1....Print this file.
2....At its end, click on "rules" to see a copy of the trail rules, print it, and then click where indicated at the end of the 3-page rules and patch order form to get back to the list of Florida trails.
3....If you want a hand-drawn map showing the locations of all of the sites, send a self-addressed stamped envelope to Steve Rajtar, 1614 Bimini Dr., Orlando, FL 32806.
4....Hike the trail and order whatever patches you like (optional).
WARNING - This trail may pass through one or more neighborhoods which, although full of history, may now be unsafe for individuals on foot, or which may make you feel unsafe there. Hikers have been approached by individuals who have asked for handouts or who have inquired (not always in a friendly manner) why the hikers are in their neighborhood. Drugs and other inappropriate items have been found by hikers in some neighborhoods. It is suggested that you drive the hike routes first to see if you will feel comfortable walking them and, if you don't think it's a good place for you walk, you might want to consider (1) traveling with a large group, (2) doing the route on bicycles, or (3) choosing another hike route. The degree of comfort will vary with the individual and with the time and season of the hike, so you need to make the determination using your best judgment. If you hike the trail, you accept all risks involved.
Orlando Lake Lucerne Historical Trail
(From Interstate 4, drive east on Gore St. past the light at Menendez Ct., then north on Lucerne Terr. to park on that street close to 830 Lucerne Terr. Walk south to the intersection with Gore St.)(0.0 mile so far)
Northwest corner of Gore St. and Lucerne Terr. (107 W. Gore St., later 830 Lucerne Terr.)
About 1885, a sawmill owner named Hunter built a home here. The road passing by east to west was then named Irene St.
Frank W. Ross of Lake City bought a five-acre grove on the south side of Irene St. just west of Mahlon Gore's home. Across the street at approximately this location in 1891, Ross built his home. His vegetable garden extended from what is now Lucerne Terr. westward to the railroad tracks. His daughter, Annie Ross, continued to live in the house throughout her lifetime.
The present house was the home of Nat and Pauline Berman, who came to Orlando in 1908 and had a store in what formerly was the Bumby Hardware store. The Bermans moved into this house in about 1935. Pauline was an activist in the civil rights movement and was the first female radio news commentator in the U.S., hosting her own program from 1930 until 1933.
For years, this was the Baby House, a store run by Al Prince, the son-in-law of the Bermans. In the 1990s, it was sold to a company who converted it and the Prince house to the west into the area's first Jewish funeral home.
(Walk west on Gore St. to the intersection with Menendez Ct., then cross to the southwest corner.)(0.0)
Southwest corner of Gore St. and Lucerne Terr. (200 W. Gore St.)
2....Site of Howell Office and Hospital
From 1921 until the mid-1920s, Dr. J.C. Howell had his hospital here. Behind it is a parking lot which formerly had a building with an address of 914 Lucerne Terr. It was the location of Howell's final hospital after he moved from the corner, to a location on N. Orange Ave., and then back to here.
(Walk west on Gore St. and south on Sligh Blvd. to the intersection with Copeland Dr.)(0.4)
West side of Sligh Blvd., across from Copeland Dr. (1400 Sligh Blvd.)
Architect M.A. Griffith was sent by the railroad to the west coast to study various examples of Spanish architecture, to produce a station with a Spanish Mission Revival style. His experience produced a building with a relatively plain appearance similar to that of California Spanish colonial churches. It was built in 1926 by W.T. Hadlow and features an arcade, curvilinear parapet, tile roof, and flanking bell towers. It opened with a large celebration on January 11, 1927.
(Walk east on Copeland Dr. to the intersection with Kuhl Ave.)(0.6)
East of the intersection of Kuhl Ave. and Copeland Dr. (1414 S. Orange Ave.)
4....Orlando Regional Medical Center
One of the founders of this hospital was Dr. C.D. Christ. A surgeon, he had established a private sanitarium and hospital in the Christ Building on E. Central Blvd. in 1910.
The Church and Home Hospital provided for the community's medical needs on Anderson St. until it ran out of money and closed in 1916. Dr. Christ and Dr. John S. McEwan raised the funds necessary to build a new one, which opened as Orlando General Hospital in 1918. It was renamed Orange Memorial Hospital, and later became Orlando Regional Medical Center.
