MULTIPLE CHOICE

MULTIPLE CHOICE.  This test contains 130 Multiple Choice Questions.  10 questions from each of the first 13 chapters exactly.   Each Question is worth 0.769 points each.  You have about 35 seconds to answer each question (76 minutes total, so bring your pencil already sharpened!).  Good Luck!

Chapter 01

1. What separates pop psych from real psychology?

 

2.Which of the following is NOT one of the critical-thinking guidelines listed in the text?  (you will be given 3 actual one and one that is not)

 

3.What are the biggest differences between the great thinkers of history and today's psychologists?

 

4.Who are each of the following people and why are they primarily important in the field of psychology?  Which was the first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science?

 Joseph Gall.          E. B. Titchener.      Sigmund Freud. 

Wilhelm Wundt.                                   William James. 

 

5. Be able to define each of these schools of thought.  What are the basic components of each? 

A)Humanism  B) Structuralism 

C)Functionalism  D) Behaviorism 

 

6.Who was the founder of functionalism?

 

7.Know the important modern perspective in psychology. (be able to list them) 

 

8.An important movement in psychology that emerged in the early 1970s was? (hint it was also a social movement in history, Think Hillary)

 

9.What are the major professional activities of psychologists? 

 

10.Be able to identify which  practitioners typically have a Ph.D. or other doctoral degree in psychology?  Which have M.D?  Which may not have any D at all?

 

Chapter 02

11.           Define the following terms   

A)experiment                        B) operational definition 

C)theory                                D) hypothesis 

 

12.An ideal scientist should (list all that would apply)

 

13.An advantage of case studies is ? 

 

14.What method would be most appropriate to study maternal behavior in chimpanzees? 

 

15.An advantage of an experiment is?

 

16.An advantage of a survey is?

 

17  What is a single blind study?  Why do it?  What is a double blind study?  What is the main purpose?

 

18.Statistical significance means what? 

 

19.Why are cross-sectional studies important?  What do they allow researchers to determine?

 

20.Why do  psychologists study animals? 

 

Chapter 03

21.What does nativism emphasize?

 

22.________ emphasizes the evolutionary mechanisms that might help explain similarities in behavior. 

 

23.What are genes?  What are chromosomes?  What are genetic markers?  What is a genome?  Which one of the above  are the functional units of heredity that code for the structure of proteins?

 

24.How do evolutionary psychologists view the mind? 

 

25.Know the support for the existence of an innate language acquisition device? 

 

26.________ is the founder of the field of sociobiology. 

 

27.Sociobiologists predict that, compared to females, males are….. (think sexual behavior patterns)

 

28.What can heritability explain for us?

 

 29.Do estimates of the heritability of intelligence increase or decrease with age or stay the same?: 

 

30.What do each of the following have in common as it related to mental ability? 

 Stressful family circumstances 

Poor prenatal care

 Malnutrition 

 

Chapter 04

31.What are the two parts of the central nervous system? 

 

32.What are the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system? 

 

33.What is the part of a neuron that sends information to other cells? 

 

34.What happens when an action potential reaches the axon terminal? 

 

35.What substances play a role in suppressing pain and promoting pleasure? 

 

36.What structure in the brain plays a role in drives associated with survival of the individual and the species? 

 

37.What structure is referred to as the body's "master gland" because it controls many other endocrine glands? 

 

38.What brain structure evaluates incoming sensory information and determines its emotional importance? 

 

39.What structure was surgically removed from H.M.'s brain causing him to have severe memory problems? 

 

40.Which lobe of cortex processes auditory information?  Visual information?  Somatosensory information?

 

Chapter 05

41.  What is a circadian rhythm?   

 

42.The pineal gland secretes ________, a hormone that helps to keep the biological clock in phase with the light-dark cycle. 

 

43.Know the research about PMS ? 

 

44.There are ________ stages of NREM sleep. 

 

45.In ________, a person experiences sudden unpredictable and irresistible attacks of sleepiness during the day. 

 

46.The ________ theory of dreaming suggests that dreaming is simply a continuation of our daytime thinking. 

