Confederation with Canada

These documents illustrate the story of Newfoundland and Labrador's entry into Canada, from Lord Durham's Report of 1839 to the latest chapter in the saga of Term 17.

Lord Durham's Report, 1839 (Extract)

Extracts from the report of Lord Durham on the British North American colonies, in which he mused about the possible incorporation of Newfoundland into a British North American Union.

The Quebec Resolutions, 1864

The Resolutions of the Quebec Conference of 1864 on the subject of Confederation of the British North American Colonies. Newfoundland attended this Conference, and was represented by Frederick B.T. Carter and Ambrose Shea. Resolutions 2, 9, 12, 17, 33, 34, 62, 63, 64 and 66 contemplated Newfoundland's joining Confederation.

The London Resolutions, 1866

The Resolutions of the London Conference of 1866 on the subject of Confederation of the British North American Colonies. Though Newfoundland did not attend this Conference, Resolutions 2 and 10 provided for its eventual inclusion in the Confederation.

Proposed Terms of Union, 1869

Terms of entry into Confederation proposed by a committee of the Newfoundland House of Assembly.

Proposed Terms of Union, 1895 (to appear)

The National Convention Act, 1946 (Extracts)

Constituted a National Convention to decide what form the future government of Newfoundland should take. It was not a legislature, but rather a sort of constitutional convention, and met from 1946 to 1948. This was the first time provision was made for representation for Labrador in any Newoundland assembly, although until the National Convention Act was amended in July, the Governor had the power to appoint Labrador's delegate (see below). In the summer of 1946, delegates were elected in each electoral district, and the Convention convened in St. John's on September 11th.
This Act was later amended by two other Acts: S.N. 1946, No. 29 (providing for an election in Labrador); and S.N. 1946 No. 45 (providing for the appointment of a Chairman who was not a member of the Convention).

The National Convention (Labrador) Act, 1946

Amended the National Convention Act to provide for the election, rather than the appointment, of a delegate to represent Labrador--the first time Labradorians were ever granted the franchise.

The National Convention (Amendment) Act, 1946 (to appear)

The Referendum Act, 1948 (to appear)

Currie v. MacDonald, 1948

The trial and appeal decision in a last-minute attempt to challenge Confederation in court.

Motion by A.P. Herbert, 1949

A motion circulated in the British House of Commons by Independent M.P. A.P. Herbert, who favoured restoration of Responsible Government to Newfoundland.

Proposed amendment to the Newfoundland Act, 1949

An amendment to the Newfoundland Act proposed by Independent M.P. A.P. Herbert, who had toured Newfoundland and Labrador as part of a delegation from the British House of Commons.

Proposed Newfoundland (Liberation) Act, 1949

A Private Member's Bill drafted by Independent M.P. A.P. Herbert, who favoured restoration of Responsible Government to Newfoundland.

The Newfoundland Act, 1949 and Terms of Union of Newfoundland with Canada

Brought Newfoundland and Labrador into Confederation as the tenth province.
(Courtesy the Solon Law Archive)

The Newfoundland Additional Financial Assistance Act

Enacted by Parliament in 1966 in response to the recommendations of the Royal Commission appointed under Term 29 of the Terms of Union.

Constitution Amendment Proclamation, 1987

Added the Pentecostal Assemblies of Newfoundland to the denominations which enjoyed the privileges of Term 17.

Constitution Amendment Proclamation, 1997 (Newfoundland Act)

Amended Term 17 of the Terms of Union, dealing with education rights in Newfoundland and Labrador.

Term 17 Amendment, 1998

The amended Term 17 of the Terms of Union, which was enacted following a provincial plebiscite that was held September 2, 1997. The plebiscite question was: "Do you support a single school system where all children, regardless of their religious affiliation, attend the same schools where opportunities for religious education and observances are provided?"

Proposed Constitutional Amendment, 1999

A Resolution by the Newfoundland House of Assembly to amend the Terms of Union to officially change the name of the Province to "Newfoundland and Labrador", unanimously passed April 29, 1999. It has not yet been passed by the Senate or House of Commons, or been proclaimed by the Governor General.

Citizenship Provisions

The relevant provisions of Canadian and British law pertaining to the citizenship status of people who were British subjects resident in Newfoundland prior to Confederation.