The Copper Scroll
3Q15

Paraphrase and comments by Chad Hack & Nathaniel Carey

Introduction

One of the most illusive documents found in the Qumran region is The Copper Scroll. Made of two separate sheets of copper, rolled up and oxidized right through, the contents of The Copper Scroll could only be determined after it had been cut into parallel strips.

The text is difficult to read because it is virtually impossible to differentiate between some letters and others that are almost like them. The copyist made numerous mistakes thus making the task of the translators even more difficult.

The document is mysterious. Is it legend from folklore about fictitious treasures or a catalogue of hiding places for real treasures? The formulas and directions are ambiguous and inconclusive thereby hinting at the possibility that the scroll is a myth. Furthermore, scholars presume that The Copper Scroll was written about 40 years after all the other scrolls.

Specific and blatant contradictions among the translators forced us students to make educated guesses between the possible choices without certainty of the accuracy. For example, one translator suggested that the location of a treasure was facing a certain direction. Meanwhile another translator suggested that the entrance of the location is facing that direction, but location itself was facing in a different direction. Some treasure had a numeric value and other descriptions of the same treasure did not. Sometimes the treasure was gold, and other times it was silver. All together these examples combined to make the translated text ambiguous and intimate towards the fictional nature of the content.

Paraphrase

Column I

In the ruin of Horebbah[1] which is in the valley of Achor, under the steps heading eastward about forty feet: lies a chest of silver that weighs seventeen talents (yard stick).KEN [2] In the tomb of the third section of stones there is one hundred gold bars. Nine hundred talents[3] are concealed by sediment towards the upper opening, at the bottom of the big cistern in the courtyard of the peristyle. Priests garments and flasks that were given as vows are buried in the hill of Kohlit[4]. This is all of the votive offerings of the seventh treasure. The second tenth is impure. The opening is at the edge of the canal on its northern side six cubits toward the immersed pool.CAG Enter into the hole of the waterproofed Reservoir of Manos[5], descend to the left, forty talents of silver lie three cubits from the bottom.

Column II

Forty two talents lie under the stairs in the salt pit.HN Sixty five bars of gold lie on the third terrace in the cave of the old Washers House[6].QE Seventy telents of silver are enclosed in wooden vessel that are in the cistern[7] of a burial chamber in Matia's courtyard[8]. Fifteen cubits from the front of the eastern gates, lies a cistern. The ten talents lie in the canal of the cistern.DI Six silver bars are located at the sharp edge of the rock which is under the eastern wall in the cistern. The cistern's entrance is under the large paving stone threshold. Dig down four cubits in the northern corner of the pool that is east of Kohlit. There will be twenty two talents of silver coins.

Column III

Dig down nine cubits into the southern corner of the courtyard. There will be silver and gold vessels given as offerings, bowls, cups, sprinkling basins, libation tubes, and pitchers. All together they will total six hundred nine pieces. Dig down sixteen cubits under the eastern corner to find forty talents of silver.TR Votive vessels and priestly garments are at the northern end of the dry well located in Milham[9]. The entrance is underneath the western corner. Thirteen talents of silver coins are located three cubits beneath a trap door in the tomb in the north-east end of Milham.

Column IV

Fourteen talents of silver can be found in the pillar on the northern side of the big cistern in Kohlit. SK When you go forty-one cubits into the canal that comes from...you will find fifty-five talents of silver. Dig down three cubits in the middle of the two boulders in the Valley of Achor, and you will find two pots full of silver coins. At the mouth of the underground cavity in Aslah[10] sit two hundred talents of silver. Seventy talents of silver are located in the eastern tunnel which is to the north of Kohlit. Dig for only one cubit into the memorial mound of stones in the valley of Sekaka[11] to find twelve talents of silver.

Column V

A water conduit is located on the northern side of Sekaka. Dig down three cubits under the large stone at the head of this water conduit to discover seven talents of silver. Vessels of offering can be found in the fissure of Sekaka, which is on the eastern side of the reservoir of Solomon[12]. Twenty-three talents of silver are buried quite nearby above Solomon's Canal. To locate the exact spot, go sixty cubits toward the great stone, and dig down for three cubits. Thirty two talents of silver can be located by digging seven cubits under the tomb in the dried up riverbed of Kepah[13], which is between Jericho and Sekaka.

Column VI

Forty-two talents of silver lie underneath a scroll in an urn. To locate the urn, dig down three cubits into the northern opening of the cave of the pillar that has two entrances and faces east. Twenty-one talents of silver can be found by digging nine cubits beneath the entrance of the eastward-looking cave at the base of the large stone. Twenty-seven talents of silver can be found by digging twelve cubits into the western side of the Queen's Mausoleum[14]. Dig nine cubits into the burial mound of stones located at the Ford of the High Priest to find twenty-two talents of silver.

Column VII

To find four hundred talents of silver measure out twenty-four cubits from the water conduit of Q...of the northern reservoir with four sides[15]. Dig six cubits into the cave that is nearby Bet Ha-Qos[16] to locate six bars of silver. Dig seven cubits down under the eastern corner of the citadel of Doq[17] to find twenty-two talents of silver. Dig three cubits by the row of stones at the mouth of the Kozibah river[18] to obtain sixty talents of silver, and two talents of gold.