 

47.A ________ drug causes disruption of normal thought processes such as the perception of time and space. 

 

48.________ is an example of a depressant drug. 

 

49.________ refers to a person's expectations about the effects of a drug. 

 

50.The dissociation theory of hypnosis was proposed by whom?

 

Chapter 06

51. How many senses do experts agree humans have (not a common sense question)

 

52.Johannes Muller's doctrine of specific nerve energies describes what form of  coding?

 

53. What allows a researcher to distinguish between a person's response bias and his or her actual sensory capacity. 

 

54. The color or hue that we perceive is related to the ________ of light. 

 

55. What are the differences between rods and cones?

 

56.Hubel and Wiesel discovered feature detector cells that respond selectively to  what?

 

57.The Gestalt psychologists were especially interested in research about what kind of perception?

 

58.The auditory receptors are located in the what specific part?

 

59.The gate-control theory helps to explain the perception of  which human experience?

 

60.What are critical periods?  How can they effect development?  What research about kittens helped to discover this?

 

Chapter 07

 61.In Pavlov's studies of classical conditioning in dogs, know what each of the following was in the experiment? 

A)conditioned response  B) unconditioned stimulus 

C)conditioned stimulus  D) unconditioned response 

 

62.________ occurs when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented with the unconditioned stimulus. 

A)Stimulus generalization  B) Spontaneous recovery 

C)Learning  D) Extinction 

 

63. you will be provided with examples and will have to know which of the following applies to the situation .

A)spontaneous recovery  B) stimulus generalization  C)extinction

 

64.In the "Little Albert" study, what was the unconditioned stimulus? 

 

65.Be able to identify a difference between classical and operant conditioning? (not just by definition either) 

 

66.be able to identify a secondary reinforcer among choices.  Be able to identify primary reinforcers among choices. 

 

67.What procedure would be used to teach pigeons to play ping pong? 

 

68.Which of the following would be most effective in eliminating a phobia in an adult? 

 

69.Edward Tolman demonstrated ________ in his study of rats who initially received no reinforcement in a maze. 

 

70.Social-learning theory, developed initially by Dollard and Miller, proposes that most human learning is a result of  what type of learning?

 

Chapter 08

71.In the Stanford prison study, what was it that caused the guards to treat the prisoners harshly? 

 

72.Explain how each of the following types of errors can be used to explain either error in our own behavior or in others.

 

 73. how might familiarity and validity be used as common reasons for a change of attitude?

 

 74. What is one of the most common but least effective techniques for trying to change someone's attitude? 

 

75.List the  signs of groupthink? 

 

76.What is the most common explanation of bystander apathy? 

 

77.list some ways that stereotypes distort reality? 

 

78.Who conducted an experiment on conformity in which people were asked to judge the length of lines? 

 

79.  List some reasons that people conform to social pressure? 

 

80. List the types of functions served by prejudice? 

 

Chapter 09

81.  know what each of the following are by definition    A)proposition  B) cognitive heuristic

C)prototype  D) cognitive schema 

 

82.   what type of process lies outside of awareness, but can be brought into consciousness when necessary?

 

83.  Be able to differentiate between formal and informal reasoning?   

 

84.  In the ________ stages, people assume that a correct answer always exists and can be obtained through the senses or from authorities. 

 

85  know each of the following terms   A)Mental set  B) Confirmation bias 

C)Hindsight bias  D) The availability heuristic 

 

86.________ is a state of tension that exists when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are inconsistent with one another. 

 

87._What type of intelligence refers to the practical application of intelligence. 

 

88.To qualify as a language, a communication system must meet all of the following criteria EXCEPT: 

A)productivity. B) displacement. 

C)meaningfulness.  D) metacognition.  

 

89.Which of the following animals learned to understand English words, short sentences, and keyboard symbols without formal training? 

A)Alex, an African gray parrot  B) Sultan, a chimpanzee 

C)Kanzi, a bonobo  D) Rico, a border collie 

 

90.________ is the tendency to falsely attribute human qualities to nonhuman beings. 

