Grammar of Interlingua

A Grammar of Interlingua

Alexander Gode & Hugh Blair | IALA 1951

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Word Building

Nouns derived from nouns

§138

Nouns are derived FROM NOUNS by means of the suffixes listed below. On the formation of nouns representing females parallel to nouns in -o representing males, see §24 above.

-ada
  1. 'product made from ...' e.g.
    limon 'lemon' > limonada 'lemonade';
    new formation: persica 'peach' > persicada 'peachade (peach drink)';
  2. 'series of ...' e.g.
    columna 'column' > columnada 'colonnade';
    new formation: fenestra 'window' > fenestrada 'row of windows'
    Note: For derivatives from verbs, see §152.
-age
(pron. -aje) 'collection of ...' e.g.
folio 'leaf' > foliage;
new formation: fructo 'fruit' > fructage 'fruitage'
Note: Spelled -agi- before -a- or -o- of additional suffix. For derivatives from verbs, see §152.
-alia
'worthless collection of ...' e.g.
ferro 'iron' > ferralia 'scrap iron';
new formation: papiro 'paper' > papiralia 'waste paper'; also: 'old papers, heaps of working papers, etc.'
-ano
  1. 'native, citizen, or inhabitant of ...' e.g.
    Africa > africano 'African';
    new formation: Atlanta > atlantano 'Atlantan';
  2. 'language of ...' e.g.v Italia 'Italy' > italiano 'Italian';
    new formation: Samoa > samoano 'Samoan';
  3. 'adherent or follower of ...' e.g.
    Mohammed > mohammedano 'Mohammedan';
    new formation: Wesley > wesleyano 'Wesleyan'
Note: Used with names of places and persons. In the case of place names not ending in -a or -o as also of all names of persons, the euphonic variant -iano is to be preferred, e.g.
Marte 'Mars' > martiano 'Martian.' The corresponding adjective form is -an (-ian). In senses (1) and (3) the corresponding feminine is -ana (-iana). In senses (1) and (2) synonym of -ese. In senses (1) and (3) synonym of -ita.
-ario
  1. 'person concerned with or characterized by ...' e.g.
    mission > missionario 'missionary';
    new formation: ferrovia 'railroad' > ferroviario 'railwayman'
    Note: Synonym of -ero and -ista which differ from it in that -ero stresses professional concern while -ista suggests a person's preoccupation (professional or avocational) with a system, a science, an art, etc. Parallel forms in both -ario and -ero are often possible. The corresponding adjective form is -ari. The corresponding feminine is -aria.
  2. 'collection of ...' e.g.
    vocabulo 'word' > vocabulario 'vocabulary'; herba 'herb' > herbario 'herbarium';
    new formations: proverbio 'proverb' > proverbiario 'collection of proverbs'; insecto 'insect' > insectario 'insectarium';
  3. 'place containing ...' e.g.
    grano 'grain' > granario 'granary';
    new formation: feno > fenario 'hayloft, haymow'
-astro
  1. 'inferior or worthless ...' e.g.
    poeta 'poet' > poetastro 'poetaster';
    new formation: judice 'judge' > judiciastro 'blundering judge';
  2. 'related through remarriage of a parent' e.g.
    patre 'father' > patrastro 'stepfather'
Note: Used with nouns indicating male beings. The corresponding feminine is -astra.
-ata
'contents of or quantity contained in one ...' e.g.
coclear 'spoon' > coclearata 'spoonful';
new formation: calice 'chalice' > caliciata 'chaliceful'
-ato
'function, status, rank, jurisdiction, period of office, or territory of a ...' e.g.
duce 'duke' > ducato 'duchy, dukedom'; novicio 'novice' > noviciato 'novitiate';
new formations: capitano 'captain' > capitanato 'captaincy'; discipulo 'disciple'> discipulato 'discipleship'
-eria
(pron. -er`ia)
  1. 'place where... is made, worked, kept, or sold' e.g.
    lacte > 'milk' lacteria 'dairy';
    new formation: instrumento 'tool' > instrumenteria 'tool shop';
  2. 'art, craft, trade, or practice of working with...; also: the product of such work' e.g.
    drappo 'cloth' > drapperia 'drapery';
    new formation: arco 'bow' > archeria 'archery';