Column VIII

A bar of silver, ten vessels of offering, and ten books are in the aqueduct on the road that is to the east of Bet Ahsor[19], which is east of Ahzor[20]. Dig down seventeen cubits beneath the stone that lies in the middle of the sheep pen located in the outer valley to find seventeen talents of silver and gold. Dig three cubits under the burial mound of stones located at the mouth of the Potter ravine to find four talents of silver. Dig twenty-four cubits below the northward burial chamber that is located on the south-west side of the fallow field of the valley of ha-Shov to reveal sixty-six talents. Dig eleven cubits at the landmark in the irrigated land of ha-Shov and you will find seventy talents of silver.

Column IX

Measure out thirteen cubits from the small opening at the edge of Nataf[21], and then dig down seven cubits there. Seven talents of silver and four stater coins lie there. Dig down eight cubits into the eastern-looking cellar of the second estate of Chasa to obtain twenty-three and a half talents of silver. Dig sixteen cubits into the narrow, seaward-facing part of the underground chambers of Horon[22] to discover twenty-two talents of silver. A sacred offering worth one mina of silver is located at the pass. Dig down seven cubits at the edge of the conduit on the eastern side inside the waterfall to locate nine talents of silver.

Column X

When going down to the second floor, look to the small opening to find nine talents of silver coins. Twelve talents lie at the foot of the water wheel of the dried up irrigation ditches which would be fed by the great canal. Sixty-two talents of silver can be found by going to the left for ten paces at the reservoir which is in Beth Hakerem[23]. Three hundred talents of gold and twenty penalty fees can be found at the entrance to the pond of the valley Zok. The entrance is on the western side by the black stone that is held in place by two supports. Eight talents of silver can be found by digging under the western side of Absalom's Memorial[24]. Seventeen talents are located beneath the water outlet in the base of the latrines. Gold and vessels of offering are in this pool at its four angles.

Column XI

Very near there, under the southern corner of the portico in Zadok's tomb[25], beneath the pillars of the covered hall are ten vessels of offering of pine resin, and an offering of senna.
Gold coins and consecrated offerings are located under the great closing stone that is by the edge, next to the pillars that are near by the throne, and toward the tip of the rock to the west of the garden of Zadok. Forty talents of silver are buried in the grave that is under the colonnades. Fourteen votive vessels possibly of pine and resin are in the tomb of the common people and Jericho. Vessels of offering of aloes and tithe of white pine are located at Beth Esdatain, in the reservoir at the entrance of the small pool. Over nine-hundred talents of silver are next to the reservoir at the brook that runs near the western entrance of the sepulchre room.

Column XII

Five talents of gold and sixty more talent are under the black stone at the Western entrance. Forty-two talents of silver coin are in the proximity of the black stone at the threshold at the sepulchral chamber. Sixty talents of silver and vessels are in a chest that is under the stairs of the upper tunnel on Mount Garizim[26]. Six-hundred talents of silver and gold lie in the spring of Beth-Sham[27]. Treasure weighing seventy-one talents and twenty minas are in the big underground pipe of the burial chamber at the point where it joins the house of the burial chamber. A copy of this inventory list, its explanation and the measurements and details of every hidden item are in the dry underground cavity that is in the smooth rock north of Kohlit[28]. Its opening is towards the north with the tombs at its mouth.

Footnotes

[1] Horebbah like most of the locations are either fictional or too ambiguous in description to merit verification.
[2] According to Wise, Abegg, Cook the signifigance of the greek letters that follow this in several of the subsequent descriptions remains mysterous.
[3] The introduction by Vermes suggests that the amount of treasure is arbitrary. All of the amounts would total sixty-five tons of silver and twenty-six tons of gold in weight.
[4] The existence and location of this place is unknown.
[5] This location is unknown.
[6] This location is unknown.
[7] Wise, Abegg and Cook suggest that the cistern described here may be the large ancient cistern lying just beneath the First Wall of Jerusalem.
[8] The location of Matia’s courtyard is unknown.
[9] Wise, Abegg and Cook are uncertain whether Milham refers to a place or a structure.
[10] Wise, Abegg and Cook state that the Wadi Atsla opens to the northwest of the Dead Sea, about two kilometers from the site of Qumran.
[11] Secacah appears in the Bible in Joshua 15:61, in a list of cities located in the wilderness of Judea. The modern identification is disputed, but many scholars think that Secacah was an ancient name for the site of Qumran.
[12] The pool of Solomon is unidentified.
[13] Kepah’s location is unknown.
[14] The Queen’s Mausoleum is unidentified, but it may well have been located near Jericho, where the Hasmonean kings and queens had done considerable building and lived part of the year according to Wise, Abegg and Cook.
[15] All of the translations submit only a hiatus after the capital Q.
[16] The priestly family of Hakkoz lived near Jericho. According to Ezra 8:33 and Nehemiah 10:6, they may have been in charge of the Temple treasury in the Second-Temple period.
[17] Dok is about two kilometers north of Jericho according to the sources of Wise, Abegg and Cook.
[18] Kozibah apparently designated that portion of the Wadi Qelt stretching between Ein Qelt and Jericho.
[19] This location is unknown.
[20] This location is unknown.
[21] Nataf was a small opening resembling a large birdhouse that had many entrances, many birds lived there at the same time.
[22] A city located sixteen kilometers northwest of Jerusalem.
[23] Beth Hakerem is on the south of Jerusalem, at the modern Kibbutz Ramat Rachel. No treasure has been found there by modern inhabitants.
[24] Stood in the Ancient Royal Valley, now known as Emeq Rephaim thirteen hundred kilometers south of Jerusalem.
[25] No notes are given on Zadok.
[26] A former site of the Samaritians temple to the God of Israel.
[27] Beth Shem is unknown. It may be an error for Beth Shemesh, the city in the southwest famously associated with Samson.
[28] The inventory list with all its details is supposedly in another Copper Scroll. But it has never been found.

