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    Basic Sentence Transformations

    Author: Teri Warner
    Date Created: 10/11/2002 2:35:41 PM MST
    English Language Arts, Grammar
    Topic or Unit of Study:
    7-12, Review for 10-12
    The student will be able to:
    • identify different types of basic sentences
    • transform passive to active sentences and active to passive sentences
    • develop interrogative sentences
    • explain the difference between a declarative and an imperative sentence
    The students will complete a variety of exercises to gain a basic understanding of sentence transformations.
    Learning Context:
    There are several sentence structures within the writing process. A good writer must be able to construct a variety of these sentence structures to ensure an active reading of his or her words. To do this, the writer must be able to identify what the different types of sentences are and how they can be changed. This ability to change the type of sentence increases the writer’s ability to write in the business environment.
    Day 1
    Ask if anyone knows what a declarative sentence is. If someone knows, let them explain. If not, explain a declarative sentence is a sentence that makes statements. It is the most basic of sentences.

    Write down some examples of declaratives:
    You have met my sister.
    I was a fool.
    She ate the last piece of cake.

    Explain that declarative sentences do not ask questions and they are not commands. They are merely statements.

    Now write down these examples.
    Peter will arrive early.
    You set the table.
    Dinner is being fixed by Frank tonight.

    Explain only one of the sentences are declaratives. Do they know which one it is?

    Ask them if they have any questions. If so, answer accordingly.

    · Was there active participation from the students that illustrated they were comprehending and absorbing the information?

    Day 2
    NOTE: This lesson plan is designed more for a review rather than learning.

    Explain this may not be new stuff but we want to move from the known to the unknown. Asking questions is probably the most known. Most of them have probably asked millions of questions since they could talk.

    Interrogative sentences are sentences that have questions. They can be yes/no questions or they can be wh-questions.

    Explain the following examples and explanations.

    Begin with the simple. Give the following example: “Did someone eat the last piece of cake?” In this type of sentence, it has already been determined that someone may have eaten the last piece of cake. The answer to this type of question is (pause) yes/no.

    The other type of interrogative sentence is the wh-question. It’s called that because it begins with on of the interrogative words, almost all of which start with the letters wh. The wh-question assumes the truth of a statement and asks the listener to supply the missing information. Give the following example: “Who at the last piece of cake?”

    Ask them to give you the wh-questions words.
    which, what

    This should be already learned. If not, continue giving examples. If it is already comprehended, move on to closure.

    Hand out the Interrogative Sentences Exercise. Go over the instructions.

    Go over one of the sentences.
    Write on the board:
    Dan has gone somewhere.
    Now move “has” in front of Dan so the sentence should now look like this:
    has Dan ______ gone somewhere
    Explain that now it is a yes/no question
    Now cross out “somewhere” and write next to it “where”
    Rewrite the sentence “Where has Dan gone”
    Explain that now it is a wh-question

    They should be able to finish this in class.

    · Did any of the students have difficulties with the information? What were the issues regarding their difficulties?

    Day 3
    Ensure everyone was able to finish the interrogative sentences from yesterday. Go over them quickly. Going up and down the aisles, have one person give the yes/no question and the next one does the wh-question until all sentences are completed.

    Ask if anyone knows what an imperative sentence is. If someone does, have them explain it. If not, explain that imperative sentences give commands and issue orders in a blunt way compared to other sentences.

    Give them the following examples. Say “you walk faster” and then say “walk faster!” Now say “You give her your ice cream” and then say “giver her your ice cream!”

    Ask them if they noticed a difference. By deleting the word “you” the sentence transforms from a declarative sentence, which remember from earlier in the week is a statement, to an imperative one, which issues a command.

    Now it’s their turn. Starting with the next person from the imperative homework review, have that person make a declarative statement. Then have the next person change it to an imperative sentence. Continue until everyone has had a turn.

    Ask if there are any questions? If not, the lesson is completed. If there are, identify the problem and work through it.

    · Were they able to grasp the concept of an imperative sentence?
    · Did any of the students have difficulties with the exercise? What were the issues regarding their difficulties?

    Day 4
    Write the following two sentences on the board.
    John hit Bill.
    Bill was hit by John.
    Ask if they see a difference.

    The first sentence is active voice which, in the business environment, is the preferred way of writing. The second sentence is the same as the first but in passive voice. Notice what happens when the sentence is changed to passive voice. When writing in passive voice, the importance of the action is de-emphasized. The sentence is less strong and direct. It goes around the verb.

    By adding the word “by” and moving the object of the verb into a prepositional phrase, the sentence becomes passive. Sometimes it also becomes necessary to add an auxiliary word to the verb also.

    Give the following example:
    Monica ate the pie. (active)
    The pie was eaten by Monica. (passive)
    In the second sentence, it became necessary to add the word “was” and change the verb to past tense

    Now it’s their turn. Break them into groups. Give each group a set of the group sentences. Each person in the group must have a job. They need to change them from active to passive. Then one person will write the first one on the board and someone else explains. Then another person writes the second one on the board and someone else explains.

    Ask if there are any questions? If so, answer accordingly.

    · Were they able to grasp the concept of a passive versus active?
    · Did any of the students have difficulties with the exercise? What were the issues regarding their difficulties?
    Sample Student Products:
    Students will work collaboratively & individually.
    Time Allotment:
    5 class periods. 1 Hr per class.
    Author's Comments & Reflections:
    Day 1
    Was the class able to identify what was and was not a declarative with little assistance?

    Day 2
    -Was this piece of information necessary?
    -How can this be improved to better fit the audience?

    Day 3
    If they had any difficulties, what were they? How should this lesson plan be improved to accommodate that difficulty?
    -Was there active participation from the students forming declaratives or imperatives?

    Day 4
    -If they had any difficulties, what were they? How should this lesson plan be improved to accommodate that difficulty?
    -Was there active participation from the students while in their groups?
    Instructional Materials:
    Day 1

    Day 2
    Interrogative Exercise

    Day 3
    Completed Interrogative Sentences Exercise from Day 2

    Day 4
    Group Sentences

    Day 5 (No Lesson Plan)
    Final Exam (Not developed yet)Day 4: Group Sentences
     1.  Day 2: Interrogative Sentences
    CO- Colorado Academic Standards
    • Subject Reading and Writing
    • Standard 3Students write and speak using conventional grammar, usage, sentence structure, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling
    Students need to know and be able to use standard English. Proficiency in this standard plays an important role in how the writer or speaker is understood and perceived. All skills in this standard are reinforced and practiced at all grade levels and should be monitored by both the teacher and student to develop lifelong learning skills
    • Grade/Level Grades 5-8
     Performance Indicator using correct pronoun case, regular and irregular noun and verb forms, and subject-verb agreement involving comparisons in writing and speaking
     Performance Indicator using simple, compound, complex, and compound/complex sentences in writing and speaking
    • Grade/Level Grades 9-12
     Performance Indicator refining spelling and grammatical skills and becoming a self-evaluator of their writing and speaking
    Assessment Plan:
    Accurately completing the various tasks.



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