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Credits & Links
World War I Document Archive: Quite an extensive database of official papers, including the Austrian Red Book on WWI's origins as well as the Austrian Ultimatum and rebuttal to the Serbians' reply.

Austro-Hungarian Land Forces 1848-1918:
Almost exactly like my site, more detailed than my site, and created by Glenn Jewison, who has the same first name.  All kinda spooky... Glenn has also been the biggest contributor of images and info to this site.  His sources are endless, so don't miss his Site.

Czech Legion in Italy: Martin Pytr's excellent site concerning a forgotten story of WWI.

The Prussian Machine: A bit like this site, but it's John Viser's German coverage.

Austro-Hungarian Fleet: Vincze Béla György's excellent navy site with lots of photos and stats.

Die Gebirgskrieg in den Dolomiten: Fighting in the rugged Alps from the Austrian point of view.

Tegetthoff Class Warships:
A site describing the fate of Austria's warships.

Prva Svetovna Vojna:
Slovenian site dedicated to WWI in general.

Pour le Mérite:
Germany's "Blue Max" with a listing of WWI awardees.

Avstro-Vengrija: Russian-language site about the dual monarchy and WWI.  Wish there was a Russian site too.

Austro-Hungarian Army Postal Items:
  John Dixon-Nuttall presents an exhibition for the historian and philatelist alike.

Russian Army in World War I:
Andrei Rukkas lets us find out what the other side was up to.

Österreichischen Militärgeschichte:
Dedicated mostly to Austria's armies of the XIX. century.

Causes of World War I:
Find out why World War I was such a big hit.

Axis History (formerly World War I  Factbook):
Marcus Wendel's site dedicated to all participants in World War II..

World War I in the Adriatic:
  Wet n' wild while waging world war.  A Site by Michael Phillips

Austrian War Archive:
  This site overviews the War Museum in Vienna.

Österreichischen Lexikon:
Devoted to Austria's millennium (996-1996), with an encyclopaedia of Austrian places and personalities, though mostly Republic era.

World at War:
  Axel Schudak's and Soren Swigart's focus on the interwar period and WWII.

Trenches on the Web:
  Everybody knows about Mike I.'s entertaining site.

German Historical Museum:
Good source for biographies of German notables.  Also contains a WWI gallery and narrative.  I think there are some English pages.

Museums-net:   Christian Frech's listing of museums in Austria.  Christian has provided some great photos for the benefit of this site!  DEAD LINK!

FEEFHS Map Room:   An organisation dedicated to geneology.  This site is being linked on almost every page so readers have easy access to maps.  These are not the best maps around (the Volhynian one is not so good) but FEEFHS has been around for a long time without changing its address, and will likely stay that way.

Szeged U. Military Collection:   Hungarian Site devoted to WWI and other stuff.

GWS, rev. 7/04
Source List
Adams, Arthur E. Bolsheviks in the Ukraine.  The Second Campaign, 1918-1919. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1963.

Amann, Klaus, Lengauer, Hubert,
Österreich und der Grosse Krieg 1914-1918. Verlag Christian Brandstätter, Vienna 1989.

Baer, C.H.
Der Völkerkrieg—Eine Chronik der Ereignisse seit den 1 Juli 1914. Julius Hoffmann, Stuttgart, 1917.

Bardolff, Carl. 
Deutsch-Österreichisches Soldatentum im Weltkrieg, Jena 1937, Eugen Diederichs Verlag.

Barkeley, Richard. 
The Road to Mayerling.  Life and Death of Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria.  St. Martin's Press, New York, 1958.

Barnes, Harry Elmer. 
In Quest of Truth and Justice--De-Bunking the War Guilt Myth, New York 1972, Arno Press & The New York Times.

Bauer, Ernest. 
Der Letzte Paladin des Reiches--Generoberst Stefan Freiherr Sarkotic von Lovcen, Graz 1988, Verlag Styria.

Bauer, Ernest. 
Der Löwe vom Isonzo--Feldmarschall Svetozar Boroevic von Bojna, Graz 1985, Verlag Styria.

Brusilov, Alexei A.
Moi Vospominaniia. Knigoizdatelstvo “Mir,” Riga, 1929.

Buchan, John. 
A History of the Great War, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company.

Corovic, Vladimir and Alexandra.
Nase pobede sa Svojeruchnim Uvodom. Kultura, Belgrade, 1990.

Cornwall, Mark. 
The Undermining of Austria-Hungary.  The Battle for Hearts and Minds. St. Martin's Press, New York, 2000.

v. Cramon, A. 
Unser Österreich-Ungarischer Bundesgenosse im Weltkrieg--Erinnerungen, Berlin 1920, Ernst Siegfried Mittler und Sohn.

Denscher, Bernhard. 
Gold Gab Ich für Eisen, Vienna 1987, Jugend und Volk Verlagsgeschellschaft.

Die grosse Zeit. Verlag Ullstein & Co., Berlin u. Wien, 1915.

Dyboski, Roman,
Seven Years in Russia and Siberia, Cheshire 1971, Cherry Hill Books.

