and The Bible
The Exodus Part 4
evidence presented so far,can be used to verify other passages in the
Bible that refer to the Exodus.One of those was made in Judges
11:26.The judge Jephthah claimed that the Isrealites had been in
Heshbon for 300 years.That has been discounted by many historians,due
to the fact that 300 years from 1250,would have Jephthah reigning
around 950 b.c.,the period that has been given to Solomon.Popular
opinion is that the amount of years were an estimate,or a misprint.It
has also been common practice to allot the combined reign of the
Judges two hundred years less than the Bible does.If the Exodus date
is changed to 1458 b.c.the reigns of the Judges can remain as they
appear in the Bible,including Jephthah's.From the first judge to the
beginning of his reign can be figured around 301 years,using Biblical
passages.That would not allow for a long conquest of Canaan,as some
have claimed,but it does coincide with the Bible within a few
years.Careful study of the Scriptures will show that the conquest did
not end with the beginning of the Judges.Although some Judges may
have overlapped others,as we are told the Bible accounts for all
periods of war,subjection,and rest.
The other reference to the Exodus,is in Kings 6:1.Solomon began building the Temple in His fourth year,which was the 480th year of theExodus.As history has stated,His reign can be placed around 980 b.c.It can actually be pinpointed to the year,which is one of the few early rulers that can be.It is common knowledge that the Egyptian contemporary to Solomon was Siamun.His reign has been dated as beginning in 978.b.c.Solomon was given Siamun's daughter to marry,which could not have been earlier that 978 b.c.1 Kings 2:39 makes reference to three years,which according to 1 Kings 3:1,was before Solomon's marriage.The marriage must have taken place in the first year of Siamun's reign,or 978 b.c.Solomon's first year would be around 982 b.c.The temple would have been started,also in 978 b.c.,placing the Exodus 480 years earlier,or 1458 b.c.
With the help of history,what is believed to be contradictions,can be shown not to be.It is evident that the Exodus can now be placed in the year 1458 b.c.All the Biblical and historical evidence points to that year,as long as we realize that the Isrealites were not in Egypt for 430 years.With that in mind,we can leave the Scriptures as they appear in the Bible,and still be in harmony with history.That includes the controversy over the cities the Bible claims were destroyed by Joshua.Since the discovery of the ruins of Jericho,Historians have had a problem with how it was destroyed.Archaeologists dated it near 1400 b.c.It was then taken for granted that the city was in ruins when the Israelites saw it,since the Exodus had been dated around 1250 b.c.If the Exodus took place in 1458 b.c.,the Conquest would have been forty years later,in 1418 b.c.,and the destruction would have occurred exactly when history claims.If the Israelites had found the city in ruins,they would not have know it was surrounded by a double wall with houses built on top of them.Joshua 2:15”Then she let them down by a Cord through the window,for her house was built upon the town all,and she dwelt upon the wall”.
Archaeologists also know that sometime before Jericho was destroyed,it suffered an earthquake.That was apparent by close inspection,and the discovery of a mass grave that contained bodies of various ages.The graves contained personal property and food.Famine and a siege could be ruled.They also found evidence that the Jordan had stopped it’s flow for several hours,Their conclusion was that the people suffered a plague,followed by an earthquake.Since their dating was not in conjunction with the conquest,their conclusion was made without the book of Joshua in mind.
Miracles,as we know,can come in many shapes and sizes.If the Israelites found Jericho with weakened walls,it was no less a miracle.The author of the book,never claimed that the Israelites destroyed the walls,only that they fell.It is possible that the Israelites marched around the city,in order to attract attention to themselves while others dug around the walls.It was common practice during a siege to do just that,in order to fell walls that otherwise would be impossible to destroy.Once the earth was removed from underneath the walls,they could be collapsed by shaking either with battering rams,or loud noise.It was also noted,by the archaeologist John Garstang,that the walls of Jericho had Fallen outward,showing they were not battered by an assault. "As to the main fact, then, there remains no doubt: the walls fell outwards so completely, the attackers would be able to clamber up and over the ruins of the city."Kathleen Kenyon,noted"The destruction was complete. Walls and floors were blackened or reddened by fire and every room was filled with fallen bricks."Garstang dated the destruction in 1400 b.c while Kenyon believed the destruction occurred in 1550 B.C. Either one has set the date much closer to the Biblical version than other Archaeologists.Charcoal from the site has been dated to 1410 b.c. Dr. Bryant Wood ,current excavator wrote"The pottery, stratigraphic considerations, scarab data and a carbon-14 date all point to a destruction of the city around the end of the Late Bronze Age,about 1400 BCE.”The evidence would not only support the Bible as to how the city was destroyed,but When.It was,without a doubt,the Israelites,and it occurred at the time Solomon And Jephthah claimed it did.After the Israelites entered the wilderness,they met with the Amelekites.It has been said that they were the Hyksos,returning to Egypt.It is possible.The Egyptian historian Manetho,who has been less than reliable,a lot,claimed that the Hyksos had been planing to retake Egypt.He also states,however, that the Israelites were in on the plan.Together they could have taken,at least, the Delta area.Manetho wrote that the Hyksos left Egypt the first time with over 200.000 households.It doesn’t seem likely that if they were allied,they would have fought each other.Whover they were,Manetho and the Ipuwer Papyrus claim that a foreign people,possibly the Amelikites entered Egypt after the destruction.That would once again place the Bible in it’s proper historical context.
Since before the Israelites entered Egypt,they were led by miracles,either from “natural” causes,or human intervention.If it had not been for the brothers of Joseph leaving him in a pit,He may not have gone to Egypt.Had Joseph not been in Egypt,at the start of the famine,the Israelites probably would not have found the security they needed to survive.Although being made slaves was terrible for them,it helped keep them together in one place.They were also in the area where Thutmosis III,was conducting his campaigns into Canaan.They would have known not to go north to the coast,where they could travel the “Way of the Philistines”.It was a direct route into Canaan,with cities along the way.It was also the route the Egyptian army took.Exodus 13:18, …”God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines,although it was near,for God said lest peradventure the people repent hen they see war,and they return to Egypt”. For the Israelites to survive the wilderness,it was necessary for someone to be familiar with it.That fell on Moses.While in Median,he would have learned the right kind of wood to use to to take the bitterness out of water,Exodus 15:25,a trick that even today Bedouins use.Moses would Also have learned that limestone sometimes contain water that will gush forth,when the outer Crust is knocked away.Exodus 17:6.He would also have learned that by arranging stones in a circle,one can collect enough moisture to grow grapes and olives, and thus suck honey (grape juice) from the rock,and oil from the flinty rock,Deuteronomy 32:13.