In 1896 Julio
Nakpil, Musician and Revolutionist (1867-1960)
composed a national anthem with a Tagalog title; 'MARANGAL
NA DALIT NG KATAGALUGAN', with lyrics by him, at the
request of Andres Bonifacio, the Supremo of the
Katipunan, the Filipino patriotic revolutionary society.
However after the assassination of A. Bonifacio, General
Emilio Aguinaldo did not declare it the official anthem,
preferring the 'MARCHA FILIPINA MAGDALO', a
composition of Julian Felipe, his fellow Cavitenio which
became our present day Philippine National Anthem (Lupang
Original handwritten lyrics of 'MARANGAL
NA DALIT NG KATAGALUGAN' by Julio Nakpil
Tagalog defined all persons born in
the archipelago, whether Bisayan, Ilocano, Pampango, etc.
Therefore the Tagalog nation or KATAGALUGAN
consisted not only of Tagalog speakers but included all
those who grew up in the Philippines, regardless of
ethnolinguistic classification and ancestry.
At the time, the term Filipino applied
solely to Spaniards born in the archiepelago. Bonifacio
and Jacinto made Tagalog a term applicable to
all indios or natives.
In his unpublished memoir, Ang Paghihimagsik ng
1896-1897 (The Revolution of 1896-1897), the
Revolutionist Carlos V. Ronquillo explains the concept
"Ito ang dapat unawain ng mga bumabasa: sa tawag
naming tagalog na makikita sa bawat dahon halos ng
kasaysayang ito, ay di ang ibig naming sabihiy ang
paris ng palagay ng iba, na inuukol lamang sa tubong
Maynila, Kabite at Bulakan, at iba pa, hinde kundi ang
ibig naming tukuyin ay Filipinas
Sapagkat sa palagay naming ay ganito ang talagang
nararapat ikapit sa tanang anak ng Kapilipinuhan. Ang
tagalog o lalong malinaw, ang tawag na tagalog
ay walang ibang kahulugan kundi tagailog
na sa tuwirang paghuhulo ay taong maibigang manira sa
tabing ilog, bagay na di maikakaila na siyang talagang
hilig ng tanang anak ng Pilipinas, saat saan mang
pulo at bayan."
KKK: Kataas-taasan Kagalang-galang
na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan
Assassination of Bonifacio and Antonio Luna
from Julio Nakpil's 'Apuntes Sobre La Revolucion
(Notes on the Philippine Revolution)
Page 30 'The Death of Bonifacio'
Bonifacio brothers were accused of promoting a
counter revolution to overthrow the power of Aguinaldo."
Unfortunately this slanderous accusation
of Aguinaldo and his partisans was very common in Cavite.
Andres Bonifacio challenged to a duel Emilio Aguinaldo to
settle their differences, saying to him: "If you
are offended by my behavior, name your seconds, hour, and
The only reply of Aguinaldo was to send a company under
the command of Colonel Ingtong (Agapito Monzon) which
found the Bonifacio brothers breakfasting.
The Bonifacios asked them where they were going and
invited them to join them at breakfast, to which they
replied that they had just finished the same, and that
they were going reconnoitering.
Then the Bonifacio brothers, unaware of what was going to
happen to them, continued eating, their firearms being
far from the reach of their hands. Aguinaldo's men
thereupon began to seize the firearms of the Bonifacio
men and when theY became aware of what was happening they
were already disarmed.
Nevertheless, there was, a struggle, but very unequal.
According to the eyewitnesses, the one who stabbed A.
Bonifacio in the neck was Lazaro Makapagal.
The Bonifacios were also accused of drawing away soldiers
from the Revolution in Cavite, the plan of Bonifacio
being to continue the Revolution by joining his forces to
those of Emilio Jacinto and the undersigned (i.e.
Julio Nakpil) who were operating in the provinces of
Manila, Laguna, and Morong. Inquire about this. incident
from Antonino Guevara,- Paciano Rizal, and the brothers
Agaton and Maximo Cecilio, and also the Veteran General
Pio del Pilar and others.,
It was an act of banditry: The jewels and money of the
families of the murdered men were confiscated like war
We mortals are not infallible. Therefore, I suggest to
the historian before taking these notes as verified truth
to investigate carefully, consulting the aforementioned
persons and others, and if perchance the majority confirm
them without passion, accept them as an accomplished fad,
otherwise' reject them as invalid.
Chapter VII, page 103 'The
Death of General Luna'
"....And driven by his patriotic
fervor, he (General Antonio Luna) did not conceal his
desire to be the head of the cabinet with the portfolio
of war to prevent the autonomists or pacifists from
controlling the government of the republic."
They slandered him of wishing to wrest the
presidency from Emilio Aguinaldo, and for that purpose
they invited him to enter the rattrap of Kabanatuan to
enable the very ones whom he had disarmed for cowardice
in different war actions to deal him the deathblow. Do
not lose sight of the fact that the one who invited him (i.e.