  3. 'behavior of a... or like that of a ...' e.g.
    diabolo 'devil' > diaboleria 'deviltry';
    new formation: clown > clowneria 'clownery'
Note: In senses (1) and (2) the corresponding agent form is -ero. Coincides with -ero plus -ia. For derivatives from verbs see §152.
-ero
'one who works with or deals in ...' e.g.
barba 'beard' > barbero 'barber'; banca 'bank' > banchero 'banker';
new formation: ambulantia 'ambulance' > ambulantiero 'ambulance driver'
Note: Further derivatives in -ia coincide with formations in -eria. Corresponding adjectives are often formed in -ari. The corresponding feminine is -era. Synonym of -ario and -ista.
-ese
  1. 'native, citizen, or inhabitant of ...' e.g.
    Geneva > genevese 'Genevese';
    new formation: Salamanca > salamanchese 'Salamanquese';
  2. 'language of ...' e.g.
    Japon 'Japan' > japonese 'Japanese';
    new formation: Brooklyn > brooklynese 'Brooklynese'
Note: No distinct form for the feminine, but cf. the synonyms -ano, -iano. In sense (1) also synonym of -ita. Identical in form and corresponding in meaning to adjectival -ese (see §139).
-essa
  1. 'female ...' e.g.
    tigre 'tiger' > tigressa 'tigress';
    new formation: vulpe 'fox' > vulpessa 'vixen';
  2. 'wife of a ...' e.g.
    conte 'count' > contessa 'countess';
    new formations: mayor > mayoressa 'mayoress'; inca 'Inca' > inchessa 'wife of the Inca'
Note: Synonym of -a which is to be preferred when the male ends in -o. See §24.
-eto
'grove of... trees' e.g.
pino 'pine' > pineto 'pine grove';
new formation: orangiero 'orange tree' > orangiereto 'orange grove'
-etto, -etta
'little, small, or minor ...' e.g.
hacha 'ax' > hachetta 'hatchet'; pacco 'pack, bundle' > pacchetto 'package, packet';
new formations: boteca 'shop, store' > botechetta 'little shop'; uxor 'wife' > uxoretta 'little wife, wifie'; poeta 'poet' > poetetto, poetetta 'little poet, little poetess'
Note: The endings -o and -a express male and female. When no sex is involved, -etta is used with nouns in -a, -etto in all other cases.
-ia
(pron '-ia) 'country, province or region of the ...s, or named for ...' e.g.
arabe 'Arab' > Arabia;
new formations: Tocharo 'Tocharian' > Tocharia; Wilson > Wilsonia
Note: Used with names of peoples and persons; for derivatives from adjectives, see §141.
-ia
(pron. -'ia)
  1. 'state, quality, status or jurisdiction of (a, an) ...' e.g.
    abbate 'abbot' > abbatia 'abbacy, abbotcy';
    new formation: capitano 'captain' > capitania 'captaincy, captainship';
  2. 'art, science, or practice, also profession, establishment, etc. of (a, an) ...' e.g.
    geologo 'geologist' > geologia 'geology'; idolatra 'idolater' > idolatria 'idolatry';
    new formations: radiotoxicologo 'radiotoxicologist' > radiotoxicologia 'radiotoxicology'; heliolatra 'sun worshiper, hellolater' > heliolatria 'sun worship, heliolatry'; bottinero 'shoemaker' > bottineria 'shoemaker's trade or shop'
Note: Used mostly with compounds. Coincides with -eria when used with formations in -ero. For derivatives from adjectives, see §141.
-ica
'science or study of the ...' e.g.
electron > electronica 'electronics';
new formation: phonema 'phoneme' > phonemica 'phonemics'
Note: Used principally in formations parallel to adjectives in -ic (see §139) and nouns in -ico.
-ico
'one skilled in the art or science of ...' e.g.
historia 'history' > historico 'historian';
new formation: theoria 'theory' > theorico 'theoretician'
Note: Used principally in formations parallel to adjectives in -ic (see §139).
-iera
  1. 'that which contains, covers, or protects ...' e.g.
    sucro 'sugar' > sucriera 'sugar bowl';
    new formation: bira 'beer' > biriera 'beer can, growler';
  2. 'field, mine, quarry, etc. where... grows or is found' e.g.
    ris 'rice' > risiera 'rice field';
    new formation: baca 'berry' > bachiera 'berry patch'
-iero
'tree, bush, plant, etc. bearing or producing ...s' e.g.