Works Cited

Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. Allen Lane: The Penguin Press; New York, New York, 1997

Allegro, John. The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Reappraisal. Penguin Books; New York, New York, 1990

Abegg, Martin Jr.; Cook, Edward; Wise, Michael. The Dead Sea Scrolls--A New Translation. Harper San Francisco; New York, New York, 1996

Martinez, Florentino Garcia. The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English. Second Edition. E.J.Brill Leiden; New York, New York, 1996

4QCryptic-4Q186, 4QPhysiogn=4Q561

Paraphrase and notes by Katie Kanyamas & Robin Kocot

Introduction by Alan Humm

Introduction

These two texts may represent a variety of divination, known as physiognomy, in which a person's personality or fortune may be read from their physical appearance. They contain what appear to be a series of short body type descriptions which may be intended as a sort of catalogue of physical types which might be useful to the physiognomist. Another possibility is that these are 'prophetic' descriptions of the body types of important biblical or eschatological personages. J. Starky, for example suggests that a related text, <4Q534ff.html>, is a description of the eschatological Prince of the Congregation, while Vermes (357) sees it as a description of Noah.

4Q186 is Hebrew written in a cypher of sorts. The text is written backwards (left to right) and a mixed alphabet is used (Aramaic square script, Paleo-Hebrew and even Greek characters). 4Q561 is in Aramaic.

The paraphrase of 4Q186 was prepared by Katie Kanyamas, and except for a few corrections is largely unchanged. 4Q561 was originally prepared by Robin Kocot but has been extensively revised by me.

Paraphrases

4Q186 (Katie Kanyamas)

Frag.1 Col.1

The man, whose head and forehead are wide and curved, [...]but the rest of his head is not [...]

Frag.1 Col.2

...his stone is granite[1].
He has fixed eyes[2]. He has long and slender thighs, toes, and feet. He was born during the second phase of the moon[3]. His spirit has six parts in the house of light[4] and three parts in the house of darkness.[5] He shall be born under the haunch of Taurus[6] and he will be poor. His animal sign is bull.

Frag.1 Col.3

...and his head...[and his cheeks are] fat. His eyes are terrifying... His teeth are different lengths. His hands and fingers are thick. Each of his thighs is thick and very hairy. His toes are thick and short. His spirit has eight parts in the house of darkness and one in the house of light.

Frag.2 Col.1

His eyes are neither dark nor light. His beard is light and curly. The tone of his voice is soft and gentle. His teeth are fine and well aligned. He is neither tall nor short, but well built. His fingers are thin and long. His thighs are hairless. The soles of his feet and toes are even and well aligned. His spirit has eight parts in the house of light in the second column and one in the house of darkness. His birth sign is...and his animal sign is...

4Q561 (Robin Kocot revised by Alan Humm)

Frag. 1 col. I

1 [His ????]... and they will be mixed and sparse. His eyes (will be) 2of a medium shade. His nose (will be) a long 3and attractive. And his teeth (will be) straight. And his beard 4will be relatively thin. His limbs will be 5in fit condition and niether underweight nor overweight. 6... 7... his elbows will be strong ... 8husky. And his thighs of [medium] 9bulk. And his feet will be [of medium] 10length. His foot 11... 12... 13... 14... his shoulder... [medium]... His spirit 15... 16... full bodied hair.

Frag. 1 col. II

1The voice will be ... 2stern (?)... 3it will not strain. 4The hair of his beard (will be) plentiful ... 5he will be neither fat n[or thin... 6And they will be short... 7His nails will be strong... 8and his height will be ...

Frag. 2

2[... His beard(?)]will be reddish... 3...His eyes] will be clear and circular... 4...The hair of his hea[d ...

Footnotes

[1] Granite refers to the birth stones of an individual.
[2] "Fixed Eyes are a regular category in Greco-Roman physiognomy and are generally a bad sign." (Wise, Abegg, and Cook 245)
[3] "The second phase of the moon or "station" of the moon (i.e., the places where it "stands"), suggests the present interpretation." (Wise, Abegg, and Cook 245)
[4] The house of light - "the good spiritual qualities of individual that is reflected in his share of light." (Vermes 357)
[5] The house of darkness - the bad spiritual of individual that is reflected in his share of darkness.
[6] The haunch of Taurus - "implied the concept of dodecatmoria. This Greek word is a name of further subdivision of the zodiac." (Wise, Abegg, and Cook 244)

Bibliography

Eisenmen, Robert H., Wise Michael. The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered. NY: Penguin Books.1992.