Emilio Aguinaldo) to a conference absented himself, which
was a cowardly stratagem.
When General A. Luna was dastardly assassinated on the
stairs of the Convent of Kabanatuan and already fallen on
the ground, the mother of Emilio Aguinaldo looked out the
window and asked: "Ano, humihinga pa ba?" (Is he
The Spanish soldier-prisoners who witnessed this
iniquitous assassination said: "We
admired the valor and intrepidity of General Luna who,
tormented with shots and already fallen to the ground,
could still shout: "Cowardly Cavitenios
History condemns these barbaric acts, He (E, Aguinaldo)
also gave orders to assassinate the undersigned to
Generals Severino Taino and Pio del Pilar who did not
obey the said orders for considering them infamous,
unjust, and without any motive, whatever. It was nothing
more than a mean and despicable order.
General Pio del Pilar himself told me this in his
barracks at San Pedro Makati, when Manila was under
Pages 157 and 158
'The Capture of Aguinaldo'
Emilio Aguinaldo's surrender to the American's was
a cowardly act. There was no doubt that he coveted the
presidency. He surrendered for fear that others more
competent than he would occupy the post of president of
Had he fought with his captors,
regardless of whether he succumbed so that he might be
considered a hero, at least to vindicate his crimes, by
this time we would be admiring a monument to the second
hero of the Philippines, unlike what he did delivering
himself as prisoner and afterward taking an oath of
allegiance to the American flag.
The crimes he committed against Andres Bonifacio and
Antonio Luna, and his attempt to assassinate the
undersigned (i.e. Julio Nakpil) should be
condemned by history, and Universal Freemasonry ought to
expel him and declare him a spurious son. The coward
finds many dangers where none exist!
March, 1897 - A persistent rumor circulated that Andres
Bonifacio was paid by the friars to promote the rebellion
against Spain and also it was said he was sanguinary. Is
this the work of his enemies to discredit him?
Emilio Aguinaldo censured by those from Cavite. On
account of the abuses and immoralities of his soldiers,
such as robberies and rape of married women as well as
single, many complaints were brought to E. Aguinaldo;
but, instead of punishing the culprits, he would reply
invariably: "Please be patient because
we do not pay our soldiers."
Among the despicable ones was a Major surnamed Ritual who
boastfully recounted with the greatest pleasure and
effrontery the following: He and two of his soldiers went
up a house in one of the towns of Cavite finding there
two sisters, single and pretty. As they would not accede
to their satyric de sires, he kicked one of them several
times on the hips, and when the other protested and
shouted for help, then Ritual himself hit them with the
butt of his gun until they fell on the floor; and once
the two sisters had fainted, they succeeded to satisfy
their vile appetite.
Many of these barbarous acts occurred in Cavite
principally, inasmuch as they were left unpunished. Under
Andres Bonifacio and Antonio Luna these cases were
severely punished. Ritual related this in the presence of
Atilano Sta. Ana, two Spanish soldiers who were
deserters, and the undersigned in the town of Cainta. I
was very indignant. Thanks that I was able to refrain
from shooting him with my revolver for fear of committing
Finally, Emilio Aguinaldo ought to give an example of
national solidarity. Considering those murders committed
by him on the precious lives of Bonifacio and Luna and
others their indignant relatives as well as their friends
and the people in general did not rise against him for
the sake of national unity.
His ambition to occupy the presidency is fully
demonstrated when General L. Wood promised it to him (deceiving
him for his own purposes) when we would' be granted our
independence'. It is a common belief that this post would
be occupied by one who held it during the Revolution, and
for this reason he persists in winning sympathy, using as
an instrument the Veterans of the Revolution, endeavoring
to establish throughout the Archipelago Commandancias
Departamentales (Departmental Commands.)
Another reproach against Aguinaldo was his acceptance of
P12,OOO as annual life-pension so that he is already paid
for his services during the Revolution.
He himself destroyed his work due to his excessive
ambition for grandeur and riches, and the like. Had he
renounced this great amount in favor of the invalid
veterans of the Revolution. he would have performed an
act of patriotism and charity.
I swear before God and before History that everything
related in these notes is the truth and I entreat the
historian not to publish this until after my death.
(Signed) JULIO NAKPIL - Year 1925
Antonio Luna's Assassination
Antonio Luna fortified the battle lines of Bagbag and
Santo Tomas, Pampanga, established arsenals and
encouraged material and financial support from civilians.
On May 4,
1899, General Luna was wounded in an encounter with the
Americans at the fortlines of Santo Tomas, Pampanga. While
recuperating from his wounds, he dispatched a patrol to
Benguet hoping to find a site for guerilla activities
against the Americans. General Antonio Luna's tragic
death came unexpectedly on June 17, 1899.