amandola 'almond' > amandoliero 'almond tree';
new formation: corco 'cork' > corchiero 'cork tree'
Note: Fruit names in -a have often parallel tree names in -o (e.g.
persica-persico; pira-piro). In such cases the formation in -iero is synonymous with that in -o.
-il
'place where ...s are kept' e.g.
can 'dog' > canil 'kennel';
new formation: tauro 'bull' > tauril 'bull pen'
Note: Used with names of animals.
-ina
'substance made from, characterizing, related to, etc., ...' e.g.
caseo 'cheese' > caseina 'casein';
new formation: globulo 'globule' > globulina 'globulin'
Note: Used chiefly as technical (chemical) suffix.
-ismo
  1. 'state or practice of being a ...' e.g.
    despota 'despot' > despotismo 'despotism';
    new formation: gigante 'giant' > gigantismo 'giantism';
  2. [Med.] abnormal condition resulting from excess of ...' e.g.
    plumbo 'lead' > plumbismo 'plumbism, lead poisoning';
    new formation: caffeina 'caffein' > caffeinismo 'caffeinism';
  3. 'doctrine or practice of, or concerned with ...' e.g.
    Calvin > calvinismo 'Calvinism';
    new formation: Tito > titoismo 'Titoism';
  4. 'something characteristic of..., or of the language of ...' e.g.
    hellen 'Hellene' > hellenismo 'Hellenism';
    new formation: Brooklyn > brooklynismo 'Brooklynism'
Note: Often parallel to nouns in -ista and to verbs in -isar and subject to interpretation as derivative from -isar with the meaning 'action, process, practice, etc. of ...izing.' For derivatives from adjectives, see §141.
-ista
  1. 'one who practices the art or science of ...' e.g.
    biologia 'biology' > biologista 'biologist'; tympano 'drum' > tympanista 'drummer, tympanist';
    new formations: radiographia 'radiography, x-ray photography' > radiographista 'x-ray photographer'; saxophono 'saxophone' > saxophonista 'saxophonist';
  2. adherent of the doctrine of...' e.g.
    Calvin > calvinista 'Calvinist'; evolution > evolutionista 'evolutionist';
    new formation: Cesare 'Caesar' > cesarista 'Caesarist'; collaboration > collaborationista 'collaborationist'
Note: Often parallel to nouns in -ismo and verbs in -isar and subject to interpretation as derivative from -isar with the meaning 'one who ...izes or believes in -izing.' In sense (1) synonym of -ario and -ero. For derivatives from adjectives, see §141.
-ita
  1. 'inhabitant, citizen or native of ...' e.g.
    Neapole 'Naples' > neapolita 'Neapolitan';
    new formation: Brooklyn > brooklynita 'Brooklynitic';
  2. member, adherent, or partisan of ...' e.g.
    Jacobo 'James' > jacobita 'jacobite';
    new formation: Truman > trumanita 'Trumanite'
Note: No distinction in form of male and female, but cf. the synonyms -ano, -iano. In sense (1) also synonym of -ese.
-ite
'rock or other mineral containing..., resembling ..., characterized by .., related to ...' e.g.
ligno 'wood' > lignite 'lignite'; meteoro 'meteor' > meteorite 'meteorite';
new formation: Wyoming > wyomingite 'Wyomingite'
Note: Used chiefly in technical (mineralogical) terms.
-itis
'inflammatory disease of the ...' e.g.
appendice 'appendix' > appendicitis 'appendicitis';
new formation: esophago 'esophagus' > esophagitis
Note: Used with names of parts of the body, chiefly in technical (medical) terms.
-oide
'something like, or shaped like ...' e.g.
anthropo- 'man' > anthropoide 'anthropoid'; globo 'globe' > globoide 'globoid';
new formations: entomo- 'insect' > entomoide 'entomoid'; disco 'disk' > discoide 'discoid'
Note: Used chiefly in technical terms. Often to be taken as substantivized form of adjectives in -oide.
-osis
'abnormal or diseased condition, state, or process of the..., caused by ..., characterized by . .., etc.' e.g.
neuro- 'nerve' > neurosis; tuberculo 'tubercle' tuberculosis;
new formation: halito 'breath' > halitosis
Note: Used chiefly in technical (medical) words. The corresponding adjectives are formed in -otic.


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