Lasor, William. The Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament. Grand Rapids: William B. Publishing Comp. 1972.

 

 

Calendrical Document

 

Mishmarot

4Q321 (Mishmarot Ba)

Parchment

Copied ca. 50-25 B.C.E.

Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority (10)

A significant feature of the community was its calendar, which was based on a solar system of 364 days, unlike the common Jewish lunar calendar, which consisted of 354 days. The calendar played a weighty role in the schism of the community from the rest of Judaism, as the festivals and fast days of the group were ordinary work days for the mainstream community and vice versa.

According to the calendar, the new year always began on a Wednesday, the day on which God created the heavenly bodies. The year consisted of fifty-two weeks, divided into four seasons of thirteen weeks each, and the festivals consistently fell on the same days of the week. It appears that these rosters were intended to provide the members of the "New Covenant" with a time-table for abstaining from important activities on the days before the dark phases of the moon's waning and eclipse (duqah).

References

Jaubert, A. "Le Calendrier de Jubiles et de la Secte de Qumran: Ses origines Bibliques," Vetus Testamentum 3 (1953):250-64.

Talmon, S. "The Calendar of the Judean Covenanteers." In The World of Qumran from Within: Collected Studies, pp. 147-85. Jerusalem, 1989.

Talmon, S. and I. Knohl. "A Calendrical Scroll from Qumran Cave IV -- Miţ Ba (4Q321)" (in Hebrew), Tarbiz 60 (1991):505-21.

English Translation of the Calendrical Document (Mishmarot)

[on the first {day} in {the week of} Jedaiah {which falls} on the tw]elfth in it {the seventh month}. On the second {day} in {the week of} Abiah {which falls} on the twenty- f[ifth in the eighth {month}; and duqah {is} on the third] {day}

[in {the week of} Miyamin {which falls} on the twelfth] in it {the eighth month}. On the third {day} in {the week of} Jaqim {which falls} on the twen[ty-fourth in the ninth {month}; and duqah {is} on the fourth] {day}

[in {the week of} Shekania {which falls} on the eleven]th in it {the ninth month}. On the fifth {day} in {the week of} Immer {which falls} on the twe[n]ty-third in the te[nth {month}; and duqah {is} on the sixth {day} in {the week of} Je]shbeab {which falls}

[on the tenth in] it {the tenth month}. On the [si]xth {day} in {the week of} Jehezkel {which falls} on the twenty-second in the eleventh month [and duqah {is on the} Sabbath in] {the week of} Petahah {which falls}

[on the ninth in it {the eleventh month}]. On the first {day} in {the week of} Joiarib {which falls} on the t[w]enty-second in the twelfth month; and [duqah {is} on the seco]nd {day} in {the week of} Delaiah {which falls}

[on the ninth in it {the twelfth month}. vacat The] se[cond] {year}: The first {month}. On the sec[on]d {day} in {the week of} Malakiah {which falls} on the tw[entieth in it {the first month}; and] duqah {is}

[on the third {day} in {the week of} Harim {which falls} on the seventh] in it {the first month}. On the fou[r]th {day} in {the week of} Jeshua {which falls} [on] the twentieth in the second {month}; and [duqah {is} on the fifth {day} in {the week of]} Haqqos {which falls} on the seventh

[in it {the second month}. On the fifth {day} in {the week of} Huppah {which falls} on the nine]teenth in the third {month}; and duqa[h] {is} on the six[th {day} in {the week of} Happisses {which falls}

Translation and transcription by S. Talmon and I. Knohl

 

Observances
4QCal=4Q327, 4QMMTa4Q394

Paraphrase and comments by Kirsty Antosy

Introduction

4Q327 is part of the scrolls known as the calendars. In the calendars, the festivals of the year and the rituals are determined, using priestly rosters. The manuscripts were found in very bad condition. They were also found with several other fragments making it difficult to determine what the remains actually were. Because 4Q327 is in the same handwriting as one manuscript of A Sectarian Manifesto, it is sometimes argued that it should be considered part of that document. Abegg argues against this on the basis of the structure of the latter document. (Wise, Abegg, & Cook, p 319)

4Q394 was found in Cave 4 manuscripts. 4Q394 is part of the Halakhic Letter. The Halakhic letter is very important, for it outlines the rules and rituals found in a particular interpretation of the Old Testament. The rest of the works were lost, leaving it unfeasible to determine the true meaning of the Halakhic Letter. (Martinez, p 77) Some believe that it was composed as a way to contrast the Qumran group from the rest of Judaism. Each line of the composite text is numbered consequently, for easier reference to the fragments, which have been preserved.

Paraphrase

4Qcalendrical Document (4Q327)

Frag. 1 col. I[1]

The sixteenth of the month is a Sabbath. On the twenty-third of the month is a Sabbath. On the thirtieth is a Sabbath.

Frag. 2 col. II[2]

On the twenty-first of the month is a Sabbath. On the twenty- second is the feast of oil[3]. There is an offering after the Sabbath. On the twenty-eight of the month is a Sabbath. The month continues with Sunday the day after the Sabbath, Monday the second day after the Sabbath, and an additional day, Tuesday.