On June 4,
1899, a telegram from Gen Emilio Aguinaldo, arrived
ordering him to go to Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija for a
Conference. He left at once with his aide, Col. Paco
arrived at Aguinaldo's headquarters in Cabanatuan
they learned that he had left for Pampanga. While
going down the stairs of the headquarters, the assassins,
guards who happened to be the same men on whom he had
imposed disciplinary punishments after the battle at
Caloocan, pounced on him, riddled his body with bullets
while others stabbed him.
blindly with his pistol while shouting "Cowards
and assassins! Coward Cavitenios!" Col.
Paco Roman rushed to his aid but was shot dead a few
meters away from him.
age of 31, General Antonio Luna was already dead. Juan
Luna, elder brother of Gen Antonio and renowned painter
of 'La Spoliarium' died because of extreme disappointment
and intense grief shortly after learning that his
youngest brother was assassinated.
Gen Antonio Luna's soldiers, by whose side he had stood
loyally, greatly mourned the leader's death and they would
always remember him as the one who exhorted them to a
profound love of country; the one who had vowed to them:
defend my country until I exhaust the last recourse for
the cause... thus complying with my oath to the flag."
The Arrest and Execution of
morning of April 28, 1897, while Bonifacio was in Limbon,
a remote village near Indang town where he had been
staying since the tumultuous Tejeros Convention, the
Supremo was taken by surprise by a group of armed men led
by Col. Agapito Bonzon and Aguinaldos brother-in-law
Major Jose Ignacio Paua.
Bonifacio's wife, Gregoria de Jesus, affirmed in her
letter to Emilio Jacinto, the Katipunan's secretary, that
Aguinaldo's troops attacked their camp even as the
Supremo had already ordered his men to stop retaliating
against their compatriots.
She narrated that her husband was shot, stabbed, and
beaten while trying to pacify the attackers. Two men
collared her brother-in-law, Ciriaco, before he was gun
down and murdered, while Procopio was hog-tied and hit
with a revolver.
Seriously wounded on the left arm, Andres Bonifacio was
easy prey for Aguinaldo's brother-in-law, Major Ignacio
Paua, who then stabbed him on the right side of the neck
with a dagger. Blood spurted and made the Supremo dizzy.
When Major Paua made another move to attack and finish
the Supremo, Alejandro Santiago rushed forward and
pleaded that they take his life instead of the Supremo's.
After the treacherous assault at Limbon, a half-starved
and wounded Bonifacio was carried by hammock to Naic,
where General Emilio Aguinaldo, who had just been elected
President of the Philippine Republic by the Magdalo
faction, had set up his headquarters.
The Bonifacio brothers were jailed in a narrow, dark,
damp and dirty room under the stairs of a friar estate
house and, in the three days they were detained, were fed
Bonifacio's trial opened in Naik on April 29, a day after
his arrest. Aguinaldo's Council of War was directed to
try Bonifacio and his associates for the crime of
sedition, treason, and of attempting a counterrevolution.
Although there was nothing in the forged testimonies of
the false witnesses that could condemn Bonifacio and his
brother Procopio to death, Bonifacio's fate was sealed by
Emilio Aguinaldo from the start.
His brother Procopio, whose alleged involvement in the so-called
counterrevolutionary movement was never proven in the
false witnesses' testimonies, was also condemned to death.
All the council members signed the decision, except Brig.
Gen. Mariano Riego de Dios, who absented himself.
Gen. Lazaro Makapagal's
Account of Bonifacio's Execution
With some troops, I was ordered to
escort the Bonifacio brothers to Mount Buntis. I was
instructed to stop before reaching the summit of the
mountain at a concealed yet spacious place; there I was
to put the prisoners under heavy guard. Then I was to
open the sealed letter to be given to me by General
Mariano Noriel and to read it to the Bonifacio brothers.
I followed the instructions carefully ... First I
read the letter by myself. When I understood its
contents, my lips trembled and I was speechless for some
time. Oh, what compassion I felt!
The instructions said I was to obey strictly the
order to shoot the brothers. Should I fail to do so, it
would be I who would be shot on my return to headquarters
had read the order to the prisoners, Procopio wept,
embraced Andres, and asked, 'Kuya, paano
Andres did not say a word. He bowed his head and
sobbed while bitter tears welled in his eyes and rolled
down his cheeks. Not able to bear it, I turned my back,
and when I faced them again, the deed was done. My men
had fired shots and the poor Bonifacio brothers were
prostrate and dead. Then I paid proper respect to their
Bonifacio brothers were assassinated on Monday, May 10,
1897. Andres Bonifacio, the Supremo and Father of the
Philippine Revolution was only 34 years old.
pa ang hihigit kaya
Sa pagka dalisay at pagka dakila
Gaya ng pag-ibig sa tinubuang lupa?
Aling pag-ibig pa ?
Wala na nga wala..
- Andres Bonifacio
Informations gathered and compiled by Ian-James