The first black physician to practice at this hospital was Dr. Jerry B. Callahan, who had an office at the corner of Church St. and Hughey Ave. from 1922 to 1947.
(Walk north on Kuhl Ave., east on Underwood St. (ignoring the "No Access to Orange Ave." sign), and south on Orange Ave. Cross Orange Ave. at the next light and walk southeast on Copeland Dr. to the intersection with Fernwood St.)(0.9)
North side of Copeland Dr., across from the intersection with Fernwood St. and Wisteria Ave. (205 E. Copeland Dr.)
This home was designed by James Gamble Rogers for Nat Claybaugh, and is one of the finest Mediterranean Revival style homes in Orlando. Built in 1927, it shows the features popular in Florida during that period. The main doorway features a Baroque arch, the tower is topped with a mock belfry, the barrel tile roof has several levels with varying heights, and the chimneys show fanciful treatments.
(Continue east 350 feet on Copeland Dr.)(1.0)
North side of Copeland Dr., across from the intersection with Fernwood St. and Jasmine Ave. (239 E. Copeland Dr.)
Samuel Jefferson Sligh grew up in Ocala and shipped citrus until the freezes of 1894 and 1895 wiped out the crop, then grew tomatoes until another freeze wiped that out. He moved to Orlando in 1905 and opened a citrus packing house on Robinson St.
He built this mansion in 1925 for $25,000, more than twice the cost of any other home in the area at the time. It shows a Colonial Revival style, reflecting Sligh's wealth and cultural aspirations. The two-story pedimented portico with its fanlight is supported by pilasters and paired Corinthian columns.
(Cross Lake Copeland Dr. and walk southeast on Jasmine Ave. 100 feet past Whittier Cir.)(1.1)
Southwest side of Jasmine Ave., between Whittier Cir. and Miller St. (326 Jasmine Ave.)
This home was built in 1925 with an Old English Cottage/Tudor Revival style. This was a favorite for small homes during the 1920s and 1930s, and other examples can be found in College Park and other parts of the city. It features half-timbering and multi-gabled roofs.
(Continue southeast 350 feet.)(1.1)
Northwest corner of Jasmine Ave. and and Miller St. (336 S. Jasmine Ave.)
This is a Mission style Bungalow built in 1925. Featured are flowing parapet contours and typical buttresses, covered by rough-cut stucco. Its basic plain style is made more interesting by the use of small-paned, arched windows.
(Continue southeast on Jasmine Ave., then walk east on Miller St. to the intersection with Delaney Ave., cross the street to the east, and continue east 125 feet on Miller St.)(1.2)
South side of Miller St., east of Delaney Ave. (414 E. Miller St.)
This home was built during the 1880s, and is the oldest in the Lake Copeland neighborhood. It was built with a Victorian Florida farmhouse style, and was renovated during the 1920s with a Colonial Revival style. It shows the Victorian steep gable and tall narrow windows, and the Colonial Revival boxed cornice, shutters, freize, plain balusters and panelled porch posts.
(Walk west on Miller St. and north on the west side of Delaney Ave., then walk west 100 feet on Fernwood St.)(1.3)
South side of Fernwood St., between Delaney and Jasmine Aves. (316 Fernwood St.)
This square, two-story home is another built in the Tudor Revival style. Constructed in 1925, it exhibits a typical Tudor arched entranceway and half-timbering. What makes it different from others in the area is the long sloping gable.
(Walk east on Fernwood St. and north on Delaney Ave. to the intersection with Briercliff Dr.)(1.5)
West side of Delaney Ave., across from Briercliff Dr. (1200 Delaney Ave.)
11....ResidenceThis is a typical California style Bungalow, built in 1921. It shows elements of the American Arts & Crafts movement which was popular at the time. It showed a varied contrast in color and material, with a red tile roof, white plaster walls, and green shingles.
(Continue north on Delaney Ave., then walk west on Annie St., south on Orange Ave. and east 75 feet on Waverly Pl.)(1.9)
South side of Waverly Pl., east of Orange Ave. (60 Waverly Pl.)
This is a two-story Bungaloid, completed in 1907 for Mahlon Gore. It was previously located on the shore of Lake Lucerne, first on the south and then on the north.
Orlando's first Unitarian church service was held in this home on January 8, 1911. It was conducted by Rev. Eleanor Gordon who came here from Sioux City, Iowa, to visit Mrs. Gore. That first service had 17 people in attendance.
