Maps: History and Projections
- demonstrate an understanding of spatial organization components (e.g. place, location, region, pattern);
- identify and analyse patterns of spatial organization, including land use, population distribution and ecozones;
Prior Knowledge Required:
This lesson is fairly straightforward.  Students should have access to a globe with which they can make conclusions regarding the usage of projections.  In supplementary lessons students will need to have prior experience using ArcView GIS software.  If students have not yet had this experience schedule in a period to work with the introductory lessons.
- enough oranges to allow for one per student
- globe(s)
- enough atlases for at least one per two students
- one black indelible marker per student
- one spoon per student/2 students
- copies of different projections on overheads
- computer lab and ArcView GIS software for supplementary lessons
- for students with limited arm/hand movements have them work with a partner, or give them a large piece of fruit (i.e. grapefruit)
Content and Learning Strategies:

1.  Short lecture on the history of maps and projections (see lecture notes).

Creating an edible globe (copied freely with attribution to A. Lewandowski):

2.  Provide each student with an orange/or grapefruit(as round as possible).

3.  Using indelible markers, start students off by asking them to add major gridlines to the mini-globe (Equator, Prime Meridien, Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer).  Have students use an atlas if necessary.

4.  Using an atlas has students draw as neatly as possible the outline of the continents onto the surface of the orange.

5.  When the maps are completed capture the completed image with a digital camera/or regular camera with the fruit resting on a black (construction paper) background.

6.  On the completed fruit globe, make a careful incision around the equator.  Use a teaspoon or tablespoon to carefully lift the two hemispheres off the fruit.

7.  Have students gently lay each hemisphere on their desk top.

8.  Have students create an uncontrolled projection by smashing one of the hemispheres flat.  Have students record in their notes where the tears occured and how it distorts the projections. 
9.  Using the second half of the orange have the students try to carefully control where the tears occur, so as to create the least distortion of the landmasses on the hemisphere...a controlled projection.

10.  Take a final picture of the students best projection.  These pictures can be developed and evaluated or used on a display board.

11. Have students record their observations of the second projection.  Compare these observations to the specifics for various projections
(see chart).

Assessment and Evaluation:

You may choose to assess each projection, however I would recomment spending the time assessing the students under the Thinking/Inquiry section of the achievement chart.
Future Application:
Have students complete the ArcView GIS lesson if they have access to the program.  View all Arc Lessons :
Select the Orange Lesson.