Frag. 2 col. III[4]

On the fourth of the month is a Sabbath. On the eleventh of the month is a Sabbath. On the eighteenth of the month is a Sabbath. On the twenty-fifth of the month is a Sabbath. The second of the fifth month is a Sabbath. On the third of the month is the festival of wine.[5]

4Qhalakhic Letter (4Q394 [4QMMTa])

After the Sabbath, there are three days added and then the year is complete, three hundred and sixty-four days. There are some rules concerning God, which are part of the works we are looking at and they all relate to the purity laws. When wheat is offered, Gentiles cannot touch it. No one should accept wheat from the Gentiles. No wheat touched by the Gentiles will be allowed in the temple.
The flesh of the scarifies should be cooked in bronze canisters. Both the meat and the broth of the sacrifices should be taken outside into the courtyard. The sacrifice is of the Gentiles, what we think is a sacrifice is an offering of thanks, which is postponed from one day to the next. Concerning this sacrifice, it should be a man of stature who has a woman with him.
The cereal should be eaten with the fats and the meat on the day of sacrifice. Sons of priests shall oversee this meal so that the sons of Aaron do not lead the people to sin or bother them with it. The priests shall oversee the purity of the red calf, so that all purity laws are followed. Whoever slaughters, burns, collects and sprinkles the ash does so by the purity rituals. This should all be completed by sunset, so that those who have sinned can be forgiven for their sins. This shall be done for the sons.[6]

Footnotes

[1] This is the calendar of the feasts for the second month (WAC 319).
[2] This is the calendar of the feasts for the third month (WAC 319).
[3] One of the extra-biblical feasts found among the Dead Sea Scroll calendar texts (WAC 319).
[4] This is the calendar of the feasts for the fourth-fifth month (WAC 319).
[5] The year is complete after 364 days.
[6] Assumed to be the sons of Aaron

Bibliography

Martinez, Florentino. The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated. New York: 1996

Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. 1997

Wise, Abegg and Cook. The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation. 1996

Introduction

Two targum manuscripts of Job were found at Qumran. Since they are both incomplete and do not overlap, we do not know whether they represent the same targumic tradition or not, although that is likely. The Aramaic translation is relatively straight forward, with an occasional tendency to abridge slightly. Extant portions contain none of the flights of midrashic expansion that one gets in some other targumic traditions.

Paraphrase

4Q Targum of Job (4Q157[4QtgJob])

Frag 1 col.i

(= Job 3:5-?) 2{...} a cloud[ will come] over him 3 [... in a time not in the same dimension 4-5] [...]...

Frag 1 col.ii

(=Job 4:16-5:4) 1...[...] 2 Can a man speaking to God [be rigth?...] 3 and to his angels[he causes insanity...] 4 which [are formed] in dirt[...] 5 and many [...] die and not from knowledge[...] will you contemplate? Blank Maybe he does not kill the weak[...] 8 But I have seen a cruel person ...[...] 9 ...[...].

11Q Targum of Job(11Q10[11QtgJob])

Col. I

(=Job 17:14-18:4) 1 [... my mother and sister are dead]. And what did I do [...]2[...] Maybe [they will go] with me to Sheol?[...] 3 [... in the dirt] we will be buried? Blank 4 Bildad the Shu[ite replied...] 5 [...] will you complete you thought? [...] 6 [...] do we look like animals?[...] 7[...] Maybe from your view point [...] 8 [... the rock ] from its point?[...]

Col. II

(=Job 19:11-19) 1 I bore his rage and [thinks I'm...] 2 His henchmen came and destroy [... My brothers and I] 3 have remourse, my house staff. My butler, does not recognize [...] I call but he does not respond [...] 6 I'm embarrassed to show myself to my wife [...] 7 The evil hurts me [...] 8 everyone who[...]

Col. III

(=Job 19:29-20:6) 1 [...] evil. Blank [...] 3 [... he answered: Here is my heart [...] 4 [...] I will listen to my crimes, but the soul [...] 5 [... Do you not understand infinity, from ...[...] 6 [...] Because praising the cruel [...] 7 [...] goes by quickly [...] 8 [...] and he looked [toward] the sky[...].

Col. IV

(=Job 21:2-10) 1 [...] personally[...] I know you laugh. [...] 3 as a result [my soul]does not get [tense...] 4 be quiet...] 5 I am mesmerized. Why do the corrupt become richer? Their children[...] 7 in plain sight. Their houses [...] 8 God is with them. [...] 9 their (cow) gives birth[ and does not miscarriage..].

Col. V

(=Job 21:20-27) 1[...] he looks [...] their destruction and around[...] 2 [...] would like God in their home[...] [...] 3[...] life is short ? is God [...] 4[...] the most powerful? His assistants [...] 5 the care of the bones. Another dies [cruelly] in spirit [...] 6 [...] starving, they both[lie on the dirt...] 7 [...] on top of them I know [what your thinking...] 8 [...] you planned [against me][...]