(Walk west on Waverly Pl., north on Orange Ave., east on Annie St., north on Bradshaw Terr. and east on Gore St. to the intersection with Delaney Ave.)(2.1)
Northwest corner of Delaney Ave. and Gore St.
13....Delaney Elementary School
Delaney Elementary School was built by Joe McCormick and F.A. Peppercorn, and opened in 1920. F.H. Trimble was the architect. It was phased out as an elementary school in April of 1975. The city bought it from the county school board in 1983 and converted it into The Orlando Mayor William Beardall Senior Center and Park, when the previously-dedicated Beardall Park on Orange Ave. was sold for private development.
The school and road are named for early settler James Delaney (formerly spelled "DeLaney"), who arrived in Orlando from Covington, Georgia, in 1875.
(Look across the street to the east.)(2.1)
East side of Delaney Ave., across from Gore St.
14....Al Coith Park
Al Coith was the Superintendent of the Parks Department during the 1930s. On June 17, 1964, this park was named in his honor.
Looking to the southeast through the park, you can see Delaney Park, where the city built two tennis courts in 1925. That park, and its Little League baseball field, has been shown in several major motion pictures, including "Parenthood".
(Continue north to the intersection with Cherokee Dr. and look across the street to the northeast corner.)(2.2)
Northeast corner of Delaney Ave. and Cherokee Dr. (309 E. Cherokee Dr.)
Dr. Gaston H. Edwards began practicing medicine in Orlando in 1909, after serving as a surgeon in the Colon Hospital in the Panama Canal Zone. In 1914, he and Dr. J.S. McEwan organized the Orlando Clinic.
This home was built in 1924 by A.B. Struble. It is a Colonial Revival interpretation of Greek Revival architecture of the early Nineteenth Century. It shows a pediment over the main entrance door on the sourth side, decorated with an elliptical fanlight and sidelights.
(Continue north 100 feet past Bay St., and look across the street to the east.)(2.2)
East side of Delaney Ave., between Agnes St. and Cherokee Dr. (713 Delaney Ave.)
Joseph E. Woodrick built this Spanish Rococo style home in 1924 for Joe McCormick, president of the Lake County Manufacturing Company. McCormick and partner F.A. Peppercorn built the nearby Delaney Elementary School.
This is a Florida adaptation built of stuccoed clay tile and red barrel roof tiles. The arched doors and windows are trimmed with sculptural terra cotta tiles, and other features include a small iron balcony, sculptured parapets and a porte-cochere with exposed rafters.
(Continue north 50 feet.)(2.2)
West side of Delaney Ave., between Bay and Agnes Sts. (710 Delaney Ave.)
This is a fine example of the Colonial Revival style, built in 1923. It features five bays and a turned balustrade above the side porch. The stoop surrounding the main door is inspired by 18th Century Virginia designs.
(Continue north to the intersection with Agnes St., and look east across the street.)(2.3)
Southeast corner of Delaney Ave. and Agnes St. (705 Delaney Ave.)
Built in 1920, this was the Colonial Revival home of Dr. J.S. McEwan, a founder of Orange Memorial Hospital and president of the Association of Surgeons of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. During the mid-1910s, he and Dr. C.D. Christ raised money to build a new hospital to replace St. Luke's Hospital which was running out of funds, and which closed in 1916. They founded Orlando General Hospital in 1918, and it is now known as Orlando Regional Medical Center.
(Continue north to the intersection with Lucerne Cir. S.)(2.4)
Southwest corner of Delaney Ave. and E. Lucerne Cir. N. (236 S. Lucerne Cir.)
This Prairie style house was designed in 1916 for Seth B. Woodruff by Murry S. King, one of Orlando's first architects. Woodruff was involved in farming, merchandising and public service.
He sold the home in 1934 to Lyman Beckes. It has been remodeled for use as law offices. Its style shows in the varied arch forms, a low hipped roof and horizontal massing of windows.
(Look across the street to the east.)(2.4)
Southeast corner of Ponce de Leon Pl. and Delaney Ave. (605 Delaney Ave.)