A)Anthropomorphism   B) Cognitive ethology 

C)Human bias  D) Anthropodenial 

 

Chapter 10

91  Know the following types of memory    A)Episodic  B) Semantic  C) Flashbulb  D) Declarative 

 

92. What is confabulation?

 

93.Which of the following is NOT related to errors in eyewitness testimony? 

A)Leading questions and suggestive comments are made in interviews of the witness. 

B)The ethnicity of the suspect differs from that of the witness. 

C)The witness is not very confident about his/her recollection. 

D)Misleading information is presented to the witness. 

 

94.  Know the following terms by definition  A)Recall  B) Implicit memory 

C)Recognition  D) Explicit memory 

 

95.In the three-box model of memory, ________ has a capacity of seven plus or minus two chunks of information. 

 

96.The ________ model represents information as flowing from one system to another. 

 

97.Know the various types of long term memory.

 

98.In work with rabbits, Richard Thompson showed that one type of procedural memory, classical conditioning of an eye blink response, depends on activity in which part of the brain?

 

99.Know how each of the following effect memory.  A)interference  B) cue-dependent 

C)replacement  D) decay 

 

100.What are the possible explanations of childhood amnesia according to the text? 

 

Chapter 11

101.________ are considered to be universal and biologically based. 

 

102.  Which of the following is a secondary emotion? 

A)anger  B) love  C) disgust  D) fear 

 

103.Ekman and his colleagues gathered evidence supporting the universality of (how many?) facial expressions of emotion?

 

104.Infants begin to alter their behavior in response to adult facial expressions at about what  age? 

 

105.________ is the process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed. 

 

106.List the  factors that influences a person's ability to recognize facial expressions? 

 

107.  What part of the brain is responsible for quickly assessing danger or threat? 

 

108.What are the first emotion words learned by a child? 

 

109.How do  men and women differ in terms of expressing emotions? 

 

110.List healthy ways to cope with anger? 

 

Chapter 12

111. Be able to pick out examples of extrinsic motivation? And of intrinsic motivation. 

 

112.________  theory refers to a genetically determined weight range for an individual that is maintained by biological mechanisms. 

 

113.What percent of American children and teenagers are now overweight or obese? 

 

114. List the cultural factors causing a worldwide rise in weight? 

 

115. A person with a(n) ________ attachment style will find that others are reluctant to get as close as he would like and he worries that his partner won't stay with him. 

 

116.Over time ________ typically decreases in relationships. 

 

117.Which of the following motives for sex do men endorse most strongly? 

 

118.  List the conditions that increase the motivating power of a goal?

 

119.what is the difference between approach goals and avoidance goals?

 

120.Which of the following is NOT one of the top four psychological needs identified in a study of U.S. and South Korean college students? 

A)security  B) autonomy  C) relatedness  D) competence 

 

Chapter 13

121.By the end of the twentieth century, biological research was demonstrating that about half of the variation in personality traits was due to: 

A)psychological factors.  B) cultural factors. 

C)brain differences.  D) genetic variation. 

 

122.In psychoanalysis, the part of the personality that represents reason and good sense and responds to reality is called: 

 

123.__you will be given a scenario and will have to choose which defense mechanism best fits it. 

A)Denial  B) Projection   C)Sublimation  D) Displacement 

 

124.  Know Freud’s psychosexual stages of personality development

 

125.  which major trait theorist recognized that not all traits have equal weight and significance in people's lives? 

 

126.  Know the Big Five Personality traits

 

127.________ is an estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait among individuals within a group that is attributable to genetic differences. 

A)Factor analysis  B) Heritability 

C)Reciprocal determinism  D) Congruence 

 

128.________ is defined as a two-way interaction between aspects of the environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits. 

A)Parallel interaction  B) Social-cognitive interaction 

C)Reciprocal determinism  D) Nature-nurture theory 

 

129.  Compare members of individualist cultures to those in collectivist cultures 

 

130.David is struggling with the concept of free will and the way in which it confers on us responsibility for our actions. This is an emphasis in the personality theory of which famous humanist?

 

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