Col. VI

(=Job 22:3-9) 1 [...] God 2 [...] your way [...] will he make a convenient with you? 4[...] there is no 5 [...] your brothers for nothing 6 [...] the parched not 7 [...] bread. And you said 8 [...] his face 9 [...] was emotionless.

Col. vii

(=Job 22:16-22) 1 they passed away[...] 2 They prayed to G[od..] 3 to our God [...] But the evil group [...] 5 and marked and [...] 6 How can that [...] not [...] 7 Look [...] 8 Receive [...].

Col. VIIa

(=Job 23: 1-8) 1 [...] Job replied [...] 2[...] because my voice [...] 3 [...] my whining. Indeed, I would know and I would find God 4 [...] heaven. I would say to[God ...] 5 [...] I would repent an I would know [...] 6 [...] I know what he will say to me. [...] 7 [...he might ] treat me unfairly. Indeed until [...] 8[...] for truth and how [...] 9 [...] If advancement[...].

Col. VIII

(=Job 24: 12-17) 1 From cities[...] 2 he complains <4 in its trail [...] 5 and to the needy; and in the evening. [...] 6 the darkness saying[...] 7 and he will sin [...] 8 in evil[...] 9 for them[...]

Col. IX

(=job 24:24-26:2) 1 [...] they come together 2 [...] Who will answer me and [...] 3 [...] Blank Bildad replied [...] 4 [...] God controls everything; he does [...] 5 [...] in his power. Is there trust for[...] 6 pr for whom does [...] not rise 7 [...] God and how will he be fair [...] 8 [...] unchanged and the galaxy [...] not 9 [...] mankind, this warm [...] 10 [...] and he said << Can you possibly,[...]?

Col. X

(=Job 26:10-27:4) 1 [...] to the realm of evil; 2 [...] he dissects them and they are worried about 3 [...] the sea, and he killed with his knowledge. 4 [...] he makes I glimmer, his hand struck fleeing snake. 5 [...] their paths. And we only hear and echo. 6[...] he will know>> Blank 7 [...] Blank 8 [...] and said <9 [...] my spirit which while [...] 10 [...] in my nose they won't say [...]

Col. XI

(=Job 27:11-20) 1[...] in God's control and the work of 2[...] can be viewed by all. Why 3 [...] the cruel man 4 [...] they steal from him. If 5 [...] the sword , they will plunder, and feel fulfilled 6 [...] and their [...] no 7 [...] money, and increases like dust 8[...] and honest man will give away his wealth 9 [...] like a house 10 [...] lies down and is not taken. 11[...] like water the evils.

Col. XII

(= Job 28:4-13) 1 foot[...] 3 sapphires [...] 4 not [...] 5 the serpent enters. [...] 9 man [...].

Col. XIII

(=Job 28: 20-28) 1 the place of knowledge? [...] 2 it hides from the birds of the sky. [...] 3 << By word of mouth we know who you are >> [...] 4 in it, since he [...] 5 for reaching [...] 6 When he made the wind [...] 7 by one fall stroke. When he made [...] 8 fluffy clouds. Meanwhile[...] 9 And he said to the sons [ of mankind...] 10 and to leave from [...].

Col. XIV

(=Job 29: 7-16) 1 in the morning at the entrance of the city in the center of town[...] 2 Children, when they see me and [scholars] 3 Powerful men don't speak to me and push me aside [...] 4 The leaders disguise their voices;[...] don't speak. 5 They once praised me when I spoke[...] because I freed the poor [...] 7 no one helps me. The blessing of the last one [...] 8 the widow prays for me [...] 9 I wore a garment made of goats skin [...] 10[...] and feet for the lame [...] 11[...] I did not know[...].

Col. XV

(=Job 29: 24-30:4) 1 [...] I thanked them and they did not believe[...] 2 [...] I chose my way and I was in control [...] 3 [...] at the top of his legions, an like a man who [...] the depressed 4 [...] They harassed my children [...] 5 [...] Their fathers would not sit with the lower class.[...] 6[...] I did not like them and under their influence [...] 7 [...] they searched for food to feed their soul[...] 8 [...] evil which they ate [...] 9[...] sticks as their bread [...]

Col. XVI

(=Job 30: 13-20) 1 [...] they came to destroy me, and there is no savior. 2 [...] for them. As I become even greater in pain 3 [...] The evil pain trys to over come my body 4 [...] I have no possessions 5 [...] my salvation. Now the pain irritates me 6 [...] days of intense pain I feel 7 [...] my bones and joints ache tremendously[...] 8 [...] I thrash around in pain 9[...] they encircle me and throw me to the ground 10 [...] to you [...]

Col. XVII

(=Job 30 :25-31:1) 1 [...they ] harassed [me] and not 4 [...] I walked 5[...] I shouted 6 [...] for the ostriches 7 [...] of

Col. XVIII

(=Job 31 :8-16) 1 He will eat [...] my heart for a woman [...] 3 She will smash [...] anger 4 and is a sin[...] which up to Abaddon shall eat[...] If I was quick in judging my servant [...] what will I do 7 when he awakes [...] look 8 he made me [...] oneself. If I denied [...] I stopped to be consumed.