20....Site of Green House
A home was built here in W.A. Story in 1884, and enlarged by George B. Green in 1887. In 1903, it became the home of John T. Fuller and his wife, Edna Giles Fuller, who was Florida's first female legislator. Fuller sold it in 1941, and it was replaced by an International style apartment house in 1942.
(Cross Lucerne Cir. S. and look across the street to the east.)(2.4)
East side of Delaney Ave., between Ponce de Leon Pl. and E. Lucerne Cir. N. (545 Delaney Ave.)
This cluster of nine Bungalows was built in 1913-19 by C.A. Hovey around a common courtyard. Each is two stories tall and all share a common design approach with a stuccoed first story and a shingled upstairs. Visual attention is focused on the central axis and across Lake Lucerne, while the central courtyard is sheltered from the traffic of the surrounding roads.
(Continue north across Lucerne Cir. N.)(2.4)
Northwest corner of E. Lucerne Cir. N. and Delaney Ave. (518 Delaney Ave.)
22....Site of Blyth-Walker House
An I-plan Colonial Revival home was built here in 1904 for C.O. Blyth, an electrician who lived here until 1912. It was demolished in 1979.
(Look east across the street.)(2.4)
East side of Delaney Ave., between Anderson St. and E. Lucerne Cir. N. (539 Delaney Ave.)
This Colonial Revival home was built for Leroy B. Giles in 1911. At the time, he was the attorney for the Merchant's Protective Association. It is now used for attorneys' offices.
(Look northeast to the tall tower.)(2.4)
East side of Delaney Ave., between Anderson St. and E. Lucerne Cir. N. (515-517 Delaney Ave.)
This Jewish apartment house opened in 1969 for a cost of $2,100,000. Construction of the second of the two towers resulted in the demolition of several early 1920s bungalows, similar to those remaining on the opposite side of Margaret Ct.
(Walk west 225 feet on Lucerne Cir.)(2.5)
North side of E. Lucerne Cir. N., between Delaney and Rosalind Aves. (211 E. Lucerne Cir. N.)
This L-plan home, built in 1885 by Judge Richard B. Norment of Maryland, later was the home of Catherine Parry. Originally, it was located further west along the shore of Lake Lucerne, just on the other side of the Lucerne Hotel.
It was converted into a bed and breakfast establishment known as the Norment-Parry Inn.
(Continue west 100 feet on Lucerne Cir.)(2.5)
North side of E. Lucerne Cir. N., between Delaney and Rosalind Aves.
In 1947, Wellborn Phillips built the first large apartment house since World War II for the cost of $140,000. The old house on the lot was moved to the rear and converted to five apartments, and can be reached by the brick walkway between this and the Dr. Phillips house. The new two-story building had 16 apartments, designed by architect Richard Boone Rogers to allow nearly every living room to have a view of Lake Lucerne.
These apartments show the New York/Miami architectural mode common in the 1930s and 1940s.
(Continue west 50 feet on Lucerne Cir.)(2.5)
North side of E. Lucerne Cir. N., between Delaney and Rosalind Aves. (135 E. Lucerne Cir. N.)
27....Dr. Phillips House
This Victorian home was built by L.M. Boykin in 1893 for Col. Peleg Peckham at a cost of $37,500. It was given by Peckham as a wedding gift for his daughter, who married Judge Archibald R. MacCallum. The original porch was replaced in 1912 by Dr. P. Phillips, who hired a Philadelphia architect to design the massive portico supported by columns. Stylistically, this shows a transition from Queen Anne to the horizontal emphasis of the Shingle style.
In 1928, Phillips built the world's largest citrus packing house near present-day Bay Hill. Howard Phillips offered the historic home to the city as a gift in July of 1974. The city accepted the gift, but had to wait until 1977 to take possession since it was being rented by a fraternity. In 1980, the city sold the house for $75,000 to Sam Meiner.
(Look south across the street.)(2.5)
Between the south side of E. Lucerne Cir. N. and Lake Lucerne, east of Rosalind Ave.
28....Franklin Albert Park
This small park is named after Franklin Albert, a city planner. He served as secretary of the 15-member municipal planning board when it was established in 1953.
(Walk east to the lane between the house and the apartments, walk north on it, then west through the parking lot and cross Rosalind Ave. to the paved entrance driveway. Walk south 150 feet on the sidewalk lying on the west side of the brick wall. Continue south 65 feet on the paved road. For the next few sites, you'll be following the serpentine sidewalk under the highway overpasses.)(2.7)
Lucerne Cir. N., west of Rosalind Ave. (125 E. Lucerne Cir. N.)
