Biography of Ahmose, son of Abana
The Crew Commander Ahmose son of Abana, the justified; he says.
I speak to you, all people. I let you know what favours came to me.
I have been rewarded with gold seven times in the sight of the whole land,
with male and female slaves as well.
I have been endowed with very many fields.
The name of the brave man is in that which he has done; it will not perish in the land forever.
(Urkunden des ägyptischen Altertums - Urk IV 1,16 - 2,6)
I grew up in the town of Nekheb,
my father being a soldier of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Sekenenre, the justified.
Baba son of Reinet was his name.
I became a soldier in his stead on the ship "The Wild Bull"
in the time of the Lord of the Two Lands, Nebpehtire, the justified.
I was a youth who had not married; I slept in a hammock of netting.
Now when I had established a household, I was taken to the ship "Northern", because I was brave.
I followed the sovereign on foot when he rode about on his chariot.
When the town of Avaris was besieged, I fought bravely on foot in his majesty's presence.
Thereupon I was appointed to the ship khaemmennefer ("Rising in Memphis").
Then there was fighting on the water in "P'a-djedku" of Avaris.
I made a seizure and carried off a hand.
When it was reported to the royal herald the gold of valour was given to me.
Then they fought again in this place; I again made a seizure there and carried off a hand.
Then I was given the gold of valour once again.
Then there was fighting in Egypt to the south of this town. and I carried off a man as a living captive.
I went down into the water - forhe was captured on the city side - and crossed the water carrying him.
When it was reported to the royal herald I was rewarded with gold once more.
Then Avaris was despoiled, and I brought spoil from there: one man,three women; total, four persons.
His majesty gave them to me as slaves.
Then Sharuhen was besieged for three years.
His majesty despoiled it and I brought spoil from it: two women and a hand.
Then the gold of valour was given me, and my captives were given to me as slaves.
Now when his majesty had slain the nomads of Asia,
he sailed south to Khent-hen-nefer, to destroy the Nubian Bowmen.
His majesty made a great slaughter among them,
and I brought spoil from there: two living men and three hands.
Then I was rewarded with gold once again, and two female slaves were given to me.
His majesty journeyed north, his heart rejoicing in valour and victory.
He had conquered southerners, northerners.
Then Aata came to the South.
His fate brought on his doom.
The gods of Upper Egypt grasped him.
He was found by his majesty at Tent-taa.
His majesty carried him off as a living captive, and all his people as booty.
I brought two young warriors as captives from the ship of Aata.
Then I was given five persons and portions of land amounting to five arura in my town.
The same was done for the whole crew.
Then came that foe named Tetian.
He had gathered the malcontents to himself.
His majesty slew him; his troop was wiped out.
Then I was given three persons and five arura of land in my town.
The defeat of Tetian
Then I conveyed King Djeserkare, the justified, when he sailed south to Kush, to enlarge the borders of Egypt.
His majesty smote that Nubian Bowman in the midst of his army.
They were carried off in fetters, none missing, the fleeing destroyed as if they had never been.
Now I was in the van of our troops and I fought really well.
His majesty saw my valour. I carried off two hands and presented them to his majesty.
Then his people and his cattle were pursued, and I carried off a living captive and presented him to his majesty.
I brought his majesty back to Egypt in two days from "Upper Well," and was rewarded with gold.
I brought back two female slaves as booty, apart from those that I had presented to his majesty.
Then they made me a "Warrior of the Ruler."

Nubian campaign of King Amenhotep I
Djeserkare: Amenhotep I (ca.1546-1527)
Then I conveyed King Aakheperkare, the justified, when he sailed south to Khent-hen-nefer,
to crush rebellion throughout the lands, to repel the intruders from the desert region.
I was brave in his presencein the bad water, in the towing of the ship over the cataract.
Thereupon I was made crew commander.
Then his majesty [was informed that the Nubian] ..
At this his majesty became enraged like a leopard.
His majesty shot, and his first arrow pierced the chest of that foe.
Then those [enemies turned to flee], helpless before his Uraeus.
A slaughter was made among them; their dependents were carried off as living captives.
His majesty journeyed north, all foreign lands in his grasp,
and that wretched Nubian Bowman head downward at the bow of his majesty's ship "Falcon."
They landed at Ipet-sut. Nubian campaign of King Thutmose I
Aakheperkare: Thutmose I (ca.1527-1515)
The cataracts were serious obstacles.
Fortresses were built to protect the struggling navigators
who had to unload the boats and drag them through the cataracts.
Ipet-sut: Karnak, where there was the temple of Amen
After this (his majesty) proceeded to Retenu, to vent his wrath throughout the lands.
When his majesty reached Nahrin, his majesty found that foe marshalling troops.
Then his majesty made a great slaughter of them.
Countless were the living captives which his majesty brought back from his victories.
Now I was in the van of our troops, and his majesty saw my valour.
I brought a chariot, its horse, and him who was on it as a living captive.
When they were presented to his majesty, I was rewarded with gold once again.