Col. XIX

(=Job 31 :26-32) 1 It was visible, and at the moon [...] my heart, 2 and kissed my mouth[...] I would have lied 3 to El Shadi[...] I become happy 4 in his misfortune [...] my plaque, and he listened [...] in my rage 6 and took [...] my taste of sin by asking [...] the men 8 of my house: who [...] 9 [did] not [...]

Col. XX

(=Job 31:40-32:3) 1 substituted for wheat [...] 2 [...] from the pine. Completed are [...] 3 These [...] from answering [...] Job was honest[...] 5 Blank 6 Meanwhile he became angry [...] of the clan of Rome[...] 8 and also against [...] 9 words [...]

Col. XXI

(=Job 32: 10-17 ) 1 my words, I as well. O.K. I waited [...] 2 you stopped, though you wanted to finish[...] 3 and you gave Job nothing [...] 4 to his knowledge. Maybe you should say [...] 5 for this we punish God and not man[...] 6 words and he does not respond [...] 7 and they are quiet while I wait for a response[...] 8 they leave and say nothing [...] 9 I to said nothing

Col. XXII

(=Job 33:6-16) 1[...] Alright, my horror will not shock you[...] 2 [...] burden. Surely you spoke in my ear and the sound [...] 3 [...] I am clean and there is no sin in me, I am blameless[...] 4[...] If he finds I have sinned he will take me [...] 5 [...] he places me in the prison and binds me with chains[...] 6[...] because God is greater than man[...] 7[...] you will speak arrogantly, because in all your actions[...] 8 [...] God knows how to communicate to everyone [...] 9[...] in dreams, during the night [...] while you sleep in bed[...] ...[...] ...[...]

Col. XXIII

(=Job 33:24-32) 1 and he said<< Free from harm [...] 2 from the fire that consumes him [...] with 3 youth and returns to his childhood [...] and he will hear him 4 and will see his face when saving him[?...} and based on his work he will reward him. And he will say [...] yet 6 he has not rewarded me based on my choice. He has saved [...] 7 It will be clear. Behold [...] 8 [on]ce, twice, three times[ to the] man for [...] 9 living (creatures). Be mindful of this [...] I will speak. 10 [If] you have words [...]

Col. XXIV

(=Job 34:6-17) 1 of sin. Who [...] sin? And associates 2 with criminals [...] cruel men. For he states << A man will change [...] following god>> 4 Now, men of [...] God does not deceive or create evil [...] he rewards man 6 [...] Will God, possibly, lien now, and lord [...] whom created the earth 8 and formed the world? [...] takes air away from him and he will die [...] they shall die 10 [...] my word. Deception possibly.

Col. XXV

(=Job 34:24-34) 1[...] to the infinitely powerful , and put other [...] 2 [...] he knows their action and throws into the place [...] 3[...] his way and have not kept this covenant[...] 4[...] of the poor and hears the cry's of the tortured [...] 5 [...] covers his face who will answer him about a tribe [...] 6 [...] the evil man has control. They create [...] trip. 7[...] I pray for him, in only him [...] 8 [...] I did not pursue, because [...] 9 [...] you decide and not I [...] 10 [...] words and man[...]

Col. XXVI

(=Job 35 :6-14) 1 to you. And at a time your wrong doings rise, how do you [handle him?] Are you right, what 2 does he need, or what does he get in return? Your wrongs (change) [ a human similar to yourself] 3 your equally, a child of mankind. As a result of the multitude [ of enslavers ] they cry and wail 4 facing all; yet they don't [ ask where is] God 5 who created us and gave us [...] for farming 6 at night; who separated us from animals and has made us smarter than birds? 7 They cry, yet he does not [ respond out of righteousness] 8 to the sinner. For God [ does not hear those who mislead, and the lord to] the insignificant, shows no interest. If you say [...] 10[...] ...[...]

Col. XXVIII

(=Job 36:23-33) 1 you [achieve inequality. Knowing] that their actions are right, men have witness these actions. Every man considers them and the children of man kind view from a distance. God is all powerful and immortal.[ wee do not] know [them] , and how long he lives. For 5 [ he tracks the ] clouds and directs the rain storms, and their clouds release 6 [rain drops] [ upon] many people. Indeed who molds the clouds[with great din] who hides and reveals[ light] [...] hidden ; he will use them to judge the nation, 9 [...] upon his command [...] 10[...] control them[...]

Col. XXIX

(=Job 37 :10-19) 1 above the water. Using water he causes the cloud to discharge fine And he says<< The people should here this!>> and they perform their jobs; he placed the people in control of everything on land. Whether to help or destroy or for starvation and poverty . Consider this Job, and rise contemplate the power of God. Have you any idea what God has placed upon them, and how he makes light shine from clouds? Can you protect the cloud with your powers? Since your power [...] Because he has infinite knowledge[May be you create] the storm clouds. Can you change a cloud into a mirror 10 He knows...

Col. XXX

(=Job 38:3-13) 1 Protect your grain like a man [ and I will test] [you] and you will respond 2 Where were you when I created the earth? Answer, if you can 3 who created , measurements? Or who used a tape measure? Or what are its bases set to or who set the cornerstone. 7 When the stars shown in the morning and all the angels of God song? Can you lock the entrace to the sea when it tries to leave the deep murky bottom. When did you where clouds as cloths and fog as baby's cloths. Can you set the limits of the sea. Did you say it can only go this far and not go beyond your waves. In the past did you control [ the morning] the ends of the earth [...]