This Victorian style cottage was originally built on Magnolia Ave. After it was purchased by the Junior League of Orlando, it was moved from a location near here, and moved again slightly during road construction.
It was built in the early 1890s, and was bought in 1900 by S.G. Walker. Until 1981, it was the home of Walker's daughter, Lorena Hendry, and her family.
(Walk west 200 feet on the sidewalk.)(2.8)
Northeast corner of Magnolia Ave. and Lucerne Cir.
30....Site of Harrison House
Henry C. Harrison moved to Orlando in 1871, opened his law office later that year, and built his home at this location. The Orlando-Orange County Expressway Authority is now located on part of his property, with an address of 525 S. Magnolia Ave.
(Continue west 100 feet on the sidewalk.)(2.8)
Northwest corner of Magnolia Ave. and Lucerne Cir.
31....Site of Butt House
W.H. Whidden built a home here in 1884, and sold it later that year to Dr. James Nixon Butt, who moved to Orlando from North Carolina in 1883. Later, it was acquired by R.W. Rogers, who tore it down in April of 1935.
(Continue west 50 feet on the sidewalk.)(2.8)
North shore of Lake Lucerne
32....Site of Knox House
Attorney James A. Knox moved to Orlando from Tennessee in 1880, and served as an agent for the New York Life Insurance Company. His large home was built here in 1884 with a tall tower.
Just to the west was the three-story Lucerne Hotel, which was built by R.A. Starkey in 1881 and burned in 1886. One the west side of that was the Norment House, which was later moved east on Lucerne Cir. N.
(Walk northwest on Orange Ave. to the triangular traffic island.)(2.9)
Orange Ave., bisecting Lake Lucerne
Originally, both parts of Lake Lucerne were joined and traffic had to go around it to leave downtown to the south. This ended in March 3, 1956, with the opening of the J. Rolfe Davis Causeway. Mayor Davis was in the first car to drive across the causeway.
Kuhl Ave., which had deadended at Gore Ave. (now Gore St.), was continued north to meet Orange Ave., which became the name of the entire road on May 18, 1960.
(Walk southwest 500 feet on Lucerne Cir.)(3.0)
West shore of Lake Lucerne, between America St. and the East-West Expressway
James P. Hughey of Georgia arrived in 1855 in a covered wagon and settled to the south and west of Lake Lucerne. He homesteaded 160 acres from Lake Lucerne to Parramore Ave. His log house was at the intersection of Grace St. and Macy St., which have been eliminated through later highway construction.
Sand which washed down from the trail to his house (which later became Long St., no longer there) formed the "Hughey Peninsula" in the lake. He established the first drainage system, a big ditch through Lake Minnie (Cherokee) and Lake Davis to the sinkhole (in Greenwood Cemetery). Later, the city established a park here.
This lake was originally called Lake Lucindy after the wife of Bernard Hughey.
(Continue southwest 100 feet on Lucerne Cir. and look across the street to the west.)(3.0)
West side of Lucerne Cir., between America St. and the East-West Expressway
35....Site of Lord House
In 1885, Charles Lord of England came to Orlando and established the Lord Grocery Company. He built his home here and donated two black swans. He also donated Billy Bluebeard and Sallie, a pair of white swans which he brought back from the private preserves of English King Edward VII in 1910, and built a house on the Hughey Peninsula for them to use to raise their young. Billy picked on the black swans so much that the black ones were moved to Lake Eola, where the city took care of them.
One year, his mate failed to hatch any eggs, so Billy grabbed her by the neck, dragged her into the lake and drowned her. He used to chase children who would walk by. When he died, he was stuffed and placed in the Orange County Historical Museum.
(Continue south on Lucerne Cir. to the intersection with America St. and look across the street to the west.)(3.0)
Northwest corner of Lucerne Cir. S. and America St.
36....Site of Smith House
Aubrey Smith of Georgia came to Orlando in 1880 and opened a furniture store on W. Church St. The following year, he built a large home near this corner. His later activities included real estate development and the operation of a dairy.