Syrian campaign of King Thutmose I
Retenu: Northern Canaan
Nahrin: Eastern Mesopotamia, i.e. the land between the two rivers
I have grown old; I have reached old age.
Favoured as before, and loved [by my lord],
I [rest] in the tomb that I myself made....in Behy.
Again I am given by the King of Upper and Lower Egypt ... 60 arura in Hadjaa.
In sum ... arura. Ahmose served under three pharaohs whose combined reigns lasted from ca.1570 to 1515




Kamose Inscription
"Regnal year 3 of Horus, he who has appeared on his throne;
The-Two-Ladies [7], repeating monuments; Horus-of-Gold, who pacifies the Two Lands,
King of Upper and Lower Egypt [Wadj]-Kheper-[re, son of Re] Kamose, given life,
beloved of Amenre lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands, like Re forever and ever!
A mighty king native of Wese [5], Wadj-[kheper]-re [6], given life forever, even a good king!
It is Re [that made] him king himself, and that authorized victory for him in very Truth!

D. Redford, Textual Sources for the Hyksos Period
His majesty spoke in his palace to the council of nobles who were in his retinue:
'Let me understand what this strength of mine is for!
(One) prince is in Avaris [1], another is in Ethiopia, and (here) I sit associated with an Asiatic and a Negro!
Each man has his slice of this Egypt, dividing up the land with me.
None can pass through it as far as Memphis (although it is) Egyptian water!
See he (even) has Hermopolis! No man can settle down, when despoiled by the taxes of the Asiatics.
I will grapple with him, that I may rip open his belly!
My wish is to save Egypt and to smite the Asiatic!
Then spake the magistrates of his council: 'See, as far as Kos it is
Asiatic water, and they have drawn out their tongues of one accord.
We are doing all right with our (part of) Egypt:
Elephantine is strong, and the interior is with us as far as Kos.
Their free land is cultivated for us, and our cattle graze in the Delta fens, while corn is sent for our pigs.
Our cattle have not been seized, and /// have not been tasted.
He has the land of the Asiatics, we have Egypt.
Only when comes one who [acts against us] should we act against him.'
But they troubled His Majesty's heart. As for your counsel /// [op]posite me.
He who partitions the land with me will never respect me /// the Asiatics who /// with him.
I will sail north to engage the Asiatics and success will come!
If he intends to be at ease in /// his eyes weeping and the entire land!
The Mighty Ruler in Thebes, Kamose the Strong, protector of Egypt.
I went north because I was strong (enough) to attack the Asiatics through the command of Ammon [2], the just of counsels.
My valiant army was in front of me like a blast of fire.
The troops of the Madjoi [3] were on the upper part of our cabins, to seek out the Asiatics and to push back their positions. East and west had their fat, and the army foraged for things everywhere.
I set out a strong troop of the Madjoi,
while I was on the day's patrol /// to him in /// Teti, the son of Pepi, within Nefrusi [4].
I would not let him escape while I held back the Asiatics who had withstood Egypt.
He made Nefrusi the nest of the Asiatics. I spent the night in my boat, with my heart happy.
When day broke, I was on him as if it were a falcon.
When the time of breakfast had come, I attacked him.
I broke down his walls, I killed his people, and I made his wife come down to the riverbank.
My soldiers were as lions are, with their spoil, having serfs, cattle, milk, fat and honey,
dividing up their property, their hearts gay.


Pritchard, James B. Ancient Near Eastern Texts. Princeton, 1969.,
pp.232-233. Carnarvon Tablet I.
See also, Ancient Near Eastern Texts., pp. 554-555.
The district of Nefrusi came down (in submission) :
it did not take us long until its /// was hemmed in [?] [unknown location] was deserted when I approached it.
Their horses had fled inside, and the border patrol /// those who had spent the night in the valley, their property


D. Redford, "Textual Sources for the Hyksos Period," in E.D. Oren, (ed)
, The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological Perspectives
(Philadelphia: 1997)

The inscription was made a few generations after the events.
Crew commander: Ahmose is generally given the title of admiral, t
he most we know is that he was an officer of sorts commanding sailors.
Abana: Ahmose defines himself as the son of his mother,
Abana, rather than his father as was usual during other periods.
Gold: awards in the form of golden necklaces or the like He speaks as follows.

(Urk IV 3,2 - 5,2) The campaign against the Hyksos seizure and carried off a hand:
Prisoners often either died of their wounds or were killed by their captor,
a practice known since earliest times, and as proof of a kill a hand or the genitals were cut off.
Avaris: capital city of the Hyksos in the eastern delta"P'a-djedku" of Avaris: canal of Hutuaret i.e.
Avaris (Ángel Sánchez Rodríguez)
Sharuhen: Sharhana, border town in south-western Canaan
The enslavement of large numbers of Asiatic began during this war.

(Urk IV 5,4 - 14) Nubian campaign of King AhmoseKhent-hen-nefer:
Nubian region south of the second cataract.
Many Nubians served in the Egyptian army as archers since the First Intermediate Period