Edmonds, Sir James E. 
History of the Great War, Military Operations--Italy, 1915-1919, London 1949, His Majesty's Stationary Office.

Eister, Klaus/Steininger, Rolf.
Tirol und der Erste Weltkrieg, Innsbruck 1995, Österreichischer Studien Verlag.

Falls, Cyril. 
The Battle of Caporetto, Philadelphia 1966, J.B. Lippincott Company.

Fedyshyn, Oleh S. 
Germany's Drive to the East and the Ukrainian Revolution, 1917-1918. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, 1971.

Fischer, Fritz. 
Germany's Aims in the First World War, Düsseldorf 1961, Droste Verlag & Druckerei GmbH.

Glaise-Horstenau, Edmund (editor). 
Österreich-Ungarns Letzter Krieg 1914-1918, Vienna 1932, Verlag der Militärwissenschaftlichen Mitteilungen.

Gogg, Karl. 
Österreichs Kriegsmarine 1848-1918. Verlag das Bergland-Buch, Salzburg 1963.

Haager, C., Hoffmann, P., Huter, F., Lang, E., Spielmann, A. 
Die Tiroler Kaiserjäger. Persico Edizioni, Cremona, 1996.

Hantsch, Hugo. 
Leopold Graf Berchtold, Grandsigneur und Staatsman. Verlag Styria, Graz 1963.

Harding, Bertita. 
Imperial Twilight--The Story of Karl and Zita of Hungary. Bobbs-Merill Co., Cornwall NY, 1939.

Harding, Bertita. 
Lost Waltz--A Story of Exile.  Bobbs-Merill Co., Cornwall NY, 1944.

Heiszler, Vilmos/Szakacs, Margit/Vörös, Karoly. 
Photo Habsburg--Frederick Habsburg and his Family, Budapest 1989, Revai Printing House.

Hoffmann, Gen. Max. 
The War of Lost Opportunities. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd., London, 1926.

Horak, Stephan M.,
The First Treaty of World War I, New York 1988, Columbia University Press.

Horne, Charles F. 
Source Records of the Great War, 1923, National Alumni.

Illustrierte Geschichte des Weltkrieges. Union Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft, Berlin, Leipzig, Wien, 1915.

Illustrierte Ostdeutsche Kriegs-Zeitung.
Berlin, 1914.

Jannen, William Jr. 
The Lions of July--Prelude to War, 1914. Presidio Press, Novato, CA, 1996.

Jaszi, Oskar, 
Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Hungary, P.S. King and Son, London 1924.

Jerabek, Rudolf. 
Potiorek--General im Schatten von Sarajevo, Graz 1991, Verlag Styria.

Kiraly, Bela K., Dreisziger, Nandor F., Nofi, Albert A.,
War and Society in East Central Europe, Vol. VI, XIX, New York 1985, Columbia University Press.

Klausmann, Oskar. 
Treue Waffenbrüder. Mars-Verlag, Berlin, 1915.

Klimecki, Michal, Klimczak, Wladyslaw,
Legiony Polskie. Wydawnictwo Bellona, Warsaw 1990.

Klavor, Vasja. 
Monte San Gabriele--Die Isonzofront, Klagenfurt 1998, Verlag Hermagoras/Mohorjeva.

Kleindel, Walter. 
Der Erste Weltkrieg--Daten, Zahlen, Fakten, Vienna 1989, Österreichischer Bundesverlag.

Kopta, J., Langer, F., Medek, R. 
Zborov 1917-1937. Cin Orbis, Prague, 1937.

Kriegs-Echo (later Welt-Echo) Wochen-Chronik. Verlag Ullstein & Co., Berlin, 1918.

Lackey, Scott W. 
The Rebirth of the Habsburg Army--Friedrich Beck and the Rise of the General Staff, Westport 1995, Greenwood Press.

Lichem, Heinz. 
Spielhahnstoss und Edelweiss. Leopold Stocker Verlag, Graz 1977.

Livesley, Anthony. 
The Historical Atlas of World War I, New York 1994, Henry Holt & Co.

Liulevicius, Vejas Gabriel,
War Land on the Eastern Front, Cambridge 2000, Cambridge University Press.

Ludwig, Emil,
July '14, New York 1929, G. P. Putnam's Sons.

de Manteyer, G. 
Austria’s Peace Offeer, 1916-1917. Constable & Co., Ltd., London, 1921.

Marzetti, Paolo. 
La Guerra Italo-Austriaca, 1915-1918. Ermanno Albertelli Editore, Parma 1991.

Mazzetti, Peter Handel. 
Oesterreichisch-ungarische Kriegsmarine vor und im Weltkrieg. Carl Röschnar Verlag, Klagenfurt.

McCullagh, Francis.
Italy’s War for a Desert. F.G. Browne & Co., London, 1913.

Messner, E.
Breakthrough at Lutsk. All-Slavic Publishing House, New York 1968.

Nagy-Talavera, Nicholas. 
The Greenshirts and Others:  The Rise of Fascism in Hungary and Rumania, Stanford 1970, Stanford University Press.