(Continue southeast 150 feet and cross Lucerne Cir. to the south)(3.1)
South side of Lucerne Cir. S., between Kuhl Ave. and Lucerne Terr. (70 W. Lucerne Cir. S.)
37....Site of Gentile House
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence Gentile Sr. had a large home built here in 1918 by architect J.L. Maull. Beginning in 1950, it was operated as a five-unit apartment house. It was razed in December of 1972 to make room for the construction of the 20-story Westminster Towers, a retirement center sponsored by the First Presbyterian Church of Orlando. Westminster Towers officially opened on August 17, 1975.
(Continue east 100 feet.)(3.1)
South side of Lucerne Cir. S., between Kuhl Ave. and Lucerne Terr. (60 W. Lucerne Cir. S.)
38....Site of Sioux Villa
After Mahlon Gore sold his Gore Ave. home in 1906, he built his "Sioux Villa" here. His wife, the former Caroline Groninger, had moved here from Sioux City, Iowa. Gore served as mayor of Orlando from 1894-96.
(Continue east to the intersection with Kuhl Ave.)(3.1)
Southwest corner of Lucerne Cir. S. and Kuhl Ave. (50 W. Lucerne Cir. S.)
This Classical Revival style home was designed by New Jersey architect Wilson C. Ely for retired New York clergyman Rev. John J. Bridges. It was built in 1916 and renovated for professional office use in 1982. This was the first home built in Orlando with the highly academic Classical Revival style, showing symmetry and refinement.
(Cross Kuhl Ave. and continue east 125 feet.)(3.2)
South side of Lucerne Cir. S., between Main Ln. and Kuhl Ave. (20 W. Lucerne Cir. S.)
In 1959, Lucerne Towers, Inc. received a permit for an eight-story apartment building here. Designed by Broleman & Rapp and built for $4 million, it was one of the tallest buildings in Orlando for a time.
The next street west, now known as Kuhl Ave., was named Orange Ave. until the Davis Causeway opened, and those two streets traded names.
(Continue east to the intersection with Main Ln.)(3.2)
Southeast corner of Lucerne Cir. S. and Main Ln. (711 Main Ln.)
41....Site of Early House
Architect Murry S. King designed a 1920 home here for C.J. Early. Main Ln. was formerly called Main St., as was the road due north across the lake, now part of Magnolia Ave.
(Walk south on Main Ln. to the intersection with Gore St., and look across the street to the southeast.)(3.3)
South side of Gore St., between Orange Ave. and Main Ln. (12 W. Gore St.)
42....Site of Gore House
Mahlon Gore of Michigan built a two-story frame house on five acres here in 1887, and opened this road. He sold the home to Sidney Edwin Ives Sr. in 1906. On February 3, 1910, the name of Irene St. was changed to Gore Ave. in Mahlon Gore's honor.
(Walk west 350 feet past Kuhl Ave. and look across the street to the south.)(3.5)
South side of Gore St., between Lucerne Terr. and Kuhl Ave. (80 W. Gore St.)
William M. Davis moved here from South Carolina and was involved in farming and the turpentine industry. He invested in real estate and served as a vice president of the Orlando Bank and Trust Company. He also helped organize the Orange County Fair Association in 1909.
He built this Greek Revival home in about 1925. Later, it was remodeled for use as a doctor's office. Behind it is Lake of the Woods, formerly known as Lake Edith.
(Continue west on Gore St., then walk north on Lucerne Terr. to the point of beginning.)(3.5)
Flashbacks: The Story of Central Florida's Past, by Jim Robison and Mark Andrews (The Orlando Sentinel 1995)
Florida: A Pictorial History, by Hampton Dunn (The Donning Company 1988)
Florida Jewish Heritage Trail, by Rachel B. Heimovics and Marcis Zerivitz (Florida Department of State 2000)
Historical, Architectural and Archaeological Survey of Orlando, Florida, (Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties 1983)
History of Orange County, Florida, by William Fremont Blackman (The Mickler House 1973)
History of Orlando, by E.H. Gore (1951)
Orlando: A Centennial History, by Eve Bacon (The Mickler House 1975)
Orlando History in Architecture, (Orlando Historic Preservation Board 1984)
Orlando: The City Beautiful, by Jerrell H. Shofner (Continental Heritage Press 1984)
Proposed Lake Cherokee Historic District, by Divoll & Yeilding, Architects (1979)