Final Exam Review
1. The first person to propose that the scientific method could be applied to the study of social life was ?
2. The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine known as ?
3. Karl Marx suggested that the force which drives human history and is at the core of human progress is what?
4. The early European sociologist known for his work on suicide and social integration was whom?
5. Who came up with the phrase “survival of the fittest" ?
6. What is Jane Addams remembered for most?
7. The first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University, spent his lifetime studying race relations in America, and was one of the founders of the NAACP was ?
8. Explain each of the following: A)latent dysfunctions B) manifest functions C) latent functions
9. What do functionalists generally about the family as it exists today ?
10. Karl Marx believed the key element in understanding human history is to understand what?
11. In terms of studying society, functionalist and conflict theorists tend to focus on what level? What about symbolic interactionsists?
12. Jewelry, art, hairstyles and clothing each represent examples what type of culture?
13. In 1906 sociologist William Sumner made the comment, "One's own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it." This statement is most aligned with what concept?
14. What are gestures and how are they used?
15. Define each of the following terms: A)mores B) sanctions C) values D) norms
16. What is the difference between a negative sanction and a positive sanction? Give an example of each.
17. Know each of the following terms and how they might be applied: A)subdominant culture B) underground culture C)subculture D) counterculture
18. What is meant by the "Nature vs. Nurture" argument regarding socialization?
19. How is intimate early social interaction important when it comes to isolated and institutionalized children?
symbolic interactionist who taught at the
21. Explain how gender socialization works. Summarize the information from the text about it.
22. Who is socialized to be more dependent males or females?
23. The primary source of gender socialization is?
24. The conclusion Melissa Milkie reached after analyzing the influence that movies and television had on the social development of children was?
25. Individuals who are approximately the same age, linked by common interests, and include classmates and the "kids in the neighborhood" are most appropriately referred to as?
26. What have researchers found about the more hours per week that children were in daycare per week and the bond between mothers?
27. What is the difference between micro and macro level of analysis?
28. Know what each of the following are: social class,social status, role, class, status, category
29. Signs that identify a position in society someone occupies are referred to as ________. 33) ______
30. Those expectations that define appropriate or inappropriate behavior for the occupant of a status are ?
31. The organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs are referred to as ________.
32. The notion that the mass media represents the varied interests of many groups would reflect a position consistent with ________ theory.
33. Theorists who would argue that the mass media represents the interests of society's political and economic elites would be most aligned with the ________ perspective.
34. The social institution primarily responsible for the production and distribution of goods and services is the ________.
35. Ferdinand Tonnies' term for the type of society he referred to as "the intimate community" was ________. The term he used to describe the type of society characterized by "impersonal association" was ________.
36. Hilda is studying at the library. She has placed her coat on the chair next to her and has spread books in front of the other chairs. Hilda is trying to extend her ________ so others do not invade it.
37. People who interact with one another and think of themselves as belonging together are referred to as a[n] ________.
38. The largest and most complex type of group is ________.
39. Of the following types of societies, the one with the fewest social divisions is the ________ society.
40. Of all types of societies, the ________ society is the most egalitarian.
41. The so-called "dawn of civilization" occurred soon after the ________.
42. Which of the following changes in society was not the result of the development of the agricultural society?
43. A society that is based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels is called a[n] ________ society.
44. Sociologically, all college women who belong to a sorority would be called ________.
45. Because secondary groups do not satisfy our human needs for intimate associations, these groups tend to ________.
46. Of the following groups, the one that plays the most significant role in the development of self is the ________.
47. Groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves are called ________ groups.
48. The link between people, their cliques, their families, friends, and acquaintances are called ________.
49. Mark has been working at the Palisades Insurance Company for two years. During this time, he has attended all the company functions, joined one of the established churches in the community, and is a member of the Chamber of Commerce. His participation in these various groups and events is termed ________.
50. The conclusion Milgram reached based on his small group phenomenon experiment was:
51. With respect to group size, Georg Simmel noted that ________.
52. The smallest possible group is classified as a ________.
53. How groups influence us and how we affect groups is referred to as ________.
54. According to Simmel, which of the following groups is the most unstable?
55. In a triad there are ________ potential relationships. In a group of seven there are ________ potential relationships.
56. Which traits are most characteristic of a leader?
57. The leadership style that has a tendency to encourage either aggressive or apathetic behavior among group members with aggressive members growing increasingly hostile towards their leader is ________.
58. As the instrumental leader of a group, your responsibility would be to ________.
59. The concept of "groupthink" was developed by ________.
60. Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity demonstrated what?
61. In group decision making, a form of tunnel vision that develops in which suggested alternatives are perceived as signs of disloyalty is called ________.
62. A specific form of norms that are written into a comprehensive code and enforced by the state are ________.
63. Erving Goffman used the term ________ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.
World War II, many Japanese pilots committed suicide by crashing their planes
loaded with explosives into
65. Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as not being worthy to be members of a group are called ________.
66. In any society, what is the primary role of norms?
67. Based on differential association theory, delinquents are more likely to come from ________.
68. Susie is a first year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. She fears the shame and disappointment it may create for her parents if she happened to be arrested. Such a situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ________.
69. By focusing attention on the significance of the meanings that names and reputations have for people, labeling theory reflects the ________ perspective.
70. The theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them is ________ theory.
71. According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.
72. At the core of the theory of deviance popularized by Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin is that deviance and crime are created primarily because of differences in the ________ of the environment where people live.
73. Based on strain theory, the most common mode of adaptation is ________.
74. Conflict theorists classify the few who own the means of production as ________ and those who sell their labor to these owners as ________.
75. People who rank close to one another in wealth, power, and prestige constitute what Max Weber called a ________.
76. The primary dimension of social class is ________.
77. The money someone receives as wages, rent, interest, royalties, or business interest is collectively referred to as ________.
78. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the distribution of property among Americans?
to the textbook, the most affluent group in the
80. Mary is a high school dropout who does laundry services for families in the apartment complex where she lives. Although she has the potential to do steadier work that would pay more, reading the want-ads is too challenging for her. Based on this information, Mary is probably a member of the ________.
81. What did the research by Kohn suggest as being the primary influence upon the parents in what they emphasized as they reared their children?
82. As one's social class decreases, their chances of being a victim of crime ________.
83. Politically, the class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the ________.
84. When individuals experience sudden status inconsistency created by an unexpected event, such as winning a multimillion dollar lottery jackpot, they are likely to experience a condition sociologists call ________.
85. How does social class affect one's political choices in regards to their party affiliation and pattern of voting behavior?
the majority of the poor in the
and conservatives alike agree on three major points to reduce the high rate of
child poverty in
88. The classic experiment addressing the power of peer pressure that included six "stooges" and one actual test subject was the ________.
89. Define the following terms: common sense, neutrality, objectivity, basic sociology, applied sociology , values, norms,
90. Folkways, taboo