Nelson, Harold I. 
Land and Power--British and Allied Policy on Germany's Frontiers 1916-1919, London 1963, Routledge & Kegan Paul.

New Yorker Staats-Zeitung, Kriegs-Album.
New York, 1915.

Österreichisch-ungarische Kriegsberichte aus Streffleus Militärblatt. L.W. Seidel & Sohn, Vienna, 1915.

Peball, Kurt. 
Conrad von Hötzendorf--Private Aufzeichnungen, Vienna 1977, Amalthea-Verlag.

Polish National Defense Committee,
Album Legjonow Polskich, 1914-1916. Chicago, 1918.

Pribram, Alfred Francis. 
Austrian Foreign Policy, 1908-1918, London 1923, George Allen & Unwin Ltd.

Quirini, Eugenjusz, Librewski, Stanislaw,
Ilustriwana Kronika Legjonow Polskych 1914-1918. Glowna Ksiegarnia Wojskowa, Warsaw 1990.

Radziwill, Catherine. 
Secrets of Dethroned Royalty. John Lane Co., New York 1920.

Ramsauer, Ernest Edmondson. 
The Young Turks--Prelude to the Revolution of 1908. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1957.

Rauchensteiner, Manfried. 
Österreich-Ungarn und der Erste Weltkrieg 1914-1918, Graz 1998, Steierische Verlagsgesellschaft.

Rauchensteiner, Manfried.
Der Tod des Doppeladlers, Graz 1993, Verlag Styria.

Redlich, Josef. 
Emperor Franz Josef of Austria. New York, 1929.

Regele, Oskar. 
Gericht über Habsburgs Wehrmacht. Verlag Herold, Wien 1968.

Der Weltkrieg 1914 bis 1918. E.S. Mittler & Sohn, Berlin, 1930.

Sanders, Liman von. 
Five Years in Turkey. The United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, 1927.

Schaumann, W., Schubert, P.,
Krieg auf der Donau. Mayer Comp, Klosterneuberg/Wien, 2000.

Shilnikov, Gen. I. F.
Zabaikalskaya Kazachya Diviziya v Evropeiskoi Voiny 1914-1918. Harbin, 1933.

Sokol, Hans Hugo. 
Österreich-Ungarns Seekrieg 1914-1918. Akademisch Druck- u. Velagsanstalt, Graz, 1967.

Tomasevich, Jozo. 
War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945. Stanford University Press, Stanford 2001.

U.S. General Staff Military Intelligence Office.  Histories of the Two hundred and fifty one Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1920.

Voinishki Sbornik na Shipchentsi.
Drzhavna Pechatnitsa, Sofia 1917.

Werkmann, Karl Frh. v.
Deutschland als Verbündeter:  Kaiser Karls Kampf um den Frieden. Verlag für Kulturpolitik, Berlin, 1931.

Wheatcroft, Andrew.
The Habsburgs--Embodying Empire, London 1995, Viking.

Woinovich, Emil, Veltzé, Alois,
Aus der Werkstatt des Krieges, Verlag der Manzschen k.u.k. Hof-Verlags- u. Univ.-Buchhandlung, Wien 1915.

Woinovich, Emil, Veltzé, Alois,
Unsere Offiziere, Verlag der Manzschen k.u.k. Hof-Verlags- u. Univ.-Buchhandlung, Wien 1915.

Woinovich, Emil, Veltzé, Alois,
Unsere Soldaten. Verlag der Manzschen k.u.k. Hof-Verlags- u. Univ.-Buchhandlung, Wien 1915.

Zipek, Alois.
Domov za Války. Nakladatelstvi Pokrok, Prague 1929.
About Sources....

My sources for the material presented on this Site are quite varied in quality and consistency, mostly because I have only erratic access to resources.  I rely on scholarly works wherever possible.  I also rely heavily on volunteered information from friendly fellow historians out there who generally have better resources at hand (many thanks to you all!).  Concerning copyrights, articles that I have written are identified with a "GWS," and are my development.  (Please give proper credit if you reproduce anything of mine on another site.)  There are some reproduced articles on this site, and the authors' names and/or sources are noted.

When those sources are lacking, I refer to information and data found in contemporary resources, including newspaper articles and common-grade "books for the masses" that were popular reading material during the war.  The problem with these sources is that they are filled with huge numbers of errors, both in spelling and in presentation of fact.  They were more interested in getting a story, usually a propagandistic story, out to the people, and less interested in giving accurate data.  So, I present their facts as truth until further research indicates otherwise.  This is the internet, not a doctoral dissertation.  I post material first, and then make corrections afterwards--in fact, it seems like every time I view a page, I must fix something that's wrong.  But then, that's how it goes.  Happily, the site is always improving.  And, an increasing number of visitors send me advice and criticisms that help improve data quality. 

Photos come from both books and from other sites on the Web.  As this is a not-for-profit venture, I am free to post many unique photos without security and take from other sites as well.  There is no intent to defraud the original owners of these photos, and I must warn those who copy these photos that they must acquire permission from the owners if they intend to use the photos in any published material that generates income.

With that, thanks again to all who have helped with this project!

GWS, 3/01 [rev. 4/04]