Col. XXXI

(=Job 38: 23-43) 1 which[ I keep for] times of danger for the day of war and rebellion? [...] where does the wind come from? Does the wind come from the heavens? Who has set the period for rain and a track for the clouds to bring rain to the dessert, where no man lives; to water the plains to cause grass to grow. Who is the father of the rain, and who controls the fog. And who produces the frost .. . and [darkness of the sky] who created it ?] Like a rock coated with water and the faces of [darkness?] of the Pleiodes or you [open] the fence of Orion[...] you undo the North Star(?) with his sons? [...] 10 [...] the clouds[...]

Col. XXXII

(= Job 39: 1-11) the goats or birth pangs of [...] they are mature; do you know when they were born. They give birth and the sons become out casts. Do you cause them to leave? They raise their son and force them away. Who set the donkey free and unchained the restraints on the anager? I created the desert as the anager's home and the ground his home and pays no attention to the noise of the city and to the commands of his master. He eats from the mountains grass and eats all that is green. Will the bull choose to serve you or will he sleep in your stable. Will you harness[the bull] with a yoke and will he till the soil behind you. [...] ? Do you trust his strength?

Col. XXXIII

(=Job 39 :20-29) 1 [...] Do you scare his (horse) with a powerful [...] 2 in his growling fright and fear. He wanders throughout the valley, and shakes and rejoices 3 and throws himself into danger. He ignores fear and does not flinch 4 from a sword. He prepares to shout and arrow 5 as he is armed with a staff and a sword, the bugle sounds and he yells Aha, and from 6 a distance he smells combat, and relishes the sound of swords rattling and war cries 7 Does the raptor fly with it's wings to the wind? Or does the eagle glide at your command and the 9 raptor builds [his] nest high in the cliffs he lives and rests[...] 10[...] ...[...]

Col. XXXIV

(=Job 40: 5-11) 1 [...] end Blank [...] 2 God answered Job/ form [ out of nowhere(?)/] and the cloud and told him protect your genitals 3 then like a man and I will question you and you will answer me Would you assume 4 that judgement is void and place blame upon me so you appear innocent? Or 5 do you have an arm like God or thunder with a voice like his? Dispose of greatness and haughtiness and wear splendor, in glory and in honor. Dispose of your rage and view the righteous men and humble him and destroy ever 8 proud soul and dispose of the rest of the cruel people and bury9 them in the ground Blank and cover them with ashes 10[...] there is

Col. XXXV

(=Job 40:23-31) 1[...] even though ] 2 the Jordan's banks [should overflow] he trusts that he will receive it [...] 3 who will control him when he raises his head, or restrain his jaws. Will you catch a crocodile with a hook or tie a rope around it tongue? Will you put a muzzle on his nose and stab his jaw with a knife. Will he speak 6 nicely to you or will he speak to humbly? Will he 7 make a promise with you or will you treat him as a slave for eternity? Will you play 8 with him like a bird, or chain him up for your daughters? and [...] 9 ov[er him...] and they shall take him out of [Canaan] 10 [...] of fish[...]

Col. XXXVI

(=Job 41: 7-17) 1[...] ...[...] 2 [One] adheres to the other and wind does not flow between them. They 3 hold each other and they do not separate. His sneeze triggers 4 the fire between his eyes like the brightness of dawn; from his mouth 5 torches appear, they leap like tongues of fire; smoke billows from his nostrils, like a torch burning incense; his breath spews coals and sparks leap from his mouth. His neck contains strength and before him 8 power surges. The fold of his flesh are taunt , forged within him like iron; and his heart [...] like stone [...] 10[...]...[...]

Col. XXXVII

(=Job 41: 25-42:6) 1[...]...[...] 2 and he is the king of all reptiles. Blank 3 Job answered and said to God: I know that you 4 can do anything, and you do not lack power or wisdom. 5 I spoke once and I will not revoke it, twice, and 6 I will not add to it. Listen then and I will say to you; I will question you 7 and you will answer me. I knew of you only by word of mouth and now I have seen you for this I will be obliterated and destroyed and will turn into dust 9 and ash Blank

Col. XXXVIII

(=Job 42:9-12 ) 1 [...] and he did [...] God; and God heard Job's Voice and forgave 3 his sins on his account. And God turned /to Job/ in his mercy 4 and doubled all his possessions for him. And there came to 5 Job all his friends and all his brothers and all his acquaintances and ate 6 bread with him his house , and comforted him for all the evil that 7 God had brought upon him. And each one gave him a eve 8 and each one a gold ring 9 And God blessed Job in the end, because he had[...]

Work Cited

Holy Bible: The New Revised Standard Version. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Inc, 1989.

Martinez, Florentino Garcia. The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English. New York: Brill, 1996.

Pope, Marvin H. Job: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. New York: Double Day, 1973.

Vermes, Geza. The complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English/ translated from Hebrew and Aramaic and edited. New York: Penguin Putnam Inc, 1997